In Vitro Models of Cutaneous Inflammation

  • Quentin Bernard
  • Benoît Jaulhac
  • Nathalie Boulanger
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1690)

Abstract

The skin plays an essential role in the transmission of Lyme borreliosis since it is the first interface between the Ixodes tick and the host during the inoculation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. A better understanding of the inflammatory reaction at this location is key to develop better strategies (e.g., vaccine and diagnosis) to fight this disease. In vitro cell culture of resident skin cells might constitute an approach to decipher the complex interplay between the tick, the pathogen, and the vertebrate host.

Key words

Skin Keratinocytes Fibroblasts Borrelia Tick saliva 

References

  1. 1.
    Nestle FO, Di Meglio P, Qin JZ et al (2009) Skin immune sentinels in health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol 9:679–691PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frischknecht F (2007) The skin as interface in the transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens. Cell Microbiol 9:1630–1640CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bernard Q, Jaulhac B, Boulanger N (2014) Smuggling across the border: how arthropod-borne pathogens evade and exploit the host defense system of the skin. J Invest Dermatol 134:1211–1219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bernard Q, Jaulhac B, Boulanger N (2015) Skin and arthropods: an effective interaction used by pathogens in vector-borne diseases. Eur J Dermatol 25(Suppl 1):18–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sonenshine DE, Anderson JM (2014) Mouthparts and digestive system. In: Sonenshine RM, Daniel E, Roe M (eds) Biology of ticks. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 122–162Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grimm D, Tilly K, Byram R et al (2004) Outer-surface protein C of the Lyme disease spirochete: a protein induced in ticks for infection of mammals. PNAS 101:3142–3147CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marchal CMP, Luft BJ, Yang X et al (2009) Defensin is suppressed by tick salivary gland extract during the in vitro interaction of resident skin cells with Borrelia burgdorferi. J Invest Dermatol 129:2515–2517CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marchal C, Schramm F, Kern A et al (2011) Antialarmin effect of tick saliva during the transmission of Lyme disease. Infect Immun 79:774–785CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schramm F, Kern A, Barthel C et al (2012) Microarray analyses of inflammation response of human dermal fibroblasts to different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. PLoS One 7:e40046CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andrei G, van den Oord J, Fiten P et al (2005) Organotypic epithelial raft cultures as a model for evaluating compounds against alphaherpesviruses. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:4671–4680CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pasparakis M, Haase I, Nestle O (2014) Mechanisms regulating skin immunity and inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol 14:289–301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stanek G, Wormser G, Gray J et al (2012) Lyme borreliosis. Lancet 379:461–473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kazimírová M, Štibrániová I (2013) Tick salivary compounds: their role in modulation of host defences and pathogen transmission. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 3:43CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim TK, Tirloni L, Pinto AFM et al (2016) Ixodes scapularis tick saliva proteins sequentially secreted every 24 h during blood feeding. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10:e0004323CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim D, Šimo L, Park Y (2014) Orchestration of salivary secretion mediated by two different dopamine receptors in the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis. J Exp Biol 217:3656–3663CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Valenzuela JG, Charlab R, Mather TN et al (2000) Purification, cloning, and expression of a novel salivary anticomplement protein from the tick, Ixodes scapularis. J Biol Chem 275:18717–18723CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Patton TG, Dietrich G, Brandt K et al (2012) Saliva, salivary gland, and hemolymph collection from Ixodes scapularis ticks. J Vis Exp 60Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mehlhorn H (2001) Encyclopedic reference of parasitology. Dis Treat Ther 1:678Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Quentin Bernard
    • 1
  • Benoît Jaulhac
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nathalie Boulanger
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Medicine, College Park and Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.EA7290: Virulence Bactérienne Précoce: Groupe Borréliose de LymeUniversité de StrasbourgStrasbourgFrance
  3. 3.Centre National de Reference BorreliaCentre Hospitalier UniversitaireStrasbourgFrance

Personalised recommendations