Xenodiagnosis Using Ixodes scapularis Larval Ticks in Humans

Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1690)

Abstract

Xenodiagnosis is the use of a natural vector to detect the presence of an organism, and xenodiagnosis using Ixodes ticks has long been used by entomologists in Lyme disease research to provide evidence of the host’s infectious status with Borrelia burgdorferi. We developed the methodology and performed the first human research study using uninfected larval Ixodes scapularis ticks to assess evidence of B. burgdorferi infection. Here, we describe in detail the methodology used for the procedure. Xenodiagnosis using Ixodes ticks in humans remains an experimental method and must be performed under an approved clinical research protocol.

Key words

Xenodiagnosis Methods Human Ixodes scapularis Larval ticks Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

We thank Linden T. Hu, Sam R. Telford III, Kenneth Dardick, Erin Chung, Christina Brandeburg, and Maureen Lundt for their participation in the development of the procedures.

Disclaimer

The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views of or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

References

  1. 1.
    Telford SR 3rd, Hu LT, Marques A (2014) Is there a place for xenodiagnosis in the clinic? Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther 12:1307–1310Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shih CM, Chao LL, Yu CP (2002) Chemotactic migration of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) to salivary gland extracts of vector ticks. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66:616–621CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marques A, Telford SR 3rd, Turk SP et al (2014) Xenodiagnosis to detect Borrelia burgdorferi infection: a first-in-human study. Clin Infect Dis 58:937–945Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marques A (2008) Chronic Lyme disease: a review. Infect Dis Clin N Am 22:341–360. vii-viiiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goethert HK, Telford SR 3rd. (2003) Enzootic transmission of Anaplasma bovis in Nantucket cottontail rabbits. J Clin Microbiol 41:3744–3747Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krause PJ, McKay K, Thompson CA et al (2002) Disease-specific diagnosis of coinfecting tickborne zoonoses: babesiosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis 34:1184–1191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Persing DH, Mathiesen D, Marshall WF et al (1992) Detection of Babesia microti by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 30:2097–2103PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eshoo MW, Crowder CD, Li H et al (2010) Detection and identification of Ehrlichia species in blood by use of PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Clin Microbiol 48:472–478CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rounds MA, Crowder CD, Matthews HE et al (2012) Identification of endosymbionts in ticks by broad-range polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Med Entomol 49:843–850CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Crowder CD, Matthews HE, Schutzer S et al (2010) Genotypic variation and mixtures of Lyme Borrelia in Ixodes ticks from North America and Europe. PLoS One 5:e10650CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Crowder CD, Rounds MA, Phillipson CA et al (2010) Extraction of total nucleic acids from ticks for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens. J Med Entomol 47:89–94CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eshoo MW, Crowder CC, Rebman AW et al (2012) Direct molecular detection and genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi from whole blood of patients with early Lyme disease. PLoS One 7:e36825CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siu-Ping Turk
    • 1
  • Carla Williams
    • 2
  • Adriana Marques
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and MicrobiologyNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., NCI-FrederickFrederickUSA

Personalised recommendations