Autonomous Driving - Political, Legal, Social, and Sustainability Dimensions

  • Miranda A. Schreurs
  • Sibyl D. Steuwer


Autonomous driving (self-driving) vehicles, once just a science fiction dream, are a growing reality. Although not commercially available, rapid advancements in technology are creating a situation where technological development needs are moving beyond the regulatory environment. Technological developments have put pressure on governments to make regulatory changes permitting on-road testing of autonomous vehicles. Nevada became the first government worldwide to provide licenses for the testing and operation of autonomous vehicles in the state albeit under strict conditions.


  1. 1.
    Aldana, K.: U.S. Department of Transportation Releases Policy on Automated Vehicle Development. Accessed 21 July 2014
  2. 2.
    Brown, E.G.: Governor Brown Signs Bill to Create Safety Standards for Self-Driving Cars. Accessed 10 July 2014
  3. 3.
    Beissmann, T.: Nissan Leaf becomes Japan's first road-legal autonomous vehicle. Accessed
  4. 10.
  5. 4.
    CARS 21 High Level Group on the Competitiveness and Sustainable Growth of the Automotive Industry in the European Union: Final Report 2012, 6 June 2012Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Clark, M.: States take the wheel on driverless cars. Accessed 10 July 2014
  7. 6.
    Continental: Automated Driving: Adapting the Legal Framework in Line with Market Dynamics. Accessed 10 July 2014
  8. 7.
    Convention on Road Traffic. Accessed 21 July 2014
  9. 8.
    Department of Motor Vehicles: Autonomous Vehicles. Accessed 21 July 2014
  10. 9.
    Die Bundesregierung: Nationaler Entwicklungsplan Elektromobilität der Bundesregierung, August 2009. Accessed 10 July 2014
  11. 10.
    Die Bundesregierung: Rede von Bundeskanzlerin Merkel bei der Internationalen Konferenz „Elektromobilität bewegt weltweit“, Berlin, 27. Mai 2013.;jsessionid=AE3DA68C72591889A70E1C05B8F4C0D2.s2t2?nn=437032. Accessed 10 July 2014
  12. 11.
    Die Bundesregierung: Fahrzeug und Verkehrstechnologien. Accessed 10 July 2014
  13. 12.
    Edler, J., Kuhlmann, S., Smits, R.: New Governance for Innovation. The Need for Horizontal and Systemic Policy-Coordination, Report on a Workshop held at the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Karlsruhe, November 2002. Fraunhofer ISI Discussion Papers Innovation System and Policy Analysis, No. 2 (2003) Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    Edquist, C.: Systems of Innovation Approaches - Their Emergence and Characteristics. In: Edquist, C. (ed.) Systems of Innovation: Technologies, Institutions and Organisations, pp. 1-35. Pinter Publishers/Cassell Academic, London (1997)Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Edquist, C. Innovation Policy - A Systemic Approach. In: Archibugi D., Lundvall, B.Å. (eds.) The Globalizing Learning Economy. Oxford Scholarship Online (2003) DOI:10.1093/019925 8171.003.0013Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Edquist, C., Hommen, L., Johnson, B., Lemola, T., Malerba, F., Smith, K.: The ISE Policy Statement: The Innovation Policy Implications of the ‘Innovation Systems and European Integration’ (ISE) Research Project, University Unitryck, Linköping (1998)Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Ertico ITS Europe: Towards Futurama - Developments in Road Transport Automation. Accessed 10 July 2014
  18. 17.
    European Commission: Communication from the Commission. Europe 2020. A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. COM (2010) 2020 finalGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    European Commission: White Paper. Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area - Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system. COM (2011) 144 finalGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    European Commission: Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Research and innovation for Europe's future mobility. Developing a European transport-technology strategy. COM (2012) 501 finalGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    European Commission: Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. CARS 2020: Action Plan for a competitive and sustainable automotive industry in Europe. COM (2012) 636 finalGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    European Commission: Horizon 2020 Work Programme 2014-2015. 11. Smart, green and integrated transport. European Commission Decision C (2013) 8631 of 10 December 2013Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    European Commission: Horizon 2020 Work Programme 2014-2015. 5. Leadership in enabling and industrial technologies. European Commission Decision C (2014) 2690 of 29 April 2014Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    European Parliament and the Council of the European Union: Directive 2007/46/EC of 5 September 2007establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehiclesGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    European Parliament and the Council of the European Union: Directive 2010/40/EU of 7 July 2010 on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transportGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Federal Highway Research Institute: Legal consequences of an increase in vehicle automation. Consolidated final report of the project group, Part 1., Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen, Bergisch-Gladbach Accessed 10 July 2014
  27. 26.
    Geels, F. W.: From Sectoral Systems of Innovation to Socio-Technical Systems. Insights About Dynamics and Change from Sociology and Institutional Theory. Research Policy, 33, 897-920. (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Geels, F.: Reconceptualising the co-evolution of firms-in-industries and their environments: Developing an inter-disciplinary Triple Embeddedness Framework. Research Policy 43, 261-277 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Grünweg, T.: Pilotprojekt “Drive Me”: Geisterfahrt in Göteborg. Accessed 10 July 2014
  30. 29.
    Houses of Parliament, Parliamentary Office of Science & Technology: Autonomous Road Vehicles.Google Scholar
  31. PostNote, No. 443 (2013) Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Jänicke, M. and Lindemann, S.: Governing Environmental Innovations: a new role for the nation state. Global Environmental Politics. 4(1), 29-47 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 31.
    Jacob, K., Beise, M., Blazecjzak, J., Edler, D., Haum, R., Jänicke, M., Löw, T., Petschow, U., Rennings,Google Scholar
  34. K.: Lead Markets for Environmental Innovations. Heidelberg: Physica. ZEW Economic Studies 27 (2005) Google Scholar
  35. 32.
    Jacob, K., Jänicke, M.: Lead Markets for Environmental Innovations. A New Role for the Nation State. Global Environmental Politics. 4 (1), 29-46 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 33.
    Kim, M.K., Heledii, Y., Asheriji, I. Thompsoniy, M.: Comparative analysis of laws on autonomous vehicles in the U.S. and Europe. Accessed 21 July 2014
  37. 34.
    Martini, C.: Seminar explored policy and legal implications surrounding the adoption of autonomousGoogle Scholar
  38. 35.
    Miethling, B.: Politische Triebkräfte der Innovation. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 36.
    Negro S.O.: Dynamics of Technological Innovation Systems. The Case of Biomass Energy. Labor Grafimedia, Utrecht (2007)Google Scholar
  40. 37.
    Nissan: Japan Prime Minister Abe Goes Public with Autonomous Drive Car. Accessed 10 July 2014
  41. 38.
    Prigg, M.: Nissan's ‘Tron’ self-driving car becomes first to be allowed on Japanese highways. Accessed 21 July 2014
  42. 39.
    Quigley, J.T.: Japanese Prime Minister “Test Drives” Autonomous Vehicles. http://thediplomat/.com/2013/11/japanese-prime-minister-test-drives-autonomous-vehicles/. Accessed 10 July 2014
  43. 40.
    Reuters: Cars could drive themselves sooner than expected after European push. Accessed 21 July 2014
  44. 41.
    Rothmund, S.: Ministerin testet selbststeuerndes Fahrzeug. Accessed 10 July 2014
  45. 42.
    Schorsch, P.: Rep. Jeff Brandes' ‘Google Car’ Legislation Drives Forward. Accessed 10 July 2014
  46. 43.
    Smith, B.W.: Automated Vehicles are Probably Legal in the United States. The Center for Internet and Society, CIS, Stanford (2012)Google Scholar
  47. 44.
    Smith, B.W.: SAE Levels of Driving Automation. Accessed 10 October 2014
  48. 45.
    Stolte, T., Bagschik, G., Reschka, A. and Maurer, M.: Automatisch fahrerlos fahrendes Absicherungsfahrzeug für Arbeitsstellen auf Autobahnen (aFAS) Konferenzbeitrag beim 16. Braunschweiger Symposium AAET 2015 am 12./13. Februar 2015. http:/ Accessed 10 March 2015
  49. 46.
    Technical University Braunschweig: Das Projekt Stadtpilot. Accessed 10 March 2015
  50. 47.
    Technical University Darmstadt: Mit dem Fahrzeug gemeinsam fahren - Conduct-by-Wire 2. Accessed 10 March 2015
  51. 48.
    VDA: Vernetzung. Die digitale Revolution im Automobil. Accessed 10 July 2014
  52. 49.
    Vogel, D.: Trading Up: Consumer and Environmental Regulation in a Global Economy. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1995)Google Scholar
  53. 50.
  54. 51.
    Weiner, G. and Smith, B.W.: Automated Driving: Legislative and Regulatory Action. Accessed 17 June 2014Google Scholar
  55. 52.
    Whaley, S.: Gov. Sandoval ‘Taken For Ride’ In Google Self-Driving Car. http://www.nevadanewsbureau/. com/2011/07/20/gov-sandoval-%E2%80%98taken-for-ride%E2%80%99-in-google-self-driving-car/. Accessed 10 July 2014

Copyright information

© The Editors and the Authors 2015

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miranda A. Schreurs
    • 1
  • Sibyl D. Steuwer
    • 1
  1. 1.Forschungszentrum für UmweltpolitikFreie Universität BerlinDeutschland

Personalised recommendations