Advertisement

The Significance of Plant-Associated Microbial Rhizosphere for the Degradation of Xenobiotic Compounds

  • Durgesh Kumar Jaiswal
  • Jay Prakash VermaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Currently, remediation of xenobiotic compounds (heavy metals and hydrocarbons, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the soil and water has become a major problem. Xenobiotic compounds in the soil exert alternations in the functionality of ecologically and agronomically important soil microflora. These chemicals get accumulated in lipid tissues of higher organisms and cause many problems to the human health (like immunosuppression, hormone disruption, reproductive abnormalities and cancer). Remediation of xenobiotic pollutants by the conventional approaches based on physicochemical methods is economically and technically challenging. But bioremediation techniques based on plant roots and their associated microbes are the most promising, efficient, cost-effective and sustainable technology. A variety of chemicals like organic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds are secreted by such plants as root exudates. These compounds play a significant role in the interaction between plant root and microbes and also are helpful to stimulate the survival rate and the efficiency of microbes against xenobiotic pollutants. In this chapter, we describe how plant root-associated microbes help in the remediation of xenobiotic compounds and the impact of xenobiotic compounds on microbial community as well as their application feasibility on the basis of these attributes.

Keywords

Xenobiotic compounds Root-microbe interaction Remediation 

References

  1. Barac T, Taghavi S, Borremans B, Provoost A, Oeyen L, Colpaert JV, van der Lelie D (2004) Engineered endophytic bacteria improve phytoremediation of water-soluble, volatile, organic pollutants. Nat Biotechnol 22(5):583–588CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bouseba B, Zertal A, Beguet J, Rouard N, Devers M, Martin C, Martin‐Laurent F (2009) Evidence for 2, 4‐D mineralisation in Mediterranean soils: impact of moisture content and temperature. Pest Manag Sci 65(9):1021–1029CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brazil GM, Kenefick L, Callanan M, Haro A, De Lorenzo V, Dowling DN, O’gara F (1995) Construction of a rhizosphere pseudomonad with potential to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls and detection of bph gene expression in the rhizosphere. Appl Environ Microbiol 61(5):1946–1952PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Burns RG (1975) Factors affecting pesticide loss from soil. In: Paul EA, McLaren AD (eds) Soil biochemistry, vol 4. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, pp 103–141Google Scholar
  5. Caplan JA (1993) The worldwide bioremediation industry: prospects for profit. Trends Biotechnol 11(8):320–323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cébron A, Louvel B, Faure P, France‐Lanor C, Chen Y, Murrell JC, Leyval C (2011) Root exudates modify bacterial diversity of phenanthrene degraders in PAH‐polluted soil but not phenanthrene degradation rates. Environ Microbial 13(3):722–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chaplain V, Défossez P, Richard G, Tessier D, Roger-Estrade J (2011) Contrasted effects of no-till on bulk density of soil and mechanical resistance. Soil Tillage Res 111(2):105–114Google Scholar
  8. Cheng HH (1990) Pesticides in the soil environment: processes, impacts, and modeling. Pesticides in the soil environment: processes, impacts, and modelling. Soil Science Society of America, Inc, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  9. Corgié SC, Joner EJ, Leyval C (2003) Rhizospheric degradation of phenanthrene is a function of proximity to roots. Plant Soil 257(1):143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Corgié SC, Beguiristain T, Leyval C (2004) Spatial distribution of bacterial communities and phenanthrene degradation in the rhizosphere of Loliumperenne L. Appl Environ Microbiol 70(6):3552–3557CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Deer HM, Beard R (2001) Effect of water pH on the chemical stability of pesticides. AG/Pesticides.14:1Google Scholar
  12. Dixon B (1996) Bioremediation is here to stay. ASM News 62:527–528Google Scholar
  13. Dua M, Singh A, Sethunathan N, Johri A (2002) Biotechnology and bioremediation: successes and limitations. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 59(2–3):143–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Esteve-Núñez A, Caballero A, Ramos JL (2001) Biological degradation of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 65(3):335–352CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerhardt KE, Huang XD, Glick BR, Greenberg BM (2009) Phytoremediation rhizoremediation of organic soil contaminants: potential and challenges. Plant Sci 176:20–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Germaine KJ, Liu X, Cabellos GG, Hogan JP, Ryan D, Dowling DN (2006) Bacterial endophyte-enhanced phytoremediation of the organochlorine herbicide 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 57(2):302–310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Germaine KJ, Keogh E, Ryan D, Dowling DN (2009) Bacterial endophyte-mediated naphthalene phytoprotection and phytoremediation. FEMS Microbiol Lett 296(2):226–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gianfreda L, Rao MA (2008) Interactions between xenobiotics and microbial and enzymatic soil activity. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 38(4):269–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gold RE, Howell HN, Pawson BM, Wright MS, Lutz JL (1996) Persistence and bioavailability of termicides to subterranean termite from five soil types and location in Texas. Sociobiol 28:337–363Google Scholar
  20. Huang XD, El-Alawi Y, Penrose DM, Glick BR, Greenberg BM (2004) A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. Environ Pollut 130(3):465–476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Jacobsen CS (1997) Plant protection and rhizosphere colonization of barley by seed inoculated herbicide degrading Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia DBO1 (pRO101) in 2, 4-D contaminated soil. Plant Soil 189(1):139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kozdrój J, van Elsas JD (2000) Response of the bacterial community to root exudates in soil polluted with heavy metals assessed by molecular and cultural approaches. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1405–1417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kuiper I, Bloemberg GV, Lugtenberg BJJ (2001) Selection of a plant-bacterium pair as a novel tool for rhizostimulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 14:1197–1205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kuiper I, Lagendijk EL, Bloemberg GV, Lugtenberg BJ (2004) Rhizoremediation: a beneficial plant microbe interaction. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 17:6–15CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Männistö MK, Tiirola MA, Puhakka JA (2001) Degradation of 2, 3, 4, 6-tetrachlorophenol at low temperature and low dioxygen concentrations by phylogenetically different groundwater and bioreactor bacteria. Biodegradation 12(5):291–301Google Scholar
  26. Pal R, Chakrabarti K, Chakraborty A, Chowdhury A (2006) Degradation and effects of pesticides on soil microbiological parameters-a review. Int J Agri Res 1(33):240–258Google Scholar
  27. Perucci P, Dumontet S, Bufo SA, Mazzatura A, Casucci C (2000) Effects of organic amendment and herbicide treatment on soil microbial biomass. Biol Fertil Soils 32:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Płociniczak MP, Płaza GA, Seget ZP, Cameotra SS (2011) Environmental applications of biosurfactants: recent advances. Int J Mol Sci 12:633–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Racke KD, Skidmore MW, Hamilton DJ, Unsworth JB, Miyamoto J, Cohen SZ (1997) Pesticide fate in tropical soil. Pure and Appl Chem 69:1349–1371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Radwan SS, Al-Awadhi H, Sorkhoh NA, El-Nemr IM (1998) Rhizospheric hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms as potential contributors to phytoremediation for the oil Kuwaiti desert. Microbiol Res 153(3):247–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rahman KS, Rahman T, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P, Banat IM (2002) Occurrence of crude oil degrading bacteria in gasoline and diesel station soils. J Basic Microbiol 42:284–291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Rani S, Sud D (2015) Effect of temperature on adsorption-desorption behaviour of triazophos in Indian soils. Plant Soil Environ 61(1):36–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rentz JA, Alvarez PJ, Schnoor JL (2005) Benzo [a] pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation. Environ Pollut 136(3):477–484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Rohrbacher F, St-Arnaud M (2016) Root exudation: the ecological driver of hydrocarbon rhizoremediation. Agronomy 6(1):19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schroll R, Becher HH, Dorfler U, Gayler S, Grundmann S, Hartmann HP, Ruoss J (2006) Quantifying the effect of soil moisture on the aerobic microbial mineralization of selected pesticides in different soils. Environ Sci Technol 40(10):3305–3312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Seo JS, Keum YS, Hu Y, Lee SE, Li QX (2006) Phenanthrene degradation in Arthrobacter sp. P1-1: initial 1, 2-, 3, 4-and 9, 10-dioxygenation, and meta-and ortho-cleavages of naphthalene-1, 2-diol after its formation from naphthalene-1, 2-dicarboxylic acid and hydroxyl naphthoic acids. Chemosphere 65(11):2388–2394CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Siciliano SD, Goldie H, Germida JJ (1998) Enzymatic activity in root exudates of Dahurian wild rye (Elymusdauricus) that degrades 2-chlorobenzoic acid. J Agri Food Chem 46(1):5–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Skopp J, Jawson MD, Doran JW (1990) Steady-state aerobic microbial activity as a function of soil water content. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54(6):1619–1625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Thakur IS (2006) Xenobiotics: pollutants and their degradation-methane, benzene, pesticides, bioabsorption of metals. Environmental Microbiology. School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi-110 067Google Scholar
  40. Thom E, Ottow JCG, Benckiser G (1997) Degradation of the fungicide difenoconazole in a silt loam soil as affected by pretreatment and organic amendment. Environ Pollut 96:409–414CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Van Aken B, Yoon JM, Schnoor JL (2004) Biodegradation of Nitro-Substituted Explosives 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene, Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, and Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5-Tetrazocine by a Phytosymbiotic Methylobacterium sp. Associated with Poplar Tissues (Populus deltoides×nigra DN34). Appl Environ Microbiol 70:1508–1517Google Scholar
  42. Verma JP, Jaiswal DK, Sagar R (2014) Pesticide relevance and their microbial degradation: a-state-of-art. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 13(4):429–466Google Scholar
  43. Verma JP, Jaiswal DK, Yadav J, Singh HB (2016) Cleaner production of agriculture due to beneficial interactions between plants and bacteria. Book Review of ‘Beneficial plant-bacterial interactions’, Glick, BR (2015), Springer, 243 ISBN: 978-3-319-13920-3Google Scholar
  44. Wardle DA, Parkinson D (1992) Influence of the herbicides, 2,4-D and glyphosate on soil microbial biomass and activity a field experiment. Soil Biol Biochem 24:185–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yee DC, Maynard JA, Wood TK (1998) Rhizoremediation of trichloroethylene by a recombinant, root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain expressing toluene ortho-monooxygenase constitutively. Appl Environ Microbiol 64(1):112–118PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Zacharia JT (2011) Identity, physical and chemical properties of pesticides. In: Stoytcheva M (ed) Pesticides in the modern world – trends in pesticides analysis. In Tech, Rijeka, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  47. Zelenev VV, Van Bruggen AHC, Semenov AM (2005) Modeling wave like dynamics of oligotrophic and copiotrophic bacteria along wheat roots in response to nutrient input from a growing root tip. Ecol Model 188(2):404–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations