Viral-associated Ventilator-associated Pneumonia

  • M. Esperatti
  • A. López-Giraldo
  • A. Torres
Part of the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (AUICEM, volume 2012)

Abstract

Nosocomial pneumonia is the most commonly acquired infection in intensive care units (ICUs). Its frequency is approximately 10 cases/1000 admissions; however, the incidence may increase to 20 times that number in patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation [1–3]. The overall incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) may range between 15 % to 20 % [2–6]. This complication prolongs the length of hospital stay, increases healthcare costs and may increase mortality [4, 5, 7, 8].

Keywords

Lower Respiratory Tract Nosocomial Pneumonia Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Viral Reactivation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America (2005) Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Hospital-acquired, Ventilator-associated, and Healthcare-associated Pneumonia. Am J Respir 171: 388–416Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Celis R, Torres A, Gatell JM, Almela M, Rodriguez-Roisin R, Agustí-Vidal A (1988) Nosocomial pneumonia: A multivariate analysis of risk and prognosis. Chest 93: 318–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Torres A, Aznar R, Gatell JM, et al (1990) Incidence, risk, and prognosis factors of nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 523–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Koulenti D, Lisboa T, Brun-Buisson C, et al (2009) Spectrum of practice in the diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia in patients requiringmechanical ventilation in European intensive care units. Crit Care Med 37: 2360–2368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Warren DK, Shukla SJ, Olsen MA, et al (2003) Outcome and attributable cost of ventilatorassociated pneumonia among intensive care unit patients in a suburban medical center. Crit Care Med 31: 1312–1317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Luna CM, Blanzaco D, Niederman MS, et al (2003) Resolution of ventilator-associated pneumonia: prospective evaluation of the clinical pulmonary infection score as an early clinical predictor of outcome. Crit Care Med 31: 676–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kollef MH (1993) Ventilator-associated pneumonia: A multivariate analysis. JAMA 270: 1965–1970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fagon JY, Chastre J, Hance AJ, Montravers P, Novara A, Gibert C (1993). Nosocomial pneumonia in ventilated patients: A cohort study evaluating attributable mortality and hospital stay. Am J Med 94: 281–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marcos MA, Esperatti M, Torres A (2009). Viral pneumonia. Curr Opin Infect Dis 22: 143–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bruynseels P, Jorens PG, Demey HE, et al (2003). Herpes simplex virus in the respiratory tract of critical care patients: a prospective study. Lancet 362: 1536–1541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ong GM, Lowry K, Mahajan S, et al (2004) Herpes simplex type 1 shedding is associated with reduced hospital survival in patients receiving assisted ventilation in a tertiary referral intensive care unit. J Med Virol 72: 121–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Luyt CE, Combes A, Deback C, et al (2007) Herpes simplex virus lung infection in patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175: 935–942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Daubin C, Vincent S, Vabret A, et al (2005) Nosocomial viral ventilator-associated pneumonia in the intensive care unit: a prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Med 31: 1116–1122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Simoons-Smit AM, Kraan EM, Beishuizen A, Strack van Schijndel RJ, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM (2006) Herpes simplex virus type 1 and respiratory disease in critically-ill patients: Real pathogen or innocent bystander? Clin Microbiol Infect 12: 1050–1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tuxen DV, Cade JF, McDonald MI, Buchanan MR, Clark RJ, Pain MC (1982) Herpes simplex virus from the lower respiratory tract in adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 126: 416–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ramsey PG, Fife K, Hackman RC, Meyers JD, Corey L (1982) Herpes simplex virus pneumonia: clinical, virologic, and pathologic features in 20 patients. Ann Intern Med 97: 813–820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tuxen DV, Wilson JW, Cade JF (1987) Prevention of lower respiratory herpes simplex virus infection with acyclovir in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 402–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Prellner T, Flamholc L, Haidl S, Lindholm K, Widell A (1992) Herpes simplex virus—the most frequently isolated pathogen in the lungs of patients with severe respiratory distress. Scand J Infect Dis 24: 283–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schuller D, Spessert C, Fraser VJ, Goodenberger DM (1993). Herpes simplex virus from respiratory tract secretions: epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcome in immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised hosts. Am J Med 94: 29–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Byers RJ, Hasleton PS, Quigley A, et al (1996) Pulmonary herpes simplex in burns patients. Eur Respir J 9: 2313–2317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cook CH, Yenchar JK, Kraner TO, Davies EA, Ferguson RM (1998) Occult herpes family viruses may increase mortality in critically ill surgical patients. Am J Surg 176: 357–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cherr GS, Meredith JW, Chang M (2000) Herpes simplex virus pneumonia in trauma patients. J Trauma 49: 547–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cook CH, Martin LC, Yenchar JK, et al (2003) Occult herpes family viral infections are endemic in critically ill surgical patients. Crit Care Med 31: 1923–1929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Linssen CF, Jacobs JA, Stelma FF, et al (2008) Herpes simplex virus load in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is related to poor outcome in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 34: 2202–2209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    De Vos N, Van Hoovels L, Vankeerberghen A, et al (2009) Monitoring of herpes simplex virus in the lower respiratory tract of critically ill patients using real-time PCR: a prospective study. Clin Microbiol Infect 15: 358–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bouza E, Giannella MV, Torres P, et al (2011) Herpes simplex virus: A marker of severity in bacterial ventilator-associated pneumonia. J Crit Care 26: 432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adler H, Beland JL, Del-Pan NC, et al (1997) Suppression of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced pneumonia in mice by inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, NOS2). J Exp Med 185: 1533–1540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cook CH, Yenchar JK, Kraner TO, Davies EA, Ferguson RM (1998) Occult herpes family viruses may increase mortality in critically ill surgical patients. Am J Surg 176: 357–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tuxen DV, Wilson JW, Cade JF (1987) Prevention of lower respiratory herpes simplex virus infection with acyclovir in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 402–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Limaye AP, Kirby KA, Rubenfeld GD, et al (2008) Cytomegalovirus reactivation in critically ill immunocompetent patients. JAMA 300: 413–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Anderson LJ (1991) Major trends in nosocomial viral infections. Am J Med 91: 107S–111SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kalil AC, Florescu DF (2009) Prevalence and mortality associated with cytomegalovirus infection in nonimmunosuppressed patients in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 37: 2350–2358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Papazian L, Fraisse A, Garbe L, et al (1996) Cytomegalovirus. An unexpected cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Anesthesiology 84: 280–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cook CH, Zhang Y, Sedmak DD, Martin LC, Jewell S, Ferguson RM (2006) Pulmonary cytomegalovirus reactivation causes pathology in immunocompetent mice. Crit Care Med 34: 842–849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Papazian L., Doddoli C, Chetaille B, et al (2007) A contributive result of open-lung biopsy improves survival in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Crit Care Med 35: 755–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Raoult D, Audic S, Robert C, et al (2004) The 1.2-megabase genome sequence of Mimivirus. Science 306: 1344–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    La Scola B, Marrie TJ, Auffray JP, Raoult D (2005) Mimivirus in pneumonia patients. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 449–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Berger P, Papazian L, Drancourt M, La Scola B, Auffray JP, Raoult D (2006). Ameba-associated microorganisms and diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 248–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dare RK, Chittaganpitch M, Erdman DD (2008) Screening pneumonia patients for mimivirus. Emerg.Infect.Dis 14: 465–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vincent A, La Scola B, Forel JM, Pauly V, Raoult V, Papazian L (2009) Clinical significance of a positive serology for mimivirus in patients presenting a suspicion of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Crit Care Med 37: 111–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Esperatti
  • A. López-Giraldo
  • A. Torres

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations