Phototropism pp 191-198 | Cite as

Cytoskeleton Observation in Phototropism and Polarotropism of Adiantum Protonema

  • Masamitsu Wada
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1924)


The distribution patterns of the cytoskeleton, i.e., microtubules and actin filaments, in the apical part of protonemal cells are unique and differ from those of other apical growing cells, such as moss and liverwort protonemata, fungal hyphae, and angiosperm pollen tubes. A ring structure composed of microtubules and actin filaments exists at the basal part of the apical dome of protonemal cells. The structure may control the protonemal diameter and growth direction. Herein, the methods of staining of both microtubules and actin filaments are described.

Key words

Actin filaments Adiantum capillus-veneris Fern Microtubules Polarized light Protonema Red light 



I would like to thank Kotaro Yamamoto for the invitation to write this article and critical reading and suggestions of this manuscript. I would also thank Takashi Murata, Akeo Kadota, and Hidenori Tsuboi for their critical reading of the manuscript. Our works based on this article are depending on longtime support by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masamitsu Wada
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of ScienceTokyo Metropolitan UniversityHachiojiJapan

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