The Impact of Climate Change on Natural Disasters

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter explains what hazards and disasters are, reviews their trends, and assesses the potential impact of changing climate on hazards and extreme events. Observations since 1950 indicate increases in some forms of extreme weather events. The recent Special Report on Extreme Events and Disasters (SREX) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts further increases in the twenty-first century, including a growing frequency of heat waves, rising wind speed of tropical cyclones, and increasing intensity of droughts. A one-in-20-years “hottest day” event is likely to occur every other year by the end of the twenty-first century. Heavy precipitation events are also on the rise, potentially impacting the frequency of floods and almost certainly affecting landslides. This chapter also examines the science of event attribution, its potential and possible issues. It further outlines the global distribution and impact of natural disasters.

Keywords

Climate change impact Natural hazards Disasters Event attribution Disaster risk distribution Tropical cyclone 

References

  1. Allen M (2003) Liability for climate change. Nature 421(6926):891–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey R (2013) Managing famine risk. Linking early warning to early action. A Chatham House report, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Baines PG, Folland CK (2007) Evidence for a rapid global climate shift across the late 1960s. J Climate 20(12):2721–2744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Below R, Wirtz A, Guha-Sapir D (2009) Disaster category classification and peril terminology for operational purposes working paper. http://www.gripweb.org/gripweb/?q=countries-risk-information/documents-publications/disaster-category-classification-and-peril. Accessed 15 Sept 2013
  5. Bender MA, Knutson TR, Tuleya RE, Sirutis JJ, Vecchi GA, Garner ST, Held IM (2010) Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes. Science 327:454–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Booth BBB, Dunstone NJ, Halloran PR, Andrews T, Bellouin N (2012) Aerosols implicated as a prime driver of twentieth-century North Atlantic climate variability. Nature 484:228–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bromirski PD, Kossin JP (2008) Increasing hurricane wave power along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. J Geophys Res C113. doi: 10.1029/2007JC004706
  8. Callaghan J, Power S (2010) A reduction in the frequency of severe land-falling tropical cyclones over eastern Australia in recent decades. Clim Dynam. doi: 10.1007/s00382-010-0883-2
  9. Camargo SJA, Robertson W, Gaffney SJ, Smyth P, Ghil M (2007) Cluster analysis of typhoon tracks. Part I: general properties. J Clim 20:3635–3653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Camargo SJ, Robertson AW, Barnston AG, Ghil M (2008) Clustering of eastern North Pacific tropical cyclone tracks: ENSO and MJO effects. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9: Q06V05. doi:10.1029/2007GC001861
  11. Camargo S, Ting M, Kushnir Y (2013) Influence of local and remote SST on North Atlantic tropical cyclone potential intensity. Clim Dynam 40:1515–1529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan JCL, Xu M (2009) Inter-annual and inter-decadal variations of landfalling tropical cyclones in East Asia. Part I: time series analysis. Int J Climatol 29:1285–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chand SS, Walsh KJE (2009) Tropical cyclone activity in the Fiji region: spatial patterns and relationship to large-scale circulation. J Climate 22:3877–3893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang C, Chiang J, Wehner M, Friedman A, Ruedy R (2011) Sulfate aerosol control of tropical Atlantic climate over the twentieth century. J Climate 24:2540–2555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chu P-S, Kim J-H, Ruan Chen Y (2012) Have steering flows in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea changed over the last 50 years? Geophys Res Lett 39, L10704. doi:10.1029/2012GL051709
  16. Chung CE, Ramanathan V (2006) Weakening of North Indian SST gradients and the monsoon rainfall in India and the Sahel. J Climate 19(10):2036–2045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. CRED (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters) (2013) Credcrunch. http://www.cred.be/publications. Accessed 2 Apr 2013
  18. Crompton RP, Pielke Jr RA, McAneney KJ (2011) Emergence timescales for detection of anthropogenic climate change in US tropical cyclone loss data. Environ Res Lett 6(1). doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/1/014003
  19. Cutter SL, Emrich CT (2006) Moral hazard, social catastrophe: the changing face of vulnerability along the hurricane coasts. Ann Am Acad Polit Soc Sci 604(1):102–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Donner SD (2012) Sea level rise and the ongoing battle of Tarawa. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 93(17):169–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Donner SD, Kandlikar M, Zerriffi H (2011) Preparing to manage climate change financing. Science 334(6058):908–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dunstone NJ, Smith DM, Booth BBB, Hermanson L, Eade R (2013) Anthropogenic aerosol forcing of Atlantic tropical storms. Nat Geosci 6:534–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Emanuel K, Sobel A (2013) Response of tropical sea surface temperature, precipitation, and tropical cyclone-related variables to changes in global and local forcing. J Adv Model Earth Syst 5(2):447–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Emanuel K, Sundararajan R, Williams J (2008) Hurricanes and global warming: results from downscaling IPCC AR4 simulations. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 89:347–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. EM-DAT (2011) EM-DAT: the OFDA/CRED international disaster database. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels. www.emdat.be
  26. Evan AT (2012) Atlantic hurricane activity following two major volcanic eruptions. J Geophys Res 117. doi: 10.1029/2011JD016716
  27. Evan AT, Vimont DJ, Heidinger AK, Kossin JP, Bennartz R (2009) The role of aerosols in the evolution of tropical North Atlantic Ocean temperature anomalies. Science 324:778–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Evan A, Foltz G, Zhang D, Vimont D (2011a) Influence of African dust on ocean–atmosphere variability in the tropical Atlantic. Nat Geosci 4:762–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Evan AT, Kossin JP, Chung CE, Ramanathan V (2011b) Strengthening of Arabian Sea tropical cyclones and the South Asian atmospheric brown cloud. Nature 479:94–97. doi:10.1038/nature10552 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Evan A, Foltz G, Zhang D (2012) Physical response of the tropical-subtropical North Atlantic ocean to decadal-multidecadal forcing by African dust. J Climate 25:5817–5829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Forster P, Ramaswamy V, Artaxo P, Berntsen T, Betts R, Fahey DW, Haywood J, Lean J, Lowe DC, Myhre G, Nganga J, Prinn R, Raga G, Schulz M, Van Dorland R (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radioactive forcing. In: Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Francis JA, Vavrus SJ (2012) Evidence linking Arctic amplification to extreme weather in mid-latitudes. Geophys Res Lett 39. doi: 10.1029/2012GL051000
  33. Grinsted A, Moore JC, Jevrejeva S (2012) Homogeneous record of Atlantic hurricane surge threat since 1923. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:19601–19605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Haerter JO, Roeckner E, Tomassini L, von Storch J-S (2009) Parametric uncertainty effects on aerosol radiative forcing. Geophys Res Lett 36, L15707. doi:10.1029/2009GL039050
  35. Hansen J, Sato M, Ruedy R (2012) Perception of climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(37):E2415–E2423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ho C, Baik J, Kim J, Gong D, Sui C (2004) Interdecadal changes in summertime typhoon tracks. J Climate 17:1767–1776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. IME (2010) In: Moshe Yanai Axelrod (ed) Israel’s second national communication on climate change – submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change. Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection 2010, JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  38. IPCC (2007a) In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, p 996Google Scholar
  39. IPCC (2007b) In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate Change 2007. Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 976Google Scholar
  40. IPCC (2012a) In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner G-K, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. A special report of working groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, p 582Google Scholar
  41. IPCC (2012b) Summary for policymakers. In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner G-K, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. a special report of working groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, pp 3–21Google Scholar
  42. IPCC (2013) Approved summary for policy makers. Twelfth session of working group I. Working group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth assessment report. Climate change 2013: the physical science basisGoogle Scholar
  43. Knutson TR, Tuleya RE (2004) Impact of CO2-induced warming on simulated hurricane intensity and precipitation: sensitivity to the choice of climate model and convective parameterization. J Climate 17:3477–3495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Knutson TR, McBride JL, Chan J, Emanuel K, Holland G, Landsea C, Held I, Kossin JP, Srivastava AK, Sugi M (2010) Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nat Geo Sci 3. doi: 10.1038/ngeo779
  45. Knutson TR et al (2013) Dynamical downscaling projections of 21st century Atlantic hurricane activity: CMIP3 and CMIP5 model-based scenarios. J Clim 26:6591–6617, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00539.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kossin JP, Camargo SJ (2009) Hurricane track variability and secular potential intensity trends. Clim Chang 97:329–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kossin JP, Vimont DJ (2007) A more general framework for understanding Atlantic hurricane variability and trends. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 88:1767–1781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kossin JP, Camargo SJ, Sitkowski M (2010) Climate modulation of North Atlantic hurricane tracks. J Climate 23:3057–3076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kubota H, Chan JCL (2009) Interdecadal variability of tropical cyclone landfall in the Philippines from 1902 to 2005. Geophys Res Lett 36, L12802. doi:10.1029/2009GL038108
  50. Kunkel KE, Bromirski PD, Brooks HE, Cavazos T, Douglas AV, Easterling DR, Emanuel KA, Groisman PY, Holland GJ, Knutson TR, Kossin JP, Komar PD, Levinson DH, Smith RL (2008) Observed changes in weather and climate extremes. In: Karl TR, Meehl GA, Christopher DM, Hassol SJ, Waple AM, Murray WL (eds) Weather and climate extremes in a changing climate. Regions of focus: North America, Hawaii, Caribbean, and U.S. Pacific Islands. A report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Washington, DC, p 222Google Scholar
  51. Kunkel KE, Karl TR, Easterling DR, Redmond K, Young J, Yin X, Hennon P (2013a) Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and climate change. Geophys Res Lett 40(7):1402–1408. doi:10.1002/grl.50334 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kunkel KE, Karl TR, Brooks H, Kossin J, Lawrimore J, Arndt D, Bosart L, Changnon D, Cutter S, Doesken N, Emanuel K, Ya P, Groisman R, Katz W, Knutson T, O’Brien J, Paciorek C, Peterson T, Redmond K, Robinson D, Trapp J, Vose R, Weaver S, Wehner M, Wolter K, Wuebbles D (2013b) Monitoring and understanding changes in extreme storm statistics: state of knowledge. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 94:499–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee TC, Knutson TR, Kamahori H, Ying M (2012) Impacts of climate change on tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific basin. Part I: past observations. Trop Cyclone Res Rev 1:213–230Google Scholar
  54. Li T, Horton RM, Kinney PL (2013) Projections of seasonal patterns in temperature-related deaths for Manhattan, New York. Nat Climate Chang 3:717–771. doi:10.1038/nclimate1902 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lott FC, Christidis N, Stott PA (2013) Can the 2011 East African drought be attributed to human-induced climate change? Geophys Res Lett 40. doi: 10.1002/grl.50235
  56. Mann ME, Emanuel KA (2006) Atlantic hurricane trends linked to climate change. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 87:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Meehl GA, Arblaster JM, Collins WD (2008) Effects of black car bonaerosols on the Indian monsoon. J Climate 21:2869–2882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Munich RE (2011) MuenchenerRückversicherungs-Gesellschaft, Geo Risks Research, NatCatSERVICE. Database methodology. Hierarchy and terminology of natural hazards. https://www.munichre.com/touch/naturalhazards/en/natcatservice/dtabase.aspx#. Accessed 25 Mar 2013
  59. Munich RE (2012) MuenchenerRueckversicherungsgesellschaft, Geo Risks Research, NatCatSERVICE (as at March 2012). www.munichre.com. Accessed 25 Mar 2013
  60. Munich RE (2013) Global natural catastrophe update. 2012 natural catastrophe year in review. http://www.munichreamerica.com/webinars/2013_01_natcatreviewMunichRe_III_NatCat01032013.pdf. Accessed 25 Mar 2013
  61. Murakami H, Wang B (2010) Future change of North Atlantic tropical cyclone tracks. Nature 477:131–132Google Scholar
  62. Murakami H et al (2012) Future changes in tropical cyclone activity projected by the new high-resolution MRI-AGCM. J Climate 25:3237–3260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) (2010) Climate change adaptation in New York City: building a risk management response. In: Rosenzweig C, Solecki W (eds) Pre-pared for use by the New York City climate change adaptation task force. Annals of the New York Academy of science 2010, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Otto FEL, Massey N, Van Oldenborgh GJ, Jones RG, Allen MR (2012) Reconciling two approaches to attribution of the 2010 Russian heat wave. Geophys Res Lett 39, L04702. doi:10.1029/2011GL050422
  65. Peduzzi P (2005) Is climate change increasing the frequency of hazardous events? Published in Environment & Poverty Times N°3, p. 7 Special edition for the world conference on disaster reduction, 18–22 Jan 2005, Kobe. UNEP/GRID-AdrenalGoogle Scholar
  66. Perlwitz J, Hoerling M, Eischeid J, Xu T, Kumar A (2009) A strong bout of natural cooling in 2008. Geophys Res Lett 36, L23706. doi:10.1029/2009GL041188
  67. Peterson TC, Stott PA, Herring S (2012) Explaining extreme events of 2011 from a climate perspective. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 93(7):1041–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rahmstorf S, Camou D (2011) Increase of extreme events in a warming world. Proc Nat Acad Sci 108(44):17905–17909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ramsay HA, Sobel AH (2011) The effects of relative and absolute sea surface temperature on tropical cyclone potential intensity using a single column model. J Climate 24:183–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Santer B et al (2006) Forced and unforced ocean temperature changes in Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclogenesis regions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:13905–13910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schiermeier Q (2011) Extreme measures. Nature 477:148–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sen A (1981) Poverty and famines: an essay on entitlement and derivation. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  73. Seneviratne SI, Nicholls N, Easterling D, Goodess CM, Kanae S, Kossin J, Luo Y, Marengo J, McInnes K, Rahimi M, Reichstein M, Sorteberg A, Vera C, Zhang X (2012) Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment. In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocer TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner G-K, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. A special report of working groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, pp 109–230Google Scholar
  74. Stott PA, Allen M, Christidis N, Dole R, Hoerling M, Huntingford C, Pall P, Perlwitz J, Stone D (2011) Attribution of weather and climate-related extreme events. World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) OSC Climate Research Science to Society, Denver. http://www.wcrpclimate.org/conference2011/documents/Stott.pdf. Accessed 25 Mar 2013
  75. Thompson D, Solomon S (2009) Understanding recent stratospheric climate change. J Climate 22(8):1934–1943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ting M, Kushnir Y, Seager R, Li C (2009) Forced and internal twentieth-century SST trends in the north Atlantic. J Climate 22:1469–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Trenberth KE (2011) Attribution of climate variations and trends to human influences and natural variability. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Chang 2(6):925–930. doi:10.1002/wcc.142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Trenberth KE (2012) Framing the way to relate climate extremes to climate change. Clim Change 115(2):283–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Trenberth KE, Fasullo JT (2012) Climate extremes and climate change: The Russian heat wave and other climate extremes of 2010. J Geophys Res 117. doi: 10.1029/2012JD018020
  80. Tschoegl L, Below R, GuhaSapir D (2006) An Analytical review of selected data sets on natural disasters and impacts. Paper prepared for the UNDP/CRED workshop on improving compilation of reliable data on disaster occurrence and impact, Bangkok, 24 Apr 2008Google Scholar
  81. Tu J, Chou C, Chu P (2009) The abrupt shift of typhoon activity in the vicinity of Taiwan and its association with Western North Pacific-East Asian climate change. J Climate 22:3617–3628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. UN (United Nations) (2010) General assembly calls for strengthened emergency relief to meet Pakistan’s urgent needs after massive destruction caused by unprecedented, devastating floods. UN sixty fourth General Assembly. http://www.un.org. Accessed 25 Mar 2013
  83. UN Atlas of the Oceans. The human settlements on the coast. The ever more popular coasts. http://www.oceansatlas.org/servlet/CDSServlet?status=ND0xODc3jY9ZW4mMzM9KiYzNz1rb3M. Accessed 2 Apr 2013
  84. UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs) (2012) World Urbanization Prospects, 2011 Revision, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  85. UNEP (2010) Pakistan’s flood of the century is a global disaster. Global Environmental Alert Service (GEAS). United Nations Environment Programme. http://na.unep.net/geas/getUNEPPageWithArticleIDScript.php?artice_id=63. Accessed 20 Mar 2013
  86. UNEP (2011) Largest fire in Israel’s history consistent with climate change predictions. Global Environmental Alert Service (GEAS). United Nations Environment Programme. http://na.unep.net/geas/getUNEPPageWithArticleIDScript.php?artice_id=60. Accessed 20 Mar 2013
  87. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (2012a) Early warning systems: a state of the art analysis and future directions. Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA), UNEP, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  88. UNEP (2012b) UNEP year book. Emerging issues in our global environment 2012. http://www.unep.org/yearbook/2012/pdfs/UYB_2012_FULLREPORT.pdf. Accessed 25 Mar 2013
  89. UNFCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) (2010) Report of the Conference of the Parties on its sixteenth session, Cancun, 29 Nov–10 Dec 2010. http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2010/cop16/eng/07a01.pdf#page. Accessed 20 Mar 2013
  90. UNISDR (2008) Climate change and disaster risk reduction, Briefing Note 1. http://www.unisdr.org/eng/risk-reduction/climatechange/docs/Climate-Change-DRR.pdf. Accessed 20 Mar 2013
  91. UNISDR (2009a) UNISDR terminology on disaster risk reduction. Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  92. UNISDR (2009b) Global assessment report on disaster risk reduction 2009. Risk and poverty in a changing climate. www.preventionweb.net/gar09
  93. UNISDR (2010) Early warning practices can save many lives: good practices and lessons learned. United Nations Secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, UN International Strategy on disaster risk reduction, Bonn. www.unisdr.org/files/15254_EWSBBLLfinalweb.pdf. Accessed 20 Mar 2013
  94. UNISDR (2011a) Global assessment report on disaster risk reduction. Revealing Risk, Redefining DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  95. UNISDR (2011b) Effective measures to build resilience in Africa to adapt to climate change. Briefing Note 4. http://www.unisdr.org/files/24012_briefingnote04africa.pdf. Accessed 20 Mar 2013
  96. UNISDR (2012) 2012 Number of climate-related disasters, 1980–2011 – Graphic. http://www.preventionweb.net/english/professional/statistics. Accessed 20 Mar 2013
  97. UNISDR (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction) (2013a) From shared risk to shared value – the business case for disaster risk reduction. Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. GenevaGoogle Scholar
  98. UNISDR (2013b) 2013 Disaster impacts, 2000–2012 graphic. http://www.preventionweb.net/english/professional/statistics. Accessed 20 Mar 2013
  99. Vecchi GA, Soden BJ (2007) Effect of remote sea surface temperature change on tropical cyclone potential intensity. Nature 450:1066–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang C, Lee S-K (2008) Global warming and United States land falling hurricanes. Geophys Res Lett 35, L02708. doi:10.1029/2007GL032396
  101. Wang H, Sun J, Fan K (2007) Relationships between the North Pacific oscillation and the typhoon/hurricane frequencies. Sci China Ser D 50:1409–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wang B, Yang Y, Ding Q, Murakami H, Huang F (2010) Climate control of the global tropical storm days (1965–2008) Geophys Res Lett 37Google Scholar
  103. Weinkle J, Maue R, Pielke R (2012) Historical global tropical cyclone landfalls. J Climate 25:4729–4735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. World Bank (2010) Economics of adaptation to climate change: synthesis report. World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  105. Wu L, Wang B, Geng S (2005) Growing typhoon influence on East Asia. Geophys Res Lett 32, L18703. doi:10.1029/2005GL022937
  106. Yamada Y, Oouchi K, Satoh M, Tomita H, Yanase W (2010) Projection of changes in tropical cyclone activity and cloud height due to greenhouse warming: global cloud-system-resolving approach. Geophys Res Lett 37Google Scholar
  107. Ying M, Knutson TR, Kamahori H, Lee TC (2012) Impacts of climate change on tropical cyclones in the Western North Pacific basin. Part II: late twenty-first century projections. Trop Cyclone Res Rev 1(2):231–241Google Scholar
  108. Zhang R, Delworth TL, Sutton R, Hodson DLR, Dixon KW, Held IM, Kushnir Y, Marshall J, Ming Y, Msadek R, Robson J, Rosati AJ, Ting M, Vecchi GA (2013) Have aerosols caused the observed Atlantic multi decadal variability? J Atmos Sci 70(4):1135–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zwiers FW, Alexander LV, Hegerl GC, Knutson TR, Kossin JP, Naveau P, Nicholls N, Schär C, Seneviratne SI, Zhang X (2013) Challenges in estimating and understanding recent changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate and weather events. In: Asrar GR, Hurrell JW (eds) Climate science for serving society: research, modeling and prediction priorities. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 339–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.NOAA National Climatic Data CenterAshevilleUSA
  3. 3.Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite StudiesUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations