Advertisement

Uroonkologie pp 371-394 | Cite as

Nierenbecken- und Harnleiterkarzinom

  • Gerhard Jakse

Zusammenfassung

Etwa 10% der Tumoren des Harntraktes sind Nierenbecken- und Harnleitertumoren (Johansson u. Wahlqvist 1974; Skeet 1976). Mehr als 90% der bösartigen Tumoren sind Übergangszellkarzinome und entsprechen in ihrem Aufbau jenen Tumoren, die in der Blase anzutreffen sind (Almgaard et al. 1973; Batata et al. 1975; Bloom et al. 1970; Culp 1955; Das et al. 1990; Dufuour 1970; Fraley 1978). Das Verhältnis beträgt 1:1–3:20–60 (Nierenbecken: Harnleiter: Blase) (Chasko et al. 1981; McCredie et al. 1982). Nierenbecken- und Harnleitertumoren weisen spezifische Merkmale auf, die teilweise eine getrennte Betrachtung notwendig machen.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Abercrombie GF, Eardley I, Payne SR, WImsley BH, Vinnicombe J (1988) Modified nephro-ureterectomy. Long-Term follow-up with particular reference of subsequent bladder tumors. Br J Urol 61: 198–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abeshouse BS, Tankin LH (1956) Leuloplakia of the renal pelvis and the bladder. J Urol 76: 330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akaza H, Koiso K, Nijma T (1987) Clinical evaluation of urothelial tumors of the renal pelvis and ureter based on a new classification system. Cancer 59: 1369–1375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Almgaard LE, Freedman D, Ljungqvist A (1973) Carcinoma of the ureter. Scand J Urol Nephrol 7: 165–167Google Scholar
  5. Anderström C, Johansson SL, Pettersson S, Wahlqvist L (1989) Carcinoma of the ureter: a clinco-pathology study of 49 cases. J Urol 142: 280–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Andriole GL, McClennan BL, Picus D, Becich MJ (1988) The effect of low-osmolar contrast material on he interpretation of urinary cytology specimens. J Urol 139: 177A, 59Google Scholar
  7. Apostolov K, Spasic P, Bojanic N (1975) Evidence of a viral aetiology in endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. Lancet II: 1271Google Scholar
  8. Arger PH et al. (1979) Ultrasonic assessment of renal transitional cell carcinoma: preliminary report. AJR 132: 407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Aso Y, Ohtawara Y, Suzuki K et al. (1984) Usefulness of fiberoptiv pyeloureteroscope in the diagnosis of the upper urinary tract lesions. Urol Int 39: 55–357Google Scholar
  10. Aufderklamm S, Jakse G (1982) Die Therapie distaler Harnleitertumoren. Aktuel Urol 13: 252Google Scholar
  11. Badalament RA, O’Toole RV, Kenworthy P et al. (1990) Prognostic factors in patients with primary transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. J Urol 144: 859–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bagley DH, Rivas D (1990) Upper urinary ract filling defects: flexible ureteroscopic diagnosis. J Urol 143: 1196–1200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bagley DH, McCue P, Blackstone AS (1990) Inverted papilloma of renal pelvis: flexible ureteroscopic diagnosis and treatment. Urology 36/4: 336–338Google Scholar
  14. Bariol SV, Stewart GD, NcNeill SA, Tolley DA (2004) Oncological control following Iaparoscopic nephroureterectomy: 7-year outcome. J Urol 172: 1805–1808PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Baron RL, McClennan BL, Lee JKT et al. (1982) Computed tomography of transitional-cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis ans ureter. Radiology 144: 125–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Batata MA, Grastald H (1976) Upper urinary tract urothelial tujors. Urol Clin North Am 3: 79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Batata MA, Whitmore WF, Hilris BS, Tokita N, Grabstald H (1975) Primary carcinoma of the ureter: a prognostic study: Cancer 35: 1626–1632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bazeed MA, Schärfe T, Becht E, Alen P, Thüroff JS (1986) Local excision of urothelial cancer of the upper urinary tract. Eur Urol 12: 89–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bengtsson U, Angervall L, Ekman M, Lehmann L (1968) Transitional cell tumors ot eh renal pelvis in analgesic abusers. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2: 3Google Scholar
  20. Bergkvist A, Lungqvist A, Moberger G (1965) Classification of bladder tumors based on cellular pattern. Acta Chir Scand [Suppl] 130: 371Google Scholar
  21. Blaszyk H, Wang L, Dietmaier W, Hofstaedter F, Burgart LJ, Cheville JC, Hartmann A (2002) Upper tract urothelial carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study including microsatellite instability analysis. Mod Pathol 15(8): 790–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bloom NA, Vidone RA, Lytton B (1970) Primary carcinoma of the ureter: a report of 102 new cases. J Urol 103: 590–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Blute ML, Tsushima K, Farrow GM, Therneau TM, Lieber MM (1988) Transtional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis: nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid ploidy studies by flow cytometry. J Urol 140: 944–949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Blute ML, Segura JW, Patterson DE, Benson RC, Zincke H (1989) Impact of endourology on diagnosis and management of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer. J Urol 141: 1298–1301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brady LW, Gislason GH, Faust DS, Kazem I, Antoniades J, Davis JA (1986) Radiotherapy: a valuable adjunct in the manangement of carcinoma of the ureterGoogle Scholar
  26. Brkovic D, Jakse G (2001) Die Therapie des Harnleitertumors. UrologGoogle Scholar
  27. Brookland RK, Richter MM (1985) The postoperative irradiation of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. J Urol 133: 952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brown RC, Hawtrey CE, Pixley EE (1973) Brus biopsy of the renal pelvis. AJR 119: 779Google Scholar
  29. Burkland CE, Juzek RH (1966) Familial occurrence of carcinoma of the ureter. J Urol 96: 697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Butler WH, Barnes JM (1968) Carcinogenic action of ground nut meal containing aflatoxin in rats. Food Cosmet Toxicol 6: 135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Caoili EM, Cohan RH, Inampudi P, Ellis JH, Shah RB, Faerber GJ, Montie JE (2005) MDCT Urography of upper tract urothelial neoplasms. AJR 184: 18731881Google Scholar
  32. Carpinito GA, Stadler WM, Briggmann JV, et al: (1996) urinary nuclear metrix protein as a marker for transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract. J Urol 156: 1280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Charbit L, Cendearu M-C, Mee S, Cukier J (1991) Tumors of the upper urinary tract: 10 years of experience. J Urol 146: 1243–1246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chasko SB, Gray GF, McCarron JP (1981) Urothelial neoplasia of the upper urinary tract. Pathol Annu 16/2: 127–153Google Scholar
  35. Cibert J, Rigondet G, Gibert J (1960) Tumeurs de l’uretère. Abouchements ectopiques de l’uretére. In: Uretérocèles. Paris, MassonGoogle Scholar
  36. Clark PE, Streem SB, Geisinger MA. (1999) 13-year experience with percutaneous management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. J Urol 161: 772–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Clayman RV, Garske GL, Lange PH (1983) Total nephroureterectomy with ureteral intussusception and transurethral ureteral detachment and pull-through. Urology 21: 482–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Constantin HM, DeGirolami E (1973) Urohelial tumors detected by cytology: new cell block technique. J Urol 109: 304Google Scholar
  39. Corrado F, Ferri C, Mannini D et al. (1991) Transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urainary tract: evaluation of prognostiv factors by histopathology and flow cytometric analysis. J Urol 145: 1159–1163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cozad SC, Smalley SR, Austenfeld M et al. (1992) Adjuvant radiotherapy in high stage transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 24: 742–745Google Scholar
  41. Craciun EC, Rosculescu I (1970) On Danubian endemic familial nephropathy (Balken nephropathy). Some problems. Am J Med 49: 774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Carmer SF, Aukawa M Cebelin M (1994) Neurosecretory granules in small cell invasive carcinoma of the gallbladder. Hum Pathol 15: 639Google Scholar
  43. Culp OS (1955) Treatment of tumors of the renal pelvis and ureter. Trans Am Assoc Genitourin Surg 47: 692Google Scholar
  44. Czito B, Zietman A, Kaufman D, Skowronski U, Shipley W (2004) Adjuvant radiotherapy with an without concurrent chemotherapy for locally advances transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. J Urol 172: 1271–1275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Daneshmand S, Quek ML, Huffmann JL (2003) Endocopic management of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: long-term experience. Cancer 98: 55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Demonstrates the efficacy of ureterocopic treatment of low grade upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Also confirms the accuracy of ureteroscopic biopsies.Google Scholar
  47. Das AK, Carson CC, Bolick D, Pauson DF (1990) Primary carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Cancer 66: 1919–1923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Davis BW, Hough AJ, Gardner WA (1987) Renal pelvic carcinoma: morphological correlates of metastatic behaviour. J Urol 137: 857–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Deichgräber E, Johansson S (1975) Urothelial renal pelvic tumors in phenacetin abusers. Acta Radiol 16: 633Google Scholar
  50. Deming L, Harvard BM (1970) tumors of the kidney. In: Campbell MF, Harrison JN (eds) Campbell’s urology, vol 2, 3rd edn. Saunders. PhilidelphiaGoogle Scholar
  51. De Torres Mateos JA, Banus Gassol JM, Redorta JP, Robles JM (1986) Vesicorenal reflux and upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma after transurethral resection of recurrent superficial bladder carcinoma. J Urol 138: 49–51Google Scholar
  52. Dietmaier W, Wallinger S, Bocker T, Kullmann F, Fishel, Ruschoff J (1997) Diagnostic microsatellite instability: definition and correlation with sismatch repair proetin expression. Cancer Res. 57: 4749–4756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Droller MJ, Freiha FS (1977) Lokalization cytology in urothelial carcinoma. Urology 9: 276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dubach UC (1964) Kidney and drugs. Schweiz. Med Wochenschr 94: 1509–14.Google Scholar
  55. Dufour B (1970) Remarques sur 56 cas de tumours pyélo-calicielles. J Urol Nephrol 76: 3Google Scholar
  56. Eastham JA, Huffmann JL (1993) Technique of Mitomycin C instillation in the treatment of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors. J Urol 150: 324–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ekman P (1990) Tumors of the upper urinary system: diagnostic procedures. I: Murphy G, Khoury S, Chateloin C, Denis L (eds) Recent advances in urological cancers. Dignosis and treatment. III: Upper tract, Paris, pp 151–154Google Scholar
  58. El Fettouh HA, Rassweiler JJ, Schulze M et al. (2002) Laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy. Results of an international multicenter study. Eur Urol 42: 447–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Elliott DS, Segura JW, Lightner D, Petterson DE, Blute ML (2001) Is nephroureterectomy necessary in all cases of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma? Long-term results of conservative endourologic management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma in individuals with a normal contralateral kidney. Urology 58 (2): 174–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Elliott AY, Stein N, Fraley EE (1975) Techniques for cultivation of transitional epithelium from mammalian urinary bladder. In Vitro 5: 251Google Scholar
  61. Eriksson O, Johansson S (1976) Urothelial neoplasms of the upper urainry tract. Acta Cytol 20: 20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Essenfeld H, Manivel JC, Benedetto P, Albores-Saavedra J (1990) Small cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis: a clinocopathological, morphological and immunohistochemical study of 2 cases. J Urol 144: 344–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Fagerstrom DP (1948) Proliferative tumors of the ureter and renal pelvis, with further observations on the significance of epithelial cell nests. J Urol 59: 333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Falkenstein DB et al. (1975) Endoscopy of ureterointestinal conduis and retrograde pyelography. Gastrointest Endosc 22: 24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Fernandez Gomez JM, Barmadah SE, Perez GJ, Rabade Rey CJ, Rodriguez Martinez JJ (1998) Risk of tumor seeding after nephroureterectomy combined with endoscopic resection uf the ureteral meatus. Arch Esp Urol 51: 829–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Firstater M (1960) Pelvic renal tumor: concervative surgery, repeated pyelectomy. J Urol 84: 36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Foot NC, Papanicolaou GN (1949) Early renal carcinoma in situ. JAMA 139: 356Google Scholar
  68. Fraley EE (1978) Cancer or renal pelvis. In: Skinner DG, DeKernion JB (eds) Genitourinary cancer. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  69. Freimann DB, Ring EJ, Oleaga JA, Carpiniello VC, Wien AJ (1978) Thin needle biopsy in the diagnosis of ureteral obstruction with malignancy. Cancer 12: 714–716Google Scholar
  70. Friedell GH et al. (1976) Histopathology and classification of urinary bladder carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am 3: 53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gahagan HO, Reed WK (1949) Squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Three case reports and a review of the literature. J Urol 62: 139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Galindo I, Algaba F, Solé-Bacells F (1976) Adenocarcinomas pielocaliciales. An Fund Puigvert 6: 161Google Scholar
  73. Garufe A, Priolo GD, Coppolino F, Giammusso B, Materazzo S (1993) Computer tomography evaluation of urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. Radiol Med Torino 86: 489–495Google Scholar
  74. Gatewood OMB, Goldman SM, Marshall FF et al. (1982) Computerized tomography in the diagnosis of transitional-cell carcinoma of the kidney. J Urol 127: 876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gerber G, Lyon E (1993) Endourological management of upper tract urothelial tumors. J Urol 150: 2–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Gibson TE (1967) Local excision in ransitional cell tumors of the upper urinary tract. J Urol 97: 619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Gill IS, Sung GT, Hobart MG et al. (2000) Laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma: the Cleveland Clinic experience. J Urol 164: 1513–1522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gill WB, Lu CT, Thomsen S (1973) Retrograde brishing: a new technique for abtaining histologic and cytologic material from ureteral, renal pelvic, and renal caliceal lesions. J Urol 109: 573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Giovansili B, Peyromaure M, Saighi D, Dayma T, Zerrib M, Debre B (2004) Stripping technique for endoscopic management of distal ureter during nephroureterectomy: experience of 32 procedures: Urology 64: 448–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Gittes RF (1976) Operative nephroscopy. J Urol 116: 148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gittes RF (1979) Tumors of the ureter and renal pelvis. In: Campbell MF, Harrison JH (eds) Campbell’s urology. vol 2. Saunders, PhilalelphiaGoogle Scholar
  82. Goel MC, Mahendra V, Roberts JG (2003) Percutaneous management of renal pelvic urothelial tumors: long-term follow-up. J Urol 169: 925–930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gonzales J, Hashmat AI (1989) Severe hemorrhage secondary to primary, isolated in situ. Urology 34/1: 39–42Google Scholar
  84. Grabstald H, Whitmore WF Jr, Melamed M (1971) Renal pelvic tumors. JAMA 218: 845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Grace DA, Taylor WN, Taylor JN, Winter CC (1967) Carcinoma of the renal pelvis: a 15-year review. J Urol 98: 566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Grainger R, Gikas PW, Grossmann HB (1990) Urothelial carcinoma occurring within an inverted papilloma of the ureter. J Urol 143: 802–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gsell O (1958) Primary chronic interstitial nephritis in relation to the misuse of phenacetine. Bull Schweiz Akad Med Wiss 14: 124–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Guérin M, Chouroulinkor I, Rivière MR (1969) Experimental kidney tumors. In: Rouller C, Muller AF (eds) The kidney: morphology, biochemistry, physiology. vol 2. Acad Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  89. Guinan P, Randazzo R, Vogelzang N, Chmiel J, Sylvester J, Fremgen A and the Cancer Incidence and End Results Committee of the Illinois Division of the American Cancer Society (1990) Renal pelvic cancer: the Illinois experience and a review of the literature. In: Murphy G, Khoury S, Chateloin C, Denis L (eds) Recent advances in urological cancers. Diagnosis and Treatment. Ill Upper tract. Paris, pp 160–171Google Scholar
  90. Habuchi T, Takahashi R, Yamada H, Kakeki Y, Sugiyama T, Yoshida O (1993) Lancet 342: 1087–1088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hafner C, Knüchel R, Zanardo L, Diemaier W, Blaszyk H, Cheville J, Hofstaedter F, Hartmann A (2001) Evidence for oligoclonality and tumor spread by intraluminal seeding in multifocal urothelial carcinomas of the upper and lower urinary tract. Oncogene 20: 4910–4915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hannibal D, Gross-Fengels W, Hesse U (1991) Maligne Tumoren der normotopen Nieren und Harnleiter nach Nierentransplantation. ROFO 154; 5: 546–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hartmann A, Zanardo L, Bocker-Edmonston T, Blaszyk H, Dietmaier W, Stoehr R, Cheville JC, Junker K, Wieland W, Knuchel R, Rueschoff J, Hofstaedter F, Fishel R (2002) Frquent microsatellite instability in sporadic tumors of the upper urinary tract. Cancer Res 62: 6796–6802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Hastie KJ, Hamdy FC, Collins MC, Williams JL (1991) Upper tract tumours following cystectomy for bladder cancer. Is routine intravenous urography worthwhile. B J Urol 67: 29–31Google Scholar
  95. Hatch TR, Hefta TR, Barry JM (19897) Time-related recurrence rates in patients with upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. J Urol 140: 40–41Google Scholar
  96. Hattori R, Ono Y, Gotoh M, Yoshino Y, Ohshima S. (2003) Retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter: Nagoya experience. J urol 169 [Suppl 4]: 77Google Scholar
  97. Hauser S, Studer U (2001) Therapie des Nierenbeckenkarzinoms. UrologGoogle Scholar
  98. Hayashida Y, Nomata K, Noguchi M, Eguchi J, Koga S, Ymashita S, Hayashi M, Kanatake H (2005) Long-term effects of BCG-perfusion therapy for treatment of transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract. Urology 63: 1084–1088Google Scholar
  99. Heidegger H, Wächter S (1990) Die Endometriose des Ureters. Zentrabl Gynäkol 112: 779–784Google Scholar
  100. Hellsten S et al. (1980) Carcinoma in situ of the renal pelvis after cystectomy. Urol Int 35: 316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Herr HW, Cookson MS, Sloloway SM (1996) Upper tract tumors in patients with primary bladder cancer followed for 15 years. J Urol 156: 1286–1287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Herr HW, Whitmore WF (1987) Ureteral carcinoma in situ after successful intravesical therapy for superficial bladder tumors: incidence, possible pathogenesis and management. J Urol 138: 292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Hertel E, Egger B (1976) Die intraoperative Ureteropyeloskopie — ein Routineverfahren. Aktuel Urol 7: 343Google Scholar
  104. Hetherington JW, Ewing R, Philip NH (1986) Modified nephroureterectomy: a risk of tumour implantation. Br J Urol 58: 368–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Holmäng S, Johansson SL (2004) Synchronous bilateral ureteral and renal pelvic carcinomas: incidence, etiology, treatment and outcome. Cancer 101: 741–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Holmäng S, Johansson SL (2005) Tumours of the ureter an renal pelvis treated with resection and renal autotransplantation: a study with up to 20 years of follow-up. BJU Int. 95: 1201–1205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Holtz F (1962) Papillomas and primary carcinoma of the ureter. report of 20 cases. J Urol 88: 380–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Huben RP, Mounzer AM, Murphy GP (1988) Tumor grade and stage as prognostic variables in upper tract urothelial tumors. Cancer 62: 2016–2020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Huffman JL (1988) Ureteroscopic management of transitioncal cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Endourology update. Urol Clin North Am 15: 419–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Huguet-Perez J, Palou J, Millan-Rodriguez F, Salvador-Bayarri J, Villavicencio-Mavrich H, Vicente-Rodriguez J (2001) Upper tract transitional cell carcinoma following cystectomy for bladder cancer. Eur Urol 40: 318–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hultengren N, Lagergren C, Ljungqvist A (1965) Carcinoma of the renal pelvis in renal papillary necrosis. Acta Chir Sand [Suppl] 130: 314Google Scholar
  112. Humphreys GA, Foot NC (1960) Survival of patients following nephrectomy for renal cell and transitional cell tumors of the kindney. J Urol 83: 815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Imai T, Kimura M, Takeda M, Tomita Y (1995) Significance of epidermal growth factor receptor and c-erbB-2 protein expression in transitional cell cancer of the upper urinary tract for tumour recurrence at the urinary bladder. Br J Cancer 71(1): 69–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Inoue K, Kamada M, Slation JW, Fukata S, Yoshikawa C, Tamboli P, Dinney CPN, Shuin T (2202) The prognostic value of angiogenesis and metastasis-related genes for progression of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. Clin Cancer Res 8: 1863–1870Google Scholar
  115. Irie A, Iwamuara M, Kadowaki K, Ohkawa A, Uchida T, Baba S (2002) Intravesical instillation of Bacille Calmette-Guering for carcinoma in situ of the urothelium involving the upper urinary tract using vesicoreteral reflux created by a double-pigtal catheter. Urology 59: 53–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Jabbour ME, Desgrandchamps F, Cazin S et al. (2000) Percutaneous management of grade II upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: the long-term outcome. J Urol 163: 1105–1107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Jabbour ME, Smith, AD (2000) Primary percutaneous approach to upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am 27: 739–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Jakse G, Marberger H (1985) Tumors of the renal pelvis. In: Culp DA, Loening SA (eds) Genitourinary oncology. Lea & Febriger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  119. Jakse G, Schmid KW (1986) A case for preoperative chemotherapy in advanced urothelial cancer of the upper urinary tract. Eur Urol 12: 387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Jarrett TW, Sweetser PM, Weiss GH, Smith AD (1995) Percutaneous management of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal collecting system: 9-year experience. J Urol 154: 1629–1635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Jensen OM, Knudsen JB, McLaughlin JK, Soresen BL (1988) The Copenhagen case control study of renal pelvis and u reter cancer: role of smoking and occupational exposures. Int J Cancer 41: 557–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Johansson S, Wahlqvist L (1974) A prognostic study of urothelial renal pelvic tumors. Cancer 43: 2525Google Scholar
  123. Johansson S, Angervall L, Bengtsson U, Wahlqvist L (1974) Uroepithelial tumours of the renal pelvis associated with abuse of phnacetin-containing analgesics. Cancer 33: 743–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Johansson S, Angervall L, Bengtsson U, Wahlqvist L (1976) A clinocopathologic and prognostic study of epithelial tumors of the renal pelvis. Cancer 37: 1376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Johnson GB, Grasso M (2005) Ureteroscopic management of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. Curr Opin Urol 15: 89–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Johnson DE (1993) Treatment of distal ureteral tumors using endoscopic argon photoirradiation. Lasers Surg med 132: 490–493Google Scholar
  127. Kakizoe T et al. (1980) Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in patients with renal pelvic and ureteral cancer. J Urol 124: 17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kamai T, Kawakami S, Koga F, Arai G, Takagi K, Arai K, Tsujii T, Yoshida KI (2003) RhoA is associated with invasion and lymph node metastasis in upper urinary tract cancer. BJU Int. 91: 234–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kaufmann JJ, Walter PJ, Smith RB, Skinner DG (1979) Intracavitary mitomycin-C in the treatment of superficial urothelial tumors: a preliminary report. Trans Am Assoc Genitoruin Surg 71: 6Google Scholar
  130. Kawauchi A, Fujito A, Ukumura O, Yoneda K, Mizutani Y, Miki T (2003) Hand assisted retrpitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy: comparison with the open procedure. J Urol 169: 890–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Keeley FX, Kulp DA, Bibbo M et al. (1997) Diagnostic accuracy of ureteroscopic biopsy in upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. J Urol 157: 33–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Keely FX Jr, Bibbo M, Bagley DH (1997) Ureteroscopic treatment and surveillance of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. J Urol 157: 1560–1565Google Scholar
  133. Keely FX Jr, Kulp DA, Bibbo M, McCue PA, Bagley DH (1997) Diagnostic accuracy of ureteroscopic biopsy in upper tract ransitional cell carcinoma. J Urol 157: 33–37Google Scholar
  134. Kenney PJ. Stanley RJ (1987) Compute tomo graphy of ureteral tumors. J Comput Assist Tomogr 11: 102–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Kerbl K, Clayman RV (1993) Incision of the ureterovesical junction for endoscopic surveillance of transitional cell cancer of the upper urinary tract. J Urol 150: 1140–1143Google Scholar
  136. Khang CH, Yu TJ, Hsieh HH, Yang JW, Shu K, Huang CC, Chiang PH, Shiue YL (2003) The development of bladder tumors and contralateral upper urinary tract tumors after primary transitional cell carcinomal of the upper urainry tract. Cancer 98: 1620–1626Google Scholar
  137. Khang CH, Yu TJ, Hsieh HH, Yang JW, Shu K, Shiue YL (2004) Synchronous bilateral primary transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tracts. ten patients with more than five years of follow-up. Urology 63(2): 380–382Google Scholar
  138. Kiemeney LA, Schoenberg M (1996) Familial transitional cell carcinoma. J Urol 156: 867–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Kim YJ, Jeon SH, Huih JS, Chang SG (2004) Long-term follow-up of ureteral stump tumors after nephrectomy for benign renal disease. Eur Urol 46: 748–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Kim CK, Lin JI, Tseng CH (1984) Small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Ultra structural study. Urology 24: 384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Kimball FN, Ferris HW (1934) Papillomatous tumor of the renal pelvis associated with similar tumors of the ureter and bladder. J Urol 31: 257Google Scholar
  142. Kini U, Shariff S, Thomas JA (1991) Mixes mesodermal tumours of the ureter. J Surg Oncol 46: 208–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Krogh P, Hald B, Plestina R, Geovic S (1977) Balkan nephropathy and foodborne ochratoxin A: preliminary results of a survey of food-stuffs. Acta Pathol Micobiol Scand 85: 238Google Scholar
  144. Krogh J, Kvist E, Rye B (1991) Transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: prognostic variables and post-operative recurrences. Br J Urol 67: 32–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Kumon H, Tsugawa M, Matsumura Y, Ohmori H (1990) Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of chronic unilateral hematuria of uncertain etiology. J Urol 143: 554–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Kunin M, Goodwin WE (1990) The encases ureter: bullet and bodkin pattern, a reliable radiographic sign. Br J Urol 66: 471–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Landmann-Kolbert C, Ruthishauser G, Dubach UC (1975) Phenacetin-Abusus und Harnwegstumore. Urologe (A) 14: 75Google Scholar
  148. Leisinger HJ, Deyhle P (1974) Eine neue Methode zur Endoskopie und retrograden Pyelogrpahie beim lelumconduit. Urologe (A) 13: 267Google Scholar
  149. Leistenschneider W, Nagel R (1979) Lavage — Zytologie bei pathologischen Veränderungen in Nierenbecken und Harnleiter. Aktuel Uol 10: 35Google Scholar
  150. Leitenberger A, Beyer A, Altwein JE (1996) Organ sparing treatment for ureteral carcinoma. Eur Urol 29: 272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Li M, Cannizzaro A (1999) Hum Pathol 30: 1197–1200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Liatsikos EN, Dinlenc CZ, Kapoor RK, Smith AD (2001) Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis: ureteroscopic and percutaneous approach. J Endourol 15: 377–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Logothetis CJ, Dexeus FH, Finn L et al. (1990) A prospective, randomized trial comparing MVAC and CISCA chemotherapy for patients with metastatic urothelial tumors. J Clin Oncol 8: 1050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Lucero SP, Wise HA, Kirsh G, Devoe K, Hess ML, Kandawalla N, Drago JR (1988) Ureteric obstruction secondary to endometriosis. Report of three cases with a review of the literature. Br J Urol 61: 201–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Luciani L, Scappini P, Pusiol T, Piscioli F (1987) The role of aspiration cytology in the management of ureteral obstruction in patients with known cancer. Cancer 59: 1936–1946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Lynch CF, Cohen MB (1995) Urinary system. Cancer (Phila). 75: 316–329Google Scholar
  157. Lynch HT et al. (1979) Familial factors in bladder carcinoma. J Urol 122: 458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Lynch HT, Ens JA, Lynch JF (1990) The Lynch syndrome II and urological malignancies. J Urol 143: 24–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. MacAlpine JB (1947) Papillomatous discase of the renal pelvis. B r J Urol 35: 113Google Scholar
  160. Maier U, Mertl G, Pummer K et al. (1990) Organ-preserving surgery in patient with urothelial tumors of the upper urinary tract. Eurol Urol 18: 197–200Google Scholar
  161. Maier U, Mertl G, Pummer K, Höltl W, Tomschi W, Mrstik C, Elamm J, Petritsch P, Pum H, Riddabona M, Kaufmann F, Studler G, Dittel E, Donner G (1990) Organ-Preserving Surgery in Patients with Urothelial Tumors of the Upper Urinary-Tract. Eur Urol 18: 197–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Malden LT, Raghavan D, Eisinger D, Pearson BS (1988) Cancer of the upper urothelial tract. In: Raghavan D, MB BS (eds) The management of bladder cancer. Edward Arnold, Sydney, no 16, pp 300–316Google Scholar
  163. Markovic B (1972) Endemic nephritis and urinary tract ancer in Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Rumania J Urol 107: 212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Marshall VF (1952) The reation of the preoperative estimate of the pathologic demonstration of the extent of vesical neoplasm. J Urol 68: 714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Martinez-Pineiro JA, Garcia Matres MJ, Martinez-Pineiro L (1996) Endourological treatment of upper tract urothelial carcinomas: analysis of a series of 59 tumors. J Urol 156: 377–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Martinez-Pineiro JA, Garcia Matres J; Martinez-Pineiro L (1996) Endourological treatment of upper tract urothelial carcinomas: analysis of a series of 59 tumors. J Urol 156: 377–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Matsui Y, Utsunomiya N, Ichioka K, Ueda N, Yoshimura K, Terai A, Arai Y (2005) Risk factors for subsequent development of bladder cancer after primary transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Urology 65: 279–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Matsuoka K, Iida S, Tomiyasu K, Inoue M, Noda S (2003) Transurethral endoscopic treatment of upper urinary tract tumors using a holmium: YAG laser. Lasers Surg Med 32: 336–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Matthew DR (1985) Ultrasonography of the lower genitorurinary tract. Urologic Clin North Am 12/4: 645–656Google Scholar
  170. Maulard-Durdux C, Dufour B, Hennequin C, Chretien Y, Vignes B, Droz D et al. (1996) Postoperative radiation therapy in 26 patients with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: no impact on survival? J Urol 155: 115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Mazeman E (1972) Les tumours de la voie excrétrice urinaire supérieur. J Urol Nephrol [Suppl] 78Google Scholar
  172. Mazeman E (1976) Tumors of the upper urinary tract (clyces, renal pelvis and ureter): 1118 cases. Eur Urol 2: 120–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Mazeman E, Gilliot P (1989) Vesocorenal reflux and intravesical chemotherapy. Prog Clin Biol Res 303: 517–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. McCollough D, Lughlin AP (1972) Sqamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Am J Surg 124: 416Google Scholar
  175. McCarron JP, Chasko SB, Gray GF (1982) Systematic mapping of nephroureterectomy specimens removed for urothelial cancer: pathologic findings and clinical correlations. J Urol 128: 243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. McCredie M, Ford JM, Taylor JS, Stewart JS (1982) Analgesics and cancer of the renal pelvis in New South Wales. Cancer 49: 2617–2625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. McDonald HP, Ppchurch WE, Sturdevant CE (1952) Nephro-ureterectomy: a new technique. J Urol 67: 804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. McDonald JR, Priestley JT (1994) Carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Histopahologic study of 75 cases with special reference to prognosis. Urol 51: 245Google Scholar
  179. McLaughlin JK, Silverman DT, Hsing AW, Ross RK, Schoenberg JB, Yu MC, Stemhagen A, Lynch CE, Blot WE, Eraumeni JE (1992) Cigarette smoking and cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter. Cancer Res 52: 524–257Google Scholar
  180. McNeill A, Oakley N, Tolley DA, Gill SI (2004) Laparoskopc nephroureterectomy for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma: a critical appraisal. BJU Int 94: 259–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Melicow MM, Hollowell JW (1952) Intraurothelial cancer: carcinoma in situ. Bowens disease of the urinary system: discussion of thirty cases. J Urol 68: 763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Milan-Rodriguez F, Chechile-Toniolo G, Salvador-Bayarri J, Huguet-Perez J, Vicente-Rodriguez J (2000) Upper urinary tract tumors after primary superficial bladder tmors: prognostic factors and risk groups. J Urol 164: 1183Google Scholar
  183. Milestone B, Friedmann AC, Seidmon EJ, Radecke PD, Lev-Toaff AS, Caroline DF (1990) Staging of ureteral transitional cell carcinoma by CT and MRI. Urology 36/4: 346–349Google Scholar
  184. Miyakawa A, Tachibana M, Nakashima J, Deguchi N, Baba S, Tazaki H (1994) Flow cytometric bromodeoxyuridine/deoxyribonucleic acid bivarate analysis for predicting tumor invasiveness of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer. J Urol 152: 76–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Miyata Y, Kanda S, Nomata K. Hayashida Y, Kanetake H (2004) Expression of metalloproteinase-2, metalloproteinase-9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in transitional cell carcinoma of upper urinary tract: Correlation with tumor stage and survival. Urology 63: 602–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Mufti GR, Gove JR, Badenoch DF et al. (1989) Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. Br J Urol 63: 135–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Mulkens TH, Vereycken JA, Van Nueten JC, Govaerts GC, De Schepper AM, Van Camp KO, Van Marck EA (1990) Bilateral ureteral inverted papillomas in association with bladder carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Urol Radiol 12: 154–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Murphy DM, Zincke H, Furlow WL (1981) Management of high grade transitional cell cancer of the upper urinary tract. J Urol 125: 25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Murphy WM, Von Buedingen RP, Poley RW (1974) Primary carcinoma in situ of renal pelvis an ureter. Cancer 34: 1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Nagel R, Bargenda B (1967) Primäre Nierenbeckentumoren. Urologe (A) 6: 74Google Scholar
  191. Naib ZM, Powder JR, Young JD (1963) Cytologcial diagnosis of an early, grossly invisible transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. J Urol 89: 866Google Scholar
  192. Nakanishi K, Kawai T, Aida S, Kasamatsu H, Aurues T, Ikeda T (2001) Expression of p27 (Kip1)protein in transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Mod Pathol 14(5): 371–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Nakanishi K, Tominaga S, Kawai T, Torikata C, Aurues T, Ikeda T (1998) Expression of bcl-2 oncoprotein in transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Virchows Arch 432(5): 445–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Nakanishi K, Kawai T, Torikata C (1996) Immunohistochemical evaluation of p53 oncoprotein in transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Hum Pathol 27(2): 1136–1140Google Scholar
  195. Nakanishi K, Kawai T, Torikata C, Aurues T, Ikeda T (1997) E-cadherin expression in upper-urinary-tract carcinoma. Int J Cancer 74(4): 446–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Nakanishi K, Hiroi S, Tominaga S, Aida S, Kasamatsu H, Matsuyama S, Masuyama T, Kawai T (2005) Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein predicts survival in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Clin Cancer Res 11(7): 2583–2590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Narumi Y, Sato Tadayuki, Hon S et al. (1989) Sqamous cell carcinoma of the uroepithelium: CT evaluation. Radiology 173: 853–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Naumann HN, Sabatini SA (1953) Cholestaetoma of kidney simulating sqamous cell carcinoma. J Urol 69: 467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Nemoto R, Hattori K, Sasaki A, Miyanaga N, Koiso K, Harada M (1989) Estimations of the S phase fraction in situ in transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter with bromodeoxy-uridine labelling. Br J Urol 64: 339–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Netto NR, Almeida Claro JF (1990) Ct scanning in the diagnosis of pevicalyceal filling defects. Arch Exp Urol 43/6: 683–685Google Scholar
  201. Nolte-Ernsting CCA, Tacke J, Adam GB et al. (2001) Diuretic-enhanced gadolinium excretory MR urography: comparison of conventional gradient-echo sequences and echo-planar imaging. Eur Radiol 11: 18–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Nonomura N, Ono Y, Nozawa M, Fukui T, Harada Y, Nishimura K, Takaha N, Takahara S, Okuyama A (2000) Bacillus Calmette-Guerin perfusion therapy for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract. Eur Urol 38(6): 701–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Ochsner MG, Brannan W, Pond HS, Collins HT (1974) Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pevis und ureter. Urology 4: 392–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Okubo K, Ichioka K, Terada N, Matsuta Y, Yoshimura K, Arai Y (2001) Intrarenal bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract: long-term follow-up and natural course in cases of failure. BJU Int 88(4): 343–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Oldbring J, Hellstein S, Lindholm K, Mikulowski P, Tribukait B (1989) Flow DNA analysis in the chararacterization of carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. Cancer 64: 2141–2145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Orihuela E, Smith AD (1988) Percutaneous treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Endourology update. Uol Clin North Am 15: 425–431Google Scholar
  207. Palou J, Rodriguez-Rubio F. Huguet J, Segarra J, Ribal MJ, Alcaraz A, Villavicencio H (2005) Multivariate analysis of clinical parameters of synchronus primary superficial bladder cancer and upper urinary tract tumor. J Urol 174: 859–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Park S, Hong B, Kim CS, Ahn H (2004) The impact of tumor location on prognosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Urol 171: 621–625Google Scholar
  209. Parker MD, Rebsamen S, Clark RL (1989) Muliple ureteral diverticula: a possible radio graphically demonstrable risk factor in development of transitional cell carcinoma. Urol Radiol 11: 45–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Patel A, Soonawalla P, Shepherd SF et al. (1996) Long-term outcome aftger percutaneous treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. J urol 155: 868–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Patel A, Fuchs GJ (1998) New techniques for the administration of topical adjuvant therapy after endoscopic ablation of uppe urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. J urol 159: 71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Patel A, Soonawalla P, Shepherd FS, Dearnaley DP, Kellett MJ, Woodhouse CRJ (1996) Long-termin outcome after percutaneous treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. J Urol 155: 868–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Pecqueux JC, Schwarz A, Dieckmann KP, Offermann G (1990) Cancer incidence in patients on chronic dialysis and in renal transport recipients. Urol Int 45: 290–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Pedersen E (1969) The incidence of cancer in Norway. 1964–1966. Oslo. Norway. The Norwegian Cancer SocietyGoogle Scholar
  215. Peltomaki P, Vasen HF (1997) Mutations predisposing to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: database and results of a collaborative study. The International Collaborative Group on Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer: Gastroenterology 113: 1146–1158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Petersen I, Ohgaki H, Ludeke BI, Kleihues P (1993) p53 mutations in phenacitin associated human urothelial carcinomas. Carcinogenesis 14: 2119–2122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Petkovic S, Mutavdzic M, Petronic VL, Markovic V (1971) Tumors of the renal pelvis ureter: clinical and etiologic studies. J Urol Nephrol 77: 429Google Scholar
  218. Petterson S, Aamot P, Brynger N, Johansson S, Nilson AE, Ranch T (1981) Extracorporal renal surgery, autotransplantation and calicovesicostomy for renal pelvic an ureteric tumors. Scand J Urol Nephrol [Suppl] 60: 33–35Google Scholar
  219. Planz B, George R, Adam G, Jakse G, Planz K (1996) Computed tomography for detection and staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Eur Urol im DruckGoogle Scholar
  220. Plavio DHB, Andersen JC, Falk E (1987) Transitional cell tumors of the renal pelvis and ureter associated with capillosclerosis indicating analgesic abuse. Cancer 59: 972–976Google Scholar
  221. Porpaczy P (1979) Ursachen und Folgen langjähriger Einnahme phenacetinhaltiger Angalgetika aus der Sicht des Urologen. Wien Klein Wochenschr [Suppl] 91: 104Google Scholar
  222. Rabinowitz JG et al. (1972) Renal pelvic carcinoma. Radiology 102: 551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Ranch T, Granerus G, Henriksson C, Pettersson S (1989) Renal function after autotransplantation with direct pyelocystostomy. Long-term follow-up. Br J Urol 63: 233–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Rassweiler JJ, Schulze M, Marrero R, Frede T, Redorta JP, Bassi PF (2004) Lapaorcopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: is it better than open surgery? Eur Urol 46: 690–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Rathert P, Melchior H, Lutzeyer W (1975) Penaceton: a carcinogen for the urinary tract. J urol 113: 653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Recloux P, Weiser M, Piccart M, Sculier JP (1988) Ureteral obstruction in patients with breast cancer. Cancer 61: 1904–1907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Reitelmann C, Sawczuk IS, Olsson CA, Puchner PJ, Benson MC (1987) Prognostic variables in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and proximal ureter. J Urol 138: 1144–1145Google Scholar
  228. Resseguie JL, Nobrega G, Farrow GM, Timmons JW, Worobec TG (1978) Epidemiology of renal and ureteral cancer in Rochester. Minnesota, 1950–1974 with special reference to clinical and pathologic features. Mayo Clinic Proc 5: 503–510Google Scholar
  229. Riches EW (1964) Tumours of the kidney and ureter. Churchill Livingstone, EdingburghGoogle Scholar
  230. Richmond HG, Robb WAT (1967) Adenocarcinoma of the ureter secondary to ureteritis cystica. Br J Urol 39: 359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Röckelein G, Sebeikat D, Hecken-Emmel M (1989) Primäres Chondrosarkom des Ureters. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 49: 1868–1871Google Scholar
  232. Roll WA (1960) Cystitis glandularis as a cause of hydronephrosis. J Urol 84: 76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Landolph J, Gerkins V, Henderson BE (1989) Analgesics, cigarette smoking, an other risk factgors for cancer of the renal pelvis und ureter. Cancer Res 49: 1045–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Rosvanis TH, Rohner TJ, Abt AB (1989) Transitional cell carcinoma in an ileal conuit. Cancer 63: 1233–1236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Salvador-Bayarri J, Rodriguez-Villamil L, Imperatore V, Redorta JP, Villavicenciop-Mavrich H, Vicente-Rodriguez J (2002) Bladder neoplasms after nephrotureterectomy: does the surgery of the lower ureter, transurethral resection or open surgery, influence the evolution? Eur Urol 41: 30–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Sanders RC (1975) Renal ultrasound. Radiol Clin North Am 13: 417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Sarnacki CT et al. (1971) urinary cytology and the clinical diagnosis of urinary tract malignancy. A clinicopathologic study of 1400 patients. J Urol 106: 761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Say CC, Hori JM (1974) Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. J Urol 112: 438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Scher HI, Yagoda A, Herr HW et al. (1987) Neoadjuvant M-Vac (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin) for extravesical urinary tract tumors. J Urol 139: 475–477Google Scholar
  240. Schilling A, Böwerung R, Keiditsch E (1986) Use of the neodymium-YAG laser in the treatment of ureteral tumors and urethral condylomata acuminate. Eur Urol 12 [Suppl] 1: 30–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Schmeller NT, Hofstetter AG (1989) Laser treatment of ureteral tumors. Jurol 141: 840–843Google Scholar
  242. Schultz RE, Boyle DE (1988) Inverted papilloma of the upper urinary tract. Urology 28: 58–61Google Scholar
  243. Scott WW, Boyd HL (1955) A study of the carcinogenic effect of beta-naphthylamine on the normal and substituted isolated simoid loop bladderof dogs. J Urol 70: 6Google Scholar
  244. Sekine H, Fukui I, Yamada T, Kihara K, Ishizaka K, Ohshima H (1991) Clinicopathological study of upper urinary tract tumors associated with bladder tumors. Eur Urol 19: 19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Sharma NK, Nicol A, Powell CS (1994) Tract infiltration following percutaneous resection of renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma. Br urol 73: 597–598Google Scholar
  246. Sharpe JR, Duffy G, Chin JL (1993) Intrarenal bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for upper urinary tract carcinoma in situ. J Urol 149 (3): 459–460Google Scholar
  247. Sheline M, Amendola MA, Pollack HM, Banner MP, de las Morenas W, Wein AJ (1989) Fluoroscopically guided retrograde brush biopsy in the diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: results in 45 paitents: AJR 153: 313–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Shiina H, Igawa M, Nagami H, Yagi H, Urakami S, Yoneda T, Shirakawa H, Ishibe T, Kawanishi M (1996) Immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53 protein and nm23 protein, and nucklear DNA content in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. 78(8): 1762–1764Google Scholar
  249. Shinka T, Uekado Y, Aoshi H, Hirano A, Ohkawa T (1988) Occurrence of uroepithelial tumors of the upper urinary tract after the initial diagnosis of bladder cancer. J Urol 140: 745–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Sijmons RH, Kiemeney LA, Witjes JA, Vasen HF (1998) Urinary tract cancer and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: risks and screening options. J Urol 160: 466–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Skeet RG (1976) Epidemiology of urogenital tumors. I: Williams DI, Chisholm GD (eds) Scientific foundations of urology, vol. 2 Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  252. Skinner DG (1978) Technique of nephroureterectomy with regional lymph node dissection. Urol Clin North Am 5: 253Google Scholar
  253. Skolarikos A, Griffiths TRL, Powell PH, Thomas DJ, Neal DE, Kelly JD (2003) Cytologic analysis of ureteral washings is informative in patients with grade 2 upper tract TCC considering endoscopic treatment. Urology 61: 1146–1150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Smith AD, Orohuela E, Crowley AR (1987) Percutaneous management of renal pelvic tumors: a treatment option in selected cases. J Urol 137: 852–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Smithb AY, Vitale PJ, Lowe BA, Woodside JR (1987) Treatment of superficial papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter by vesicoureteral reflux of mitomycin C. J Urol 138: 1231–1233Google Scholar
  256. Soloway MS, Myers GH, Burdick JF, Malmgren RA (1972) Ileal conduit exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of recurrent cancer. J Urol 107: 835–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Solsona E, Iborra I, Ricos JV, Dumont R, Casanova JL, Calabuig C (1997) Upper urinary tract involvement in patients with bladder carcinoma in situ (Tis): its impact on management. Urology 49: 347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Sorahan T, Sole G (1990) Coarse fishing and urothelial cancer: a regional case-control study. Br J Cancer 62: 138–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Steffens J, Nagel R (1988) Tumours of the renal pelvis and ureter observations in 170 patients. Br J Urol 61: 277–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Stemmermann GN, Yoshizawa CN, Nomura AMY, Kolonel LN (1990) Urothelial cancer in white and Japanese patients in Hawai: pathology. J urol 144: 44–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Stewart GD, Bariol SV, Grigor KM Tolley DA, McNeill SA (2005) A comparison of the pathology of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and upper urinary tract. BJ Int 95: 791–793Google Scholar
  262. Stillwell TJ (1986) Endometriosis of ureter. Urology 28: 81–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Storey BG, Mahony JF, Stewaart JH (1977) Carcinoma of the upper urinary tract associated with analgesic nephropathy. Br J Urol 49: 242Google Scholar
  264. Stower MJ, Jaclver AG, Gingell JC, Clarke E (1990) Inverted papilloma of the ureter with malignant change. Br J Urol 65: 13–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Stragier M et al. (1980) Pimary carcinoma in situ of renal pelvis and ureter. Br J Urol 52: 401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Streem SB (1995) Percutaneous management of upper-tract transitional cell carcinoma. UJrol Clin North Am 22/1: 221Google Scholar
  267. Strong DW, Pearse HD (1976) Recurrent urothelial tumors following surgery for transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Cancer 38: 2178Google Scholar
  268. Strong DW, Pearse HD, Tank ES, Hodges CV (1976) The ureteral stump after nephroureterectomy. J Urol 115: 654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Studer UE, Casanova G, Kraft R, Zingg EJ (1989a) Percutaneous Bacillus Calmette-Guerin perfusion of the upper urinary tract for carcinoma in situ. J Urol 142: 975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Studer UE, Casanova G, Kraft R, Zingg EJ (1989b) Percutaneous BCG perfusion of the upper urinary tract for carcinoma in situ. EORTC GU Group Monograph 6: 207–212Google Scholar
  271. Subramanyam BF, Raghavendra BN, Madamba MR (1982) Renal transitional-cell carcinoma: sonographic and pathologic correlation. J Clin Ultrasound 10: 203–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Takebayashi S, Hosaka M, Kubata Y et al. (2000) Computerised tomogrpahic ureteroscopy for diagnosing ureteral tumours. J Urol 163: 42–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Takahashi T, Kakehi Y, Mitsumori K, Akao T, Terachi T, Kato T, Ogawa O, Habuchi T (2001) J Urol 165: 672–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Tasca A, Zattoni F (1990) The case for a percutaneous approach to transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. J Urol 143: 902–905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Taylor SJ (1972) Analgesics and carcinoma of the kidney. Br J Urol 44: 126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Terrell RB, Cheville JC, See WA, Cohen MB (1995) Histopathological features and p53 nuclear protein staining as predictors of survival and tumor recurrence in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. J Urol 154(4): 1348–1350Google Scholar
  277. Thalmann GN, Markwalder R, Walter B, Stuider UE (2002) Long-term experience with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy fo upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma in patients not eligible for surgery. J Urol 168: 1381–1385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Theodorakis J, Klammert R, Kriegmair M (1994) Laserkoagulationsbehandlung von Urotheltumoren des oberen Urogenitaltrakts mit dem Nd:-YAG Laser. Urologe [A] 33: 303–307Google Scholar
  279. Tomera KM, Leary FJ, Zincke H (1982) Pyeloscopy in urothelial tumors. J Urol 127: 1088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Trattner HR (1948) Instrumental visualization of the renal pelvis and its communications. J Urol 60: 817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Union Inernational Contre le Cancer (1978) TNM-classification of malignant tumors, 5rd. end. Harmer MH (ed) Union International Contre le Cancer, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  282. Ubrig B, Boening M, Wakdber M, Roth S (2004) Transurethral approach to the distal ureter in nephroureterectomy: transurethral extraction vs. “Pluck” technique with long-term follow-up. Eur Urol 46: 741–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Urz DC, McDonald JR (1957) Squamous cell carcinoma of the kidney. J Urol 78: 540Google Scholar
  284. Vuori J, Alfthan O, Oravisto KJ, Mäkinen J (1977) Carcinoma in situ of the renal pelvis. Scand J urol Nephrol 11: 85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Wagle DC, Moore RH, Murphy GP (1974) Squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. J Urol 111: 453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Wallace DMA, Wallace DM, Whitfield HN, Hendry WF, Wickham JEA (1981) The late results of conservative surgery for upper tract urothelial carcinomas. Br J Urol 53: 537–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Wallace FJ (1963) Fiberoptiv endoscopy. J Urol 90: 324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Walsh IK, Keane PF, Ishak LM, Flessland KA (2001) The BTA stat TEST: A tumor marker for the detection of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Urology 58: 532–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Walzer Y, Soloway MS (1983) Should the follow-up of patients with bladder cancer include routine excretory urography? J Urol 130:672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Ward AM (1971) Glandular neoplasia within the urinary tract. The aetiology of adenocarcinoma of the urothelium with a review of the litgerature. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat 352: 296Google Scholar
  291. William BC, Mitchell JP (1973) Carcinoma of the renal pelvis: a review of 43 cases. Br J Urol 54: 370–376Google Scholar
  292. Woodhouse CRJ, Kellet MJ, Bloom HJG (1996) Percutaneous management of renal surgery and local radiotherapy in the management of renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma Br J urol 58: 245–249Google Scholar
  293. World Health Organization (1973) Histological typing of urinary bladder tumours. Mostofi FK, Sobin LH, Torlone H (eds) Word Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  294. Wu WJ, Liu LT, Huang CN et al. (2000) The clinical implications of telomerase activity in upper tract urothelial cancer and washings. BJU Int 86: 213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Yousem DM, Gatewood OMB, Goldman SM, Marshall FF (1988) Synchronous und metachronous transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract: pevlance, incidence, and radiographic detection. Radiology 167: 613–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Ziegelbaum M, Novick AC, Streem SB et al. (1987) Conservative surgery for transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. J Urol 138: 1146–1149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Zincke H et al. (1976) Sginificance of urinary cytology in the early detection of transitional cell cancer of the upper urinary tract. J Urol 116: 871–874Google Scholar
  298. Zincke H, Garbeff PJ, Beahrs JR (1984) Upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. J Urol 131: 50–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Zungri E, Chéchile G, Algabe F, Diaz I, Vilá F, Castro C (1990) Treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter: is the controversy justified. Eur Urol 17: 276–280PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard Jakse
    • 1
  1. 1.Aubel

Personalised recommendations