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Progress in Physical and Chemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass

Chapter

Abstract

Lignocelluloses are abundant and nonfood-based materials that are considered as the most suitable feedstocks for the future energy production. However, these materials have naturally evolved to resist against physical and biological attacks. Thus, the conversion yield of lignocellulosic materials without a preprocessing step, called pretreatment, is not typically high enough for a process to be commercially viable. However, in the last decade or so, continued worldwide research efforts resulted in a significant improvement in the understanding of the biomass characteristics that influence subsequent biological conversions. The cell wall composition, characteristics, components distribution, and linkage between different parts are some of the factors that have been shown to have significant effects on biological conversion of lignocelluloses. In this chapter, different aspects of the parameters affecting the pretreatment and progress in the characteristic modification of lignocelluloses are reviewed. Furthermore, the challenges and conflicts in the related researches are discussed and some suggestions with concluding remarks are presented. Moreover, the most important processes, including pretreatment with acid, alkali, and cellulosic solvents are presented. The fundamental reactions and biomass structural changes in the processes imparted by these leading pretreatments, as well as recent progresses, are also reviewed.

Keywords

Biogas Production Alkali Treatment Accessible Surface Area Chemical Pretreatment Dilute Acid Pretreatment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT)Bourns College of Engineering University of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

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