The Democratic Biopolitics of PrEP

Part of the Politologische Aufklärung – konstruktivistische Perspektiven book series (PAKP)


PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) is a relatively new drug-based HIV prevention technique and an important means to lower the HIV risk of gay men who are especially vulnerable to HIV. From the perspective of biopolitics, PrEP inscribes itself in a larger trend of medicalization and the rise of pharmapower. This article reconstructs and evaluates contemporary literature on biopolitical theory as it applies to PrEP, by bringing it in a dialogue with a mapping of the political debate on PrEP. As PrEP changes sexual norms and subjectification, for example condom use and its meaning for gay subjectivity, it is highly contested. The article shows that the debate on PrEP can be best described with the concepts ‘sexual-somatic ethics’ and ‘democratic biopolitics’, which I develop based on the biopolitical approach of Nikolas Rose and Paul Rabinow. In contrast, interpretations of PrEP which are following governmentality studies or Italian Theory amount to either farfetched or trivial positions on PrEP, when seen in light of the political debate. Furthermore, the article is a contribution to the scholarship on gay subjectivity, highlighting how homophobia and homonormativity haunt gay sex even in liberal environments, and how PrEP can serve as an entry point for the destigmatization of gay sexuality and transformation of gay subjectivity. ‘Biopolitical democratization’ entails making explicit how medical technology and health care relates to sexual subjectification and ethics, to strengthen the voice of (potential) PrEP users in health politics, and to renegotiate the profit and power of Big Pharma.


Biopolitics Pre-Exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) HIV Gay men Subjectification Gay sexuality Governmentality Michel Foucault Queer studies Men who have sex with men (MSM) 


  1. Adam, Barry D. 2011. Epistemic fault lines in biomedical and social approaches to HIV prevention. Journal of the International AIDS Society 14 (Suppl 2): 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agamben, Giorgio. 1998. Homo sacer: Sovereign power and bare life. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Agamben, Giorgio. 2002. Homo sacer: Die souveräne Macht und das nackte Leben. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  4. Aidshilfe. 2016. HIV-Prophylaxe: Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss erklärt sich für unzuständig. Deutsche AIDS-Hilfe. Accessed: 19 July 2018.
  5. Ailio, Jaakko. 2013. Liberal Thanatopolitics and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 38 (3): 256–267. Scholar
  6. Ailio, Jaakko. 2017a. Biopolitics of the global governance of HIV/AIDS. In The Routledge handbook of biopolitics, eds. Sergej V. Prozorov und Simona Rentea, 235–246. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  7. Ailio, Jaakko. 2017b. Theory of biopolitics and the global response to HIV/AIDS: From critique to affirmation. Tampere: Tampere University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Auerbach, Judith D., und Trevor A. Hoppe. 2015. Beyond “getting drugs into bodies”: Social science perspectives on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. Journal of the International AIDS Society 18 (4 Suppl 3): 19983. Scholar
  9. AVAC. 2018. DISCOVER Trial Factsheet. AVAC. Accessed: 14 Aug. 2018.
  10. Ayala, George, Keletso Makofane, Glenn-Milo Santos, Jack Beck, Tri D. Do, Pato Hebert, Patrick A. Wilson, Thomas Pyun, und Sonya Arreola. 2013. Access to basic HIV-Related services and PrEP acceptability among men who have sex with men worldwide: Barriers, facilitators, and implications for combination prevention. Journal of sexually transmitted diseases 2013:953123. Scholar
  11. Baeten, Jared M., Deborah Donnell, Patrick Ndase, Nelly R. Mugo, James D. Campbell, Jonathan Wangisi, Jordan W. Tappero, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Craig R. Cohen, Elly Katabira, Allan Ronald, Elioda Tumwesigye, Edwin Were, Kenneth H. Fife, James Kiarie, Carey Farquhar, Grace John-Stewart, Aloysious Kakia, Josephine Odoyo, Akasiima Mucunguzi, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Rogers Twesigye, Kenneth Ngure, Cosmas Apaka, Harrison Tamooh, Fridah Gabona, Andrew Mujugira, Dana Panteleeff, Katherine K. Thomas, Lara Kidoguchi, Meighan Krows, Jennifer Revall, Susan Morrison, Harald Haugen, Mira Emmanuel-Ogier, Lisa Ondrejcek, Robert W. Coombs, Lisa Frenkel, Craig Hendrix, Namandjé N. Bumpus, David Bangsberg, Jessica E. Haberer, Wendy S. Stevens, Jairam R. Lingappa, und Connie Celum. 2012. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women. The New England journal of medicine 367 (5): 399–410. Scholar
  12. Behnke, Nils, Michael Retterath, Todd Sangster, and Ashish Singh. 2014. New paths to value creation in pharma: In a changing industry, survival increasingly depends on leading in categories and distinctive business capabilities. Bain & Company. Accessed: 14 Aug. 2018.
  13. Beiker, Clara. 2017. Hate crimes against homosexuals on the rise in Germany: 09.08.2017. Deusche Welle. Accessed: 10 Aug. 2018.
  14. bones, pup. 2014. I am a Truvada Whore. My PrEP experience. Accessed: 11 Aug. 2018.
  15. Bordogna, Mara Tognetti. 2014. From medicalisation to pharmaceuticalisation—A sociological overview. New scenarios for the sociology of health. Social Change Review 12 (2): 119–140. Scholar
  16. Boulet, Pascale. 2018. Will the European court of justice put a stop to the evergreening of Truvada patents? Medicines Law & Policy. Accessed: 21 Aug. 2018.
  17. Bröckling, Ulrich. 2013. Das unternehmerische Selbst: Soziologie einer Subjektivierungsform, 5. Aufl. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  18. Bröckling, Ulrich, Susanne Krasmann, und Thomas Lemke. 2011a. From Foucault’s Lectures at the Collège de France to studies of governmentality: An Introduction. In Governmentality: Current issues and future challenges, eds. Ulrich Bröckling, Susanne Krasmann, und Thomas Lemke, 1–33. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Bröckling, Ulrich, Susanne Krasmann, und Thomas Lemke, eds. 2011b. Governmentality: Current issues and future challenges. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Bundesministerium für Gesundheit. 2018. Vorurteile abbauen, Neuansteckungen verhindern. Bundesministerium für Gesundheit. Accessed: 15 Aug. 2018.
  21. Burchell, Graham, Colin Gordon, und Peter Miller, eds. 1991. The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality: With two lectures by and an interview with Michael Foucault. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  22. Cacchioni, Thea, und Leonore Tiefer. 2012. Why medicalization? Introduction to the special issue on the medicalization of sex. Journal of sex research 49 (4): 307–310. Scholar
  23. Cain, Matt. 2017. Sex without fear—My experiment with the HIV-prevention drug PrEP. The Guardian. Accessed: 14 Aug. 2018.
  24. Cairns, Gus P, Kane Race, and Pedro Goicochea. 2016. PrEP: Controversy, agency and ownership. Journal of the International AIDS Society 19 (7 Suppl 6): 21120.
  25. Calabrese, Sarah K., und Kristen Underhill. 2015. How stigma surrounding the use of HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis undermines prevention and pleasure: A call to destigmatize “Truvada Whores”. American Journal of Public Health 105 (10): 1960–1964. Scholar
  26. Cambiano, Valentina, Alec Miners, David Dunn, Sheena McCormack, Koh Jun Ong, O. Noel Gill, Anthony Nardone, Monica Desai, Nigel Field, Graham Hart, Valerie Delpech, Gus Cairns, Alison Rodger, und Andrew N. Phillips. 2018. Cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men in the UK: A modelling study and health economic evaluation. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 18 (1): 85–94. Scholar
  27. CDC. 2016. Lifetime risk of HIV Diagnosis: Half of black gay men and a quarter of Latino gay men projected to be diagnosed within their lifetime. CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed: 12 Aug. 2018.
  28. Closson, Elizabeth F., Jennifer A. Mitty, Jowanna Malone, Kenneth H. Mayer, und Matthew J. Mimiaga. 2018. Exploring strategies for PrEP adherence and dosing preferences in the context of sexualized recreational drug use among MSM: A qualitative study. AIDS care 30 (2): 191–198. Scholar
  29. Cohen, Myron S., Marybeth McCauley, und Theresa R. Gamble. 2012. HIV treatment as prevention and HPTN 052. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 7 (2): 99–105. Scholar
  30. Cohen, Myron S., M. Kumi Smith, Kathryn E. Muessig, Timothy B. Hallett, Kimberly A. Powers, und Angela D. Kashuba. 2013. Antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1 prevents transmission of HIV-1: Where do we go from here? The Lancet 382 (9903): 1515–1524. Scholar
  31. Collins, Shane P., Vanessa M. McMahan, und Joanne D. Stekler. 2016. The impact of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use on the sexual health of men who have sex with men: A qualitative study in Seattle, WA. International Journal of Sexual Health 29 (1): 55–68. Scholar
  32. Cousins, Sophie. 2017. PrEP on demand reduces HIV infections, study finds. BMJ j3619.
  33. Dean, Mitchell. 1999. Governmentality: Power and rule in modern society. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  34. Dean, Tim. 2011. Unlimited Intimacy: Reflections on the subculture of barebacking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Dean, Tim. 2012. The biopolitics of pleasure. South Atlantic Quarterly 111 (3): 477–496. Scholar
  36. Dean, Tim. 2015a. Mediated intimacies: Raw sex, Truvada, and the biopolitics of chemoprophylaxis. Sexualities 18 (1–2): 224–246. Scholar
  37. Dean, Tim. 2015b. No sex please, we’re American. American Literary History 27 (3): 614–624. Scholar
  38. Decker, Oliver, und Johannes Kiess, eds. 2016. Die enthemmte Mitte: Autoritäre und rechtsextreme Einstellung in Deutschland: die Leipziger Mitte-Studie 2016. Gießen: Psychosozial.Google Scholar
  39. Delaugerre, Constance, Christophe Rodriguez, Catherine Capitant, Marie-Laure Nere, Mélanie Mercier-Darty, Diane Carette, Gilles Pialoux, Laurent Cotte, Isabelle Charreau, and Jean-Michel Molina. 2018. Drug resistance among patients who acquired HIV infection in a PrEP trial. AIDS (London, England).
  40. Duggan, Lisa. 2002. The new homonormativity. In Materializing Democracy, ed. Russ Castronovo, Dana D. Nelson, Donald E. Pease, Joan Dayan, and Richard R. Flores, 175–194. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Duran, David. 2012. Truvada Whores? Huffpost. Accessed: 11 Aug. 2018.
  42. Duran, David. 2014. An evolved opinion on Truvada. 2017. Huffpost. Accessed: 11 Aug 2018.
  43. Elopre, Latesha, Kachina Kudroff, Andrew O. Westfall, Edgar T. Overton, and Michael J. Mugavero. 2017. Brief report: The right people, right places, and right practices: Disparities in PrEP access among African American men, women, and MSM in the deep south. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 74 (1): 56–59. Scholar
  44. Epstein, Steven. 2009. Impure science: AIDS, activism, and the politics of knowledge. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.Google Scholar
  45. Epstein, Steven. 2016. The politics of health mobilization in the United States: The promise and pitfalls of “disease constituencies”. Social Science and Medicine 1982 (165): 246–254. Scholar
  46. Esposito, Roberto. 2010. Vom Unpolitischen zur Biopolitik. In Das Politische und die Politik, eds. Thomas Bedorf und Kurt Röttgers, 89–101. Berlin: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  47. Esposito, Roberto. 2011. Immunitas: The protection and negation of life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  48. Esposito, Roberto. 2013. Terms of the political: Community, immunity, biopolitics. New York: Fordham University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Fassin, Didier. 2009. Another politics of life is possible. Theory, Culture & Society 26 (5): 44–60. Scholar
  50. Flores, Jayson. 2017. Everything you need to know about homonormativity. Pride. Accessed: 18 July 2018.
  51. Forsyth, Andrew D., and Ronald O. Valdiserri. 2012. Reaping the prevention benefits of highly active antiretroviral treatment: Policy implications of HIV Prevention Trials Network 052. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 7 (2): 111–116. Scholar
  52. Foucault, Michel. 1971. Orders of discourse. Social Science Information 10 (2): 7–30. Scholar
  53. Foucault, Michel. 1977. Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  54. Foucault, Michel. 1978. The history of sexuality, vol. I. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  55. Foucault, Michel. 2003. Society must be defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975–76, eds. Mauro Bertani and Alessandro Fontana. New York: Picador.Google Scholar
  56. Foucault, Michel. 2007. Security, territory, population: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1977–78, ed. Michel Senellart. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  57. Foucault, Michel. 2010. The birth of biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978–79, Ed. Michel Senellart. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  58. Galinsky, Adam D., Cynthia S. Wang, Jennifer A. Whitson, Eric M. Anicich, Kurt Hugenberg, and Galen V. Bodenhausen. 2013. The reappropriation of stigmatizing labels: The reciprocal relationship between power and self-labeling. Psychological Science 24 (10): 2020–2029. Scholar
  59. Giami, Alain, and Christophe Perrey. 2012. Transformations in the medicalization of sex: HIV prevention between discipline and biopolitics. Journal of sex research 49 (4): 353–361. Scholar
  60. Gilbert, Sky. 2018. Gay men: Finally, sex without fear. The conversation. Accessed: 14 Aug. 2018.
  61. GLADT. 2009. Redebeitrag bei der „Demonstration gegen antimuslimischen Rassismus“ in Berlin. 2009-10-03.Google Scholar
  62. Golub, Sarit A, Corina Lelutiu-Weinberger, and Anthony Surace. 2018. Experimental investigation of implicit HIV and preexposure Prophylaxis stigma: Evidence for ancillary benefits of preexposure Prophylaxis use. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 77 (3): 264–271. Scholar
  63. Grace, Daniel, Jody Jollimore, Paul MacPherson, Matthew J.P. Strang, und Darrell H.S. Tan. 2018. The pre-exposure Prophylaxis-stigma paradox: Learning from Canada’s first wave of PrEP users. AIDS patient care and STDs 32 (1): 24–30. Scholar
  64. Grant, Robert M., Javier R. Lama, Peter L. Anderson, Vanessa McMahan, Albert Y. Liu, Lorena Vargas, Pedro Goicochea, Martín Casapía, Juan Vicente Guanira-Carranza, Maria E. Ramirez-Cardich, Orlando Montoya-Herrera, Telmo Fernández, Valdilea G. Veloso, Susan P. Buchbinder, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Mauro Schechter, Linda-Gail Bekker, Kenneth H. Mayer, Esper Georges Kallás, K. Rivet Amico, Kathleen Mulligan, Lane R. Bushman, Robert J. Hance, Carmela Ganoza, Patricia Defechereux, Brian Postle, J. Furong Wang, Jeff McConnell, Jia-Hua Zheng, Jeanny Lee, James F. Rooney, Howard S. Jaffe, Ana I. Martinez, David N. Burns, und David V. Glidden. 2010. Preexposure Chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. New England Journal of Medicine 363 (27): 2587–2599. Scholar
  65. Haberer, Jessica E. 2016. Current concepts for PrEP adherence in the PrEP revolution: From clinical trials to routine practice. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 11 (1): 10–17. Scholar
  66. Halperin, David M. 1990. One hundred years of homosexuality: And other essays on greek love. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Halperin, David M. 2007. What do gay men want? An Essay on sex, risk, and subjectivity. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Halperin, David M. 2016. The Biopolitics of HIV Prevention Discourse. In Biopower: Foucault and beyond, eds. Vernon W. Cisney und Nicolae Morar, 199–227. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  69. Halperin, David M., und Valerie Traub, eds. 2009. Gay Shame. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  70. Hardt, Michael, und Antonio Negri. 2002. Empire: Die neue Weltordnung. Frankfurt a. M.: Campus.Google Scholar
  71. Hardt, Michael, und Antonio Negri. 2004. Multitude: Krieg und Demokratie im Empire. Frankfurt a. M.: Campus.Google Scholar
  72. Hark, Sabine, und Paula-Irene Villa, eds. 2015. Anti-Genderismus: Sexualität und Geschlecht als Schauplätze aktueller politischer Auseinandersetzungen. Bielefeld: transcript.Google Scholar
  73. Hartmann, Christoph. 2017. PrEP-Post. Accessed: 14 Aug. 2018 (Link offline as of 2019-02-15, document can be retrieved from author).
  74. Hequembourg, Amy L., und Ronda L. Dearing. 2013. Exploring shame, guilt, and risky substance use among sexual minority men and women. Journal of Homosexuality 60 (4): 615–638. Scholar
  75. Holt, Martin, Toby Lea, Limin Mao, Johann Kolstee, Iryna Zablotska, Tim Duck, Brent Allan, Michael West, Evelyn Lee, Peter Hull, Andrew Grulich, John de Wit, und Garrett Prestage. 2018. Community-level changes in condom use and uptake of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis by gay and bisexual men in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia: Results of repeated behavioural surveillance in 2013–17. The Lancet HIV 5 (8): e448–e456. Scholar
  76. irb/dpa. 2017. HIV-Schutz mit Medikamenten: „Die Leute können sich das nicht leisten“. Spiegel. Accessed: 15 Aug. 2018.
  77. Juusola, Jessie L., Margaret L. Brandeau, Douglas K. Owens, und Eran Bendavid. 2012. The cost-effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in the United States in men who have sex with men. Annals of Internal Medicine 156 (8): 541–550. Scholar
  78. Koester, Kimberly, Rivet K. Amico, Hailey Gilmore, Albert Liu, Vanessa McMahan, Kenneth Mayer, Sybil Hosek, und Robert Grant. 2017. Risk, safety and sex among male PrEP users: Time for a new understanding. Culture, health & sexuality 19 (12): 1301–1313. Scholar
  79. Kuhar, Roman, und David Paternotte, eds. 2017. Anti-gender campaigns in Europe: Mobilizing against equality. London: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  80. Land, Emily. 2017. PrEP and reaching people of color, trans women, and young people. BETA. Accessed: 15 Aug. 2018.
  81. Landman, Keren. 2017. The FDA has approved generic PrEP—But Access may remain difficult. VICE. Accessed: 21 Aug. 2018.
  82. Langford, Peter. 2015. Roberto Esposito: Law, community and the political. Abingdon Oxon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lemke, Thomas. 2008. Gouvernementalität und Biopolitik, 2. Aufl. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.Google Scholar
  84. Lemke, Thomas. 2011. Biopolitics. An advanced introduction. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
  85. LSVD. n. d. AfD—Eine unberechenbare Alternative. LSVD. Accessed: 4 Oct. 2018.
  86. LSVD. 2017. Ergebnisse des ersten Vernetzungstreffen, 21. Oktober 2017, Leipzig: LSVD-Projekt „Miteinander stärken, Rechtspopulismus entgegenwirken“.Google Scholar
  87. McCormack, Sheena, David T. Dunn, Monica Desai, David I. Dolling, Mitzy Gafos, Richard Gilson, Ann K. Sullivan, Amanda Clarke, Iain Reeves, Gabriel Schembri, Nicola Mackie, Christine Bowman, Charles J. Lacey, Vanessa Apea, Michael Brady, Julie Fox, Stephen Taylor, Simone Antonucci, Saye H. Khoo, James Rooney, Anthony Nardone, Martin Fisher, Alan McOwan, Andrew N. Phillips, Anne M. Johnson, Brian Gazzard, und Owen N. Gill. 2016. Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection (PROUD): Effectiveness results from the pilot phase of a pragmatic open-label randomised trial. The Lancet 387 (10013): 53–60. Scholar
  88. Medical Express. 2018. EU door opens for generic version of AIDS medicine Truvada. Medical Express. Accessed: 21 Aug. 2018.
  89. Menke, Christoph. 2015. Kritik der Rechte. Berlin: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  90. Meulemann, Heiner. 2005. Die Natur und das Leben: Naturalismus in Weltbildern und als Einstellung zur Biotechnik in der deutschen Bevölkerung. In Biopolitik, ed. Wolfgang van den Daele, 155–175. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mills, Catherine. 2018. Biopolitics. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. Molina, Jean-Michel, Catherine Capitant, Bruno Spire, Gilles Pialoux, Laurent Cotte, Isabelle Charreau, Cecile Tremblay, Jean-Marie Le Gall, Eric Cua, Armelle Pasquet, François Raffi, Claire Pintado, Christian Chidiac, Julie Chas, Pierre Charbonneau, Constance Delaugerre, Marie Suzan-Monti, Benedicte Loze, Julien Fonsart, Gilles Peytavin, Antoine Cheret, Julie Timsit, Gabriel Girard, Nicolas Lorente, Marie Préau, James F. Rooney, Mark A. Wainberg, David Thompson, Willy Rozenbaum, Veronique Doré, Lucie Marchand, Marie-Christine Simon, Nicolas Etien, Jean-Pierre Aboulker, Laurence Meyer, und Jean-François Delfraissy. 2015. On-Demand preexposure Prophylaxis in men at high risk for HIV-1 infection. The New England journal of medicine 373 (23): 2237–2246. Scholar
  93. Montano, Michalina A., Julia C. Dombrowski, Lindley A. Barbee, Matthew R. Golden, and Christine M. Khosropour. 2017. Changes in Sexual Behavior and STI Diagnoses Among MSM using PREP in Seattle, WA: Abstract Number: 979, Washington, Seattle, 13 February 2017. CROI. Accessed: 9 Febr. 2019.
  94. Murphy, Kevin P, Jason Ruiz, and David Serlin, eds. 2008. Queer Futures. Radical History 100.Google Scholar
  95. Nealon, Jeffrey Thomas. 2008. Foucault beyond Foucault: Power and its intensifications since 1984. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Nguyen, Vinh-Kim, Zoë R. Greenwald, Helen Trottier, Martha Cadieux, Alexandre Goyette, Mariève Beauchemin, Louise Charest, Danièle Longpré, Stéphane Lavoie, Hermione Gbego Tossa, und Réjean Thomas. 2018. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections before and after preexposure prophylaxis for HIV. AIDS (London, England) 32 (4): 523–530. Scholar
  97. Nilsson, Jakob, ed. 2013. Foucault, biopolitics, and governmentality. Huddinge: Södertörns Högskola.Google Scholar
  98. Novas, Carlos. 2016. Patient Activism and Biopolitis. In Biopower: Foucault and beyond, eds. Vernon W. Cisney und Nicolae Morar, 184–198. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  99. P., Michael. 2015. “Without the constant fear of HIV infection, I can engage in sex with the love of my life.” My PrEP experience. Accessed: 14 Aug. 2018.
  100. Page, Kathleen R., Omar Martinez, Karen Nieves-Lugo, Maria Cecilia Zea, Suzanne Dolwick Grieb, Thespina J. Yamanis, Kaitlin Spear, und Wendy W. Davis. 2017. Promoting pre-exposure Prophylaxis to prevent HIV infections among sexual and gender minority Hispanics/Latinxs. AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education 29 (5): 389–400. Scholar
  101. Pasquinelli, Matteo. 2011. The so-called Italian theory and the revolt of living knowledge. Accessed: 6 Oct. 2018.
  102. Patton, Cindy, und Hye Jin Kim. 2012. The cost of science: Knowledge and ethics in the HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trials. Journal of bioethical inquiry 9 (3): 295–310. Scholar
  103. Pieper, Marianne, Thomas Atzert, Serhat Karakayali, und Vassilis Tsianos. 2007. Empire und die biopolitische Wende. In Empire und die biopolitische Wende: Die internationale Diskussion im Anschluss an Hardt und Negri, ed. Marianne Pieper, 293–310. Frankfurt a. M.: Campus.Google Scholar
  104. Preciado, Beatriz. 2013. Testo Junkie: Sex, Drugs, and Biopolitics in the Pharmacopornographic Era. New York: The Feminist Press at CUNY.Google Scholar
  105. 2018. Aids-Hilfe kritisiert „diskriminierenden“ Kommentar in Magdeburger „Volksstimme“: Hat sich Jens Spahn nur für die Kostenübernahme der PrEP eingesetzt, weil er selbst schwul ist? Das deutet der Chefredakteur einer angesehen Zeitung an. Die Aids-Hilfe Sachsen-Anhalt protestiert heftig. Accessed: 15 Aug. 2018.
  106. Rabinow, Paul. 1999. French DNA: Trouble in purgatory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rabinow, Paul. 2005. Artificiality and enlightenment: From sociobiology to biosociality. In Anthropologies of modernity: Foucault, governmentality, and life politics, ed. Jonathan Xavier Inda, 181–193. Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  108. Race, Kane. 2012. Framing responsibility: HIV, biomedical prevention, and the performativity of the law. Journal of bioethical inquiry 9 (3): 327–338. Scholar
  109. Race, Kane. 2016. Reluctant Objects. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 22 (1): 1–31. Scholar
  110. Redaktion Deutsches Ärzteblatt. 2018. HIV-Präexpositionsprophylaxe soll Kranken-kassenleistung werden. Accessed: 20 July 2018.
  111. Rose, Nikolas. 2007a. Molecular biopolitics, somatic ethics and the spirit of biocapital. Social Theory & Health 5 (1): 3–29. Scholar
  112. Rose, Nikolas. 2007b. The politics of life itself: Biomedicine, power, and subjectivity in the twenty-first century. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rose, Nikolas, und Paul Rabinow. 2016. Biopower Today. In Biopower: Foucault and beyond, eds. Vernon W. Cisney und Nicolae Morar, 297–325. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  114. Ryan, Benjamin. 2015. How well do condoms and PrEP Prevent HIV among gay and bi men?: CDC researchers have estimated how well condoms and PrEP prevent HIV in gay and bisexual men. How much faith can be placed in these figures? February 4, 2015. POZ. Accessed 18 July 2018.
  115. Saar, Martin. 2007. Genealogie als Kritik: Geschichte und Theorie des Subjekts nach Nietzsche und Foucault. Frankfurt a. M.: Campus.Google Scholar
  116. Schneider, Karen, Richard T. Gray, und David P. Wilson. 2014. A cost-effectiveness analysis of HIV preexposure prophylaxis for men who have sex with men in Australia. Clinical infectious diseases: An official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 58 (7): 1027–1034. Scholar
  117. Schöne-Seifert, Bettina. 2005. Von der Medizin zur Humantechnologie? Ärztliches Handeln zwischen medizinischer Indikation und Patientenwunsch. In Biopolitik, ed. Wolfgang van den Daele. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.Google Scholar
  118. Schubert, Karsten. 2018. Freiheit als Kritik: Die sozialphilosophische Debatte um Freiheit bei Foucault. Bielefeld: transcript.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Scott, Hyman M., und Jeffrey D. Klausner. 2016. Sexually transmitted infections and pre-exposure prophylaxis: Challenges and opportunities among men who have sex with men in the US. AIDS research and therapy 13:5. Scholar
  120. Sevelius, Jae M., JoAnne Keatley, Nikki Calma, und Emily Arnold. 2016. ‘I am not a man’: Trans-specific barriers and facilitators to PrEP acceptability among transgender women. Global public health 11 (7–8): 1060–1075. Scholar
  121. Shen, Mingwang, Yanni Xiao, Libin Rong, Lauren Ancel Meyers, und Steven E. Bellan. 2018. The cost-effectiveness of oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and early antiretroviral therapy in the presence of drug resistance among men who have sex with men in San Francisco. BMC Medicine 16 (1): 58. Scholar
  122. Siegel, Scott. 2017. Friend or foe? The LGBT community in the eyes of right-wing populism. EuropeNow. Accessed: 9 Febr. 2019.
  123. Singh, Jerome A., und Edward J. Mills. 2005. The abandoned trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV: What went wrong? PLoS medicine 2 (9): e234. Scholar
  124. Smith, Dawn K., Jeffrey H. Herbst, Xinjiang Zhang, and Charles E. Rose. 2015. Condom effectiveness for HIV prevention by consistency of use among men who have sex with men in the United States. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 68 (3): 337–344. Scholar
  125. Spinner, Christoph D., Christoph Boesecke, Alexander Zink, Heiko Jessen, Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, Jürgen Kurt Rockstroh, und Stefan Esser. 2016. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): A review of current knowledge of oral systemic HIV PrEP in humans. Infection 44 (2): 151–158. Scholar
  126. Sultan, Binta, Paul Benn, and Laura Waters. 2014. Current perspectives in HIV post-exposure prophylaxis. HIV/AIDS (Auckland, N.Z.) 6:147–158.
  127. Summers, Daniel. 2018. The battle for Truvada: A pharmaceutical company charges thousands of dollars for a drug that could halt the AIDS epidemic. Does it have an obligation to value patients over profit? SLATE. Accessed: 15 Aug. 2018.
  128. Thissen, Elvira. 2014. Focus on pharma: Creating a market for disease prevention. GreenBiz. Accessed: 14 Aug. 2018.
  129. Trachman, Mathieu, and Gabriel Girard. 2018. Targeting fallible men. Communication strategies and moral issues in a pre-exposure prophylaxis trial (unpublished manuscript. Paris).Google Scholar
  130. van Doorn, Niels. 2013. Treatment is prevention. Cultural Studies 27 (6): 901–932. Scholar
  131. Villarosa, Linda. 2017. America’s Hidden H.I.V. Epidemic: Why do America’s black gay and bisexual men have a higher H.I.V. rate than any country in the world? New York Times Magazine. Accessed: 12 Aug. 2018.
  132. Wood, Lauren V. 2012. Why I voted “no” to Truvada PrEP. Annals of Internal Medicine 157 (7): 519–520. Scholar
  133. Young, Ingrid, Paul Flowers, und Lisa McDaid. 2016. Can a pill prevent HIV? Negotiating the biomedicalisation of HIV prevention. Sociology of Health & Illness 38 (3): 411–425. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PolitikwissenschaftUniversität FreiburgFreiburgGermany

Personalised recommendations