Advertisement

Positioning the Process Approach

  • Hans de Bruijn
  • Ernst F. ten Heuvelhof
  • Roel in ‘t Veld
Chapter

Abstract

How do these processes originate? How can we explain that issues that seem to be perfectly reconcilable with straightforward negotiation resulting in a clear deal, still develop into an unpredictable, seemingly never-ending process? The first reason is that in truly controversial cases it is impossible to start negotiating immediately. These issues have a past of negotiations and events that is so heavy with issues and failures that parties cannot simply rejoin the negotiation table. There is no longer any mutual trust, and trust cannot simply be restored by decree. Such negotiations therefore always have to be preceded by a process of ‘pre-negotiations’. If these proceed well, they result in agreements about the ‘real’ negotiations. Pre-negotiations are highly contentious and are characterized by their own specific arrangements. They are usually carried out by ‘unofficial representatives’, they proceed via ‘secret diplomacy’, and may result in ‘staged agreements’ [33].

On 13 September, 1993, Israelis and Palestinians signed the Oslo peace accords. Formal negotiations had commenced in Norway on 11 June 1993. But the move ‘to go to the table’ was preceded by months of unofficial dialogue between the two sides. And even these unofficial dialogues could not simply be initiated. They were preceded by years of careful overtures. The problem in such processes is that groups that do not trust each other and sometimes do not even recognize each other need to talk to each other, and require mutual affirmation of the fact that the negotiations matter and that the negotiation partners have a certain degree of authority. But their official position is that the other party does not even exist—and as a result, affirmation of authority is a contradiction in terms that undermines one’s own position. For how can any authority be assigned by a body that is not recognized and therefore has no authority itself?

For many years, so-called ‘unofficial representatives’ and ‘entrepreneurial co-mediators’ have made overtures towards each other. Unofficial representatives embody a critical combination of connections to important officials and unofficial status. They may for instance be authoritative academics who, under the veil of a scientific seminar, assess each others standpoints and test how far the other party is willing to go. Formally, these unofficial representatives have no governmental relationships. Both governments can easily dismiss any statements and concessions that the unofficial representatives make—although of course the governments can also take all the credit when it comes to potential successes.

Entrepreneurial co-mediators are ‘moderate partisans’ who reach out to moderate partisans on the other side. Often implicitly, they can build upon the work of the unofficial representatives. These overtures are highly contentious. If they became public, major unrest would immediately arise, and the negotiations would have to be stopped and even denied. At key moments in these negotiations, ‘guardians’ have to take control of the results. Guardians are top leaders who have established their credibility as protectors of their respective groups during crucial periods of danger and struggle. They possess the authority needed to gain widespread, grassroots support for the agreement. Rabin played this role on the Israeli side, and Arafat on the Palestinian side [33].

Keywords

Process Management Problem Definition Negotiation Process Land Reclamation Process Approach 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Barzelay M (2004) The process dynamics of public management policymaking. Int Public Manag J 6(3):251–281Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carpenter SL, Kennedy WJD (2001) Managing public disputes. practical guide for government, business, and citizens groups. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chisholm D (1989) Coordination without hierarchy. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cialdini RB (2001) Harnessing the science of persuasion. Harv Bus Rev Point Summer 79(9):72–79Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cohen MD, March JG, Olsen JP (1972) A garbage can model of organizational choice. Adm Sci Q 17(1):1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Crozier N, Friedberg E (1977) Actors and systems. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Bruijn JA (1999) Van sturing tot proces. In: in ‘t Veld RJ (ed) Sturingswaan & ontnuchtering. Lemma, Utrecht, pp 52–68Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Bruijn JA (2000) Processen van verandering. Lemma, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Bruijn JA, ten Heuvelhof EF, R.J. in ‘t Veld (1998) Procesmanagement: Besluitvorming over de milieu- en economische aspecten van verpakkingen voor consumentenprodukten, DelftGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Douglas M, Wildavsky A (1982) Risk and culture. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dunn WN (1981) Public policy analysis: an introduction. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fisher R, Ury W (1981) Getting to yes: negotiating agreement without giving in. Houghton Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gerrits LM (2008) The gentle art of coevolution. Erasmus Universiteit, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Giddens A (1994) Beyond left and right: the future of radical politics. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guinée J et al (2002) LCA, an operational guide to the ISO-standards. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Healey P (1998) Collaborative planning in a stakeholder society. Town Plann Rev 69(1):1–21Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hisschemöller M, Hoppe R, Dunn WN, Ravetz JR (eds) (2001) Knowledge, power and participation in environmental policy analysis: policy studies review annual. Transaction Publishers, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jordan AG, Schubert K (1992) A preliminary ordering of policy of network labors. Eur J Polit Res 21(1):7–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jordan AG (1990) Sub-governments policy communities and networks. J Theoret Polit 2(1):319–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kenis P, Schneider V (1991) Policy networks and policy analysis: scrutinizing a new analytical toolbox. In: Marin B, Mayntz R (eds) Policy networks, empirical evidence and theoretical considerations. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 26–59Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Klijn EH, Koppenjan JFM (2000) Interactive decision making and representative democracy: institutional collisions and solutions. In: van Heffen O et al. (eds) Governance in modern society. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 109–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kolb DM, Williams J (2008) Breakthrough bargaining. Harv Bus Rev Point 79(2):39–47Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Matthews WA, McKenzie RL (2006) Parallels and contrasts between the science of ozone depletion and climate change (unpublished)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pressman JL, Wildavsky AB (1973) Implementation: how great expectations in Washington are dashed in Oakland. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sebenius JK (1991) Designing negotiations toward a new regime. the case of global warming. Int Sec 15(4):110–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Simon HA (1976) From substantive to procedural rationality. In: Latsis S (ed) Method and appraisal in economics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 129–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Susskind L, McKearnan S, Thomas-Larner J (1999) The consensus building handbook. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Teisman GR (1992) Complexe besluitvorming: Een pluricentrisch perspectief op besluitvorming over ruimtelijke investeringen. Elsevier, Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Teisman GR (1997) Sturen via creatieve concurrentie. Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, NijmegenGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van den Donk W (1998) De arena in schema. Koninklijke Vermande, TilburgGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vaughan D (1996) The challenger launch decision: risky technology, culture, and deviance at NASA. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Watkins M (2003) Strategic simplification: toward a theory of modular design in negotiation. Int Negotiat 8(1):149–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Watkins M, Lundberg K (1998) Getting to the table in Oslo: driving forces and channel factors. Negotiat J 14(2):115–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Watkins M, Rosegrant S (2001) Breakthrough international negotiation: how great negotiators transformed the world’s toughest post-cold war conflicts. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Willke H (1993) Systemtheorie: Eine Einfuehrung in die Grundprobleme der Theorie Sozialer Systeme. Lucius & Lucius, StuttgartGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans de Bruijn
    • 1
  • Ernst F. ten Heuvelhof
    • 1
  • Roel in ‘t Veld
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Technology, Policy and ManagementDelft University of TechnologyBX DelftNetherlands
  2. 2.JH LeiderdorpNetherlands

Personalised recommendations