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Reversals of Bodies, Brains, and Behavior

  • Douglas J. Blackiston
  • Michael Levin
Protocol
Part of the Neuromethods book series (NM, volume 122)

Abstract

Left–right asymmetries are highly prevalent throughout metazoan phyla, with bilaterally symmetrical organisms exhibiting well-conserved, consistently sided positioning and anatomy of visceral organs and central nervous system structures. Deviations from normal laterality constitute an important class of birth defects and much study has been devoted to the early mechanisms orienting the left–right axis during embryogenesis as well as lateralization of the brain. Far less understood are the potential links between laterality of the body and cognition, though recent work has begun to uncover a range of behaviors which are modified in organisms with altered left–right asymmetry. Here, we review regulatory events critical for the establishment of asymmetry and subsequent left–right patterning, using data from Xenopus, zebrafish, chick, Arabidopsis, and single cells, and discuss molecular and pharmacological reagents that disrupt these processes. We especially focus on behavioral assays which are sensitive to body laterality, presenting existing data for several model systems. Beyond classical conditioning and behavior screens, new automated machine vision platforms are powerful emerging tools to quantitatively examine the relationship between body asymmetry and lateralized and nonlateralized behaviors. This chapter serves as a primer for methods that allow the examination of cognitive and behavioral endpoints subsequent to molecular interventions in embryonic left–right asymmetry.

Key words

Left–right asymmetry Laterality Behavior Automated analysis Quantification 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the members of the Levin lab and of the behavioral science community for many useful discussions. M.L. gratefully acknowledges an Allen Discovery Center award from The Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group, and support of the Templeton World Charity Foundation (TWCF0089/AB55) and the G. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Charitable Foundation.

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© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1. Biology Department, and Allen Discovery Center at TuftsTufts UniversityMedfordUSA

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