The distribution patterns of the cytoskeleton, i.e., microtubules and actin filaments, in the apical part of protonemal cells are unique and differ from those of other apical growing cells, such as moss and liverwort protonemata, fungal hyphae, and angiosperm pollen tubes. A ring structure composed of microtubules and actin filaments exists at the basal part of the apical dome of protonemal cells. The structure may control the protonemal diameter and growth direction. Herein, the methods of staining of both microtubules and actin filaments are described.
Actin filaments Adiantum capillus-venerisFern Microtubules Polarized light Protonema Red light
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I would like to thank Kotaro Yamamoto for the invitation to write this article and critical reading and suggestions of this manuscript. I would also thank Takashi Murata, Akeo Kadota, and Hidenori Tsuboi for their critical reading of the manuscript. Our works based on this article are depending on longtime support by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.
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