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Die Variationen S/R und O/o insbesondere bei gramnegativen Darmbakterien

zur Variabilität, Differenzierung, Chemie, Toxikologie und Immunologie der Formtypen
  • E. Kröger

Zusammenfassung

Die bakteriellen Variabilitäten gewinnen im Rahmen der Forschungen zur Morphologie, zur Chemie, Physiologie, Pathologie und auch zur Genetik der Bakterien zunehmend an Bedeutung. Unter diesem Blickwinkel haben auch die sog. S (smooth-Glatt)- und R (rough-Rauh)-Formen vor allem der Pneumokokken und gramnegativen Darmbakterien verschiedentlich erneute und aufschlußreiche Bearbeitungen gefunden. Zweifellos erscheinen die S- und R-Formen für derartige Studien auch besonders geeignet. Es sind natürliche Modelle, bei denen zwei als Einzelorganismen sonst in Erscheinungs- und Lebensform weitgehend identische Bakterien sich im wesentlichen nur in einem glatten oder rauhflächigen Koloniewachstum (S, R) und manchmal auch der antigenen Wirkung der Zelleibsubstanzen (O/o) unterscheiden. In diesem Sinne sind auch Paralleluntersuchungen mit der S- und R- sowie O- und o-Form des gleichen Bacteriums entweder bei Erhalt jeweils der kompletten Bakterien oder Verwendung gleichartig hieraus gewonnener Substanzen von Erfolg. Da den nach ihren Antigenitätsmerkmalen als O-Antigene definierten Bakterienstoffen eine besondere Bedeutung für die in vivo-Reaktionen der Bakterien bei Makroorganismen wie Pathogenität (Virulenz, Toxicität, Pyrogenität), Schutzkörperbildung u. ä. zugeschrieben wird, interessieren vor allem auch die entsprechenden Parallelversuche bei unterschiedlichem Antigengehalt der Bakterien. S/R- und O/o-Variation der Bakterien sind bei allen diesen Untersuchungen als wesensverschiedene Merkmalssysteme der Bakterien jedoch streng auseinanderzuhalten. Mangels genügender Kenntnis der Zusammenhänge und Gegebenheiten ist dies im bisherigen Schrifttum leider unterblieben. Die folgende, auch diesen Erkenntnissen bereits Rechnung tragende Darstellung bemüht sich im übrigen nach der Schilderung der bisherigen Untersuchungen zum bakteriellen S/R- und O/o-Formenwechsel um die Einordnung der Ergebnisse dieser Untersuchungen in die bisherigen einschlägigen Lehrmeinungen der Mikrobiologie. Es wird sich dabei erweisen, wo diese letzteren zu bestätigen oder aber abzuwandeln sind.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1955

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Kröger
    • 1
  1. 1.Hygiene-InstitutUniversität GöttingenDeutschland

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