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Stressregulation durch Sport und Bewegung

Part of the Springer Reference Psychologie book series (SRP)

Zusammenfassung

In diesem Beitrag werden die stressregulierenden Mechanismen von Sport und Bewegung genauer untersucht. In einem auf der transaktionalen Stresstheorie basierenden Modell der Stress-Gesundheits-Beziehung werden vier verschiedene Wirkweisen der körperlichen Aktivität postuliert. Im Prozess der Stressentstehung werden stressorreduzierende und ressourcenstärkende Wirkweisen von Sport und Bewegung angenommen. Geht es nicht mehr nur um Stressentstehung, sondern bereits um Stressbewältigung (Coping), kann die körperliche Aktivität auf der Ebene der Stressreaktionen ansetzen und dort eine reaktionsverringernde Wirkweise entfalten. Unterschieden werden hier kognitive, affektive, behaviorale und biologische Wirkungen, die allesamt der Gruppe der palliativ-regenerativen Coping-Strategien angehören. Palliativ-regenerative Stressbewältigung setzt nicht an den Ursachen stresserzeugender Bewertungsprozesse an, sondern an deren Folgen, nämlich den Stressreaktionen. Ziel ist es, diese zu lindern (palliativ) bzw. den positiven Ausgangszustand des betreffenden Reaktionsparameters wiederherzustellen (regenerativ). Dies geschieht dadurch, dass durch körperliche Aktivität z. B. die stressbedingte Kortisolausschüttung abgemildert oder die stressbedingte psychische Anspannung verringert wird (Reaktionsverringerung). Schließlich wird im Modell noch eine gesundheitsstärkende Wirkweise angenommen, die den gesamten Stress-Gesundheits-Prozess betrifft und die auf einer kompensatorischen Wirkung der körperlichen Aktivität beruht.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Stressbewältigung
  • Sport
  • Bewegung
  • Gesundheit
  • Soziale Unterstützung
  • Selbstwirksamkeit

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Fuchs, R., Klaperski, S. (2018). Stressregulation durch Sport und Bewegung. In: Fuchs, R., Gerber, M. (eds) Handbuch Stressregulation und Sport. Springer Reference Psychologie . Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-49322-9_9

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