Introduction Part B. Ultra-efficient Solid-State Lighting: Likely Characteristics, Economic Benefits, Technological Approaches
Technologies for artificial lighting, as illustrated on the left side of Fig. 2.1, have made tremendous progress over the centuries: from fire, with an efficiency of about a tenth of a percent; to incandescent lamps, with an efficiency of about 4 %; to gas discharge lamps, with an efficiency of about 20 %; and soon to solid-state lighting (SSL), with efficiencies that in principle could approach 100 %.
At this point in time, there is virtually no question that SSL will eventually displace its predecessor technologies. A remaining question, however, is what the final efficiency of SSL will be. Will it be, as illustrated on the right side of Fig. 2.1, 50 %, which is what the community (Haitz and Tsao in Phys. Status Solidi A 208:17–29, 2011) has long targeted as its “efficient” lighting goal? Will it be 70 % or higher, which is what some (Phillips et al. in Laser Photon. Rev. 1:307–333, 2007) have called the “ultra-efficient” lighting goal? Or will it be even beyond an effective efficiency of 100 %, something that might be enabled by smart lighting (Kim and Schubert in Science 308:1274–1278, 2005), in which one doesn’t just engineer the efficiency with which light is produced, but the efficiency with which light is used?
In this chapter, we give a perspective on the future of SSL, with a focus on ultra-high efficiencies. We ask, and sketch answers to, three questions. First, what are some of the likely characteristics of ultra-efficient SSL? Second, what are some of the economic benefits of ultra-efficient SSL? And, third, what are some of the challenges associated with the various technological approaches that could be explored for ultra-efficient SSL?
KeywordsPower Density Gross Domestic Product Spectral Power Density Incandescent Lamp Blue Laser
We thank Emma Johnson, Justin Sanchez, Emily Stirrup and Jack Wampler for careful reviews of this chapter and of other manuscripts on which this chapter is based, and thank Edward Stephens for helpful consultations. Work at Sandia National Laboratories was supported by Sandia’s Solid-State Lighting Science Energy Frontier Research Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
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