Quaternary Geomorphology in India: Concepts, Advances and Applications

  • Balai Chandra Das
  • Sandipan GhoshEmail author
  • Aznarul Islam
Part of the Geography of the Physical Environment book series (GEOPHY)


This chapter deals with the critical review and summary of current advances and application of Quaternary geomorphology in Indian landscapes, specifically in the Lower Ganges Basin (LGB). Unfortunately, the LGB and Ganga–Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) perhaps are getting least attention by the practitioners of earth sciences and there is very little understanding of this Neogene–Quaternary morpho-stratigraphic unit from the perspectives of physical geography. Recently, the branch of Quaternary geomorphology has enough efficiency to analyse the Quaternary—Recent changes and records in the earth surfaces and the anthropogenic influence on the landforms and processes during recent times. Here, we have discussed and reviewed the key strengths of Quaternary geomorphology to re-explore the dynamic physical entities of the Ganges Basin, viz, Late Quaternary geomorphic, geological and climatic changes (e.g. palaeogeography, palaeoflood and fluvial response to climate, etc.), tectonic geomorphology (e.g. impact of active tectonics on the morphology of alluvial rivers and deltas, etc.), the links between fluvial processes and forms (e.g. variable fluvial regime and floodplain stratigraphy, channel shifting, fluvial geomorphology and arsenic contamination, gully erosion and sedimentation, etc.) and impact of anthropogenic activities on the rivers of LGB (e.g. embankment and bank erosion, dams and floods, groundwater contamination, etc.). The present volume, related to LGB, contains eleven significant chapters which are focused precisely on these above aspects using different geospatial techniques and quantitative analysis.


Quaternary geomorphology Anthropocene Active tectonics Palaeoclimate Ganga–Brahmaputra Delta Lower Ganges Basin 


  1. Acharyya SK, Shah BA (2007) Groundwater arsenic contamination affecting different geologic domains in India—a review: influence of geological setting, fluvial geomorphology and Quaternary stratigraphy. J Environ Sci Health 42(12):1795–1805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acharyya SK, Shah BA (2010) Groundwater arsenic pollution affecting deltaic West Bengal, India. Curr Sci 99(12):1784–1787Google Scholar
  3. Bandyopadhyay S, Das S, Kar NS (2015) Discussion paper: ‘Changing river courses in the western part of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta’. Geomorphology 250:442–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basu P (1992) Morphology of Silai River in Garbeta area and evolution of its gully basins with reference to lateritization. Geogr Rev India 54(2):47–52Google Scholar
  5. Bhattacharyya T, Babu R, Sarkar D, Mandal C, Dhyani BL, Nagar AP (2007) Soil and crop productivity model in humid sub-tropical India. Curr Sci 93(10):1397–1403Google Scholar
  6. Bilham R (2015) Raising Kathmandu. Nat Geosci 8:582–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blum MD, Tornqvist TE (2000) Fluvial response to climate and sea-level change: a review and look forward. Sedimentology 47:12–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bose M (2014) From morphostratigraphy to chronostratigraphy—modern Quaternary geomorphology as a basic for climatic research. Quat Geomorphol 20(4):303–306Google Scholar
  9. Bournman RP (1993) Perennial problems in the study of laterite: a review. Aust J Earth Sci 40(4):387–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown AG (2001) Alluvail geoarchaeology—floodplain archaeology and environmental change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  11. Chakraborty T, Kar R, Ghosh P, Basu S (2010) Kosi megafan: historical records, geomorphology and the recent avulsion of the Kosi River. Quatern Int 227:143–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cohen KM, Finney SC, Gibbard PL (2015) International choronostratigraphic chart. ICSGoogle Scholar
  13. Cordier S, Briant B, Bridge D, Herget J, Maddy D, Mather A, Vandenberge J (2017) The Fluvial Archives Group: 20 years of research connecting fluvial geomorphology and palaeoenvironments. Quatern Sci Rev 166:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cox RT (1994) Analysis of drainage-basin symmetry as a rapid technique to identify areas of possible Quaternary tilt-block tectonics: an example from the Mississippi Embayment. Geol Soc Am Bull 106:571–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crutzen PJ (2002) Geology of mankind. Nature 415:23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dong Y, Xiong D, Su Z, Li J, Yang D, Zhai J, Lu X, Liu G, Shi L (2013) Critical topographic threshold of gully erosion in Yuanmou dry-hot valley in southwestern China. Phys Geogr 34(1):50–59Google Scholar
  17. Friend PF, Sinha R (1993) Braiding and meandering parameters. In: Best JL, Bristow C (eds.) Braided rivers. Geological Society Special Publications No. 75, London, pp 105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fryirs KA, Brierley GJ (2013) Geomorphic analysis of river systems: an approach to reading the landscape. Wiley-Blackwell, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  19. Ghosh R, Bera S, Sarkar A, Paruya DK, Yao Y, Li C (2015) A ~50 ka record of monsoonal variability in the Darjeeling foothill region, eastern Himalayas. Quatern Sci Rev 114:100–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ghosh S, Bhattacharya K (2012) Multivariate erosion risk assessment of lateritic badlands of Birbhum (West Bengal, India): a case study. J Earth Syst Sci 121(6):1441–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ghosh S, Guchhait SK (2012) Soil loss estimation through USLE and MMF methods in the lateritic tracts of eastern plateau fringe of Rajmahal Traps, India. Ethiop J Environ Stud Manag 5(4):529–541Google Scholar
  22. Ghosh S, Guchhait SK (2016) Dam-induced changes in flood hydrology and flood frequency of Tropical River: a study in Damodar River of West Bengal, India. Arab J Geosci 9:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ghosh S, Islam A (2016) Quaternary alluvial stratigraphy and palaeoclimatic reconsyruction in the Damodar River Basin of West Bengal. In: Das B, Ghosh S, Islam A, Ismail M (eds) Neo-thinking on Ganges-Brahmaputra basin geomorphology. Springer, Switzerland, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  24. Goff P (2017) Quaternary geomorphology and landscapes. In: Richardson D, Castree N, Goodchild MF, Kobayashi A, Liu W, Marston RA (eds) The encyclopedia of geography. Wiley, New York, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  25. Grapes RH, Oldroyd D, Grigelis A (eds) (2008) History of geomorphology and quaternary geology. Geological Society Special Publication No 301, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Holbrook J, Schumm SA (1999) Geomorphic and sedimentary response of rivers to tectonic deformation: a brief review and critique of a tool for recognizing subtle epeirogenic deformation in modern and ancient settings. Tectonophysics 305:287–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jacques PD, Salvador ED, Machado R, Grohmann CH, Nummer AR (2014) Application of morphometry in neotectonic studies at the eastern edge of the Paraná Basin, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Geomorphology 213:13–23. Scholar
  28. Jain V, Sinha R (2005) Response of active tectonics in the alluvial Baghmati River, Himalayan foreland basin, eastern India. Geomorphology 70:339–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jha VC, Bairagya HP (2011) Flood plain evaluation in the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta: a tectonic review. Ethiop J Environ Stud 4(3):12–24Google Scholar
  30. Jha VC, Kapat S (2009) Rill and gully erosion risk of lateritic terrain in south-western Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. Rev Soc Nat 21(2):141–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jha VC, Kapat S (2011) Degraded lateritic soilscape and land uses in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. Rev Soc Nat 23(3):545–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kale V (2012) On the link between extreme floods and excess monsoon epochs in South Asia. Clim Dyanmics 39:1107–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kale VS (2002) Fluvial geomorphology of Indian Rivers: an overview. Prog Phys Geogr 26:400–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kale VS (2003) Geomorphic effects of monsoon floods on Indian rivers. Nat Hazards 28:65–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kale VS (2005) Fluvial hydrology and geomorphology of monsoon-dominated Indian rivers. Rev Brasil Geomorfol 6(1):63–73Google Scholar
  36. Kale VS (2007) Fluvio-sedimentary response of the monsoon-fed Indian rivers to Late Pleistocene–Holocene changes in monsoon strength: reconstruction based on existing 14C dates. Quatern Sci Rev 26:1610–1620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kale VS (2008) Palaeoflood hydrology in the Indian context. J Geol Soc India 71:56–66Google Scholar
  38. Kale VS, Achyutha H, Jaiswal MK, Sengupta S (2010) Palaeoflood records from upper Kaveri River, southern India: evidence for discrete floods during Holocene. Geochronometria 37:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kale VS, Joshi VU (2004) Evidence of formation of potholes in bedrock on human timescale: Indrayani River, Pune district, Maharastra. Curr Sci 86(5):723–726Google Scholar
  40. Kale VS, Mishra S, Baker VR (1997) A 2000-year palaeoflood record from Sakarghat on Narmada, central India. J Geol Soc India 50(3):283–288Google Scholar
  41. Kale VS, Mishra S, Baker VR (2003) Sedimentary records of palaeofloods in the bedrock gorges of the Tapi and Narmada rivers, central India. Curr Sci 84(8):1072–1079Google Scholar
  42. Kale VS, Sengupta S, Achyuthan H, Jaiswal MK (2014) Tectonic controls upon Kaveri River drainage, cratonic Peninsular India: inferences from longitudinal profiles, morphotectonic indices, hanging valleys and fluvial records. Geomorphology 227:153–165. Scholar
  43. Kale VS, Singhvi AK, Mishra PK, Banerjee D (2000) Sedimentary records and luminescence chronology of Late Holocene palaeofloods in the Luni River, Thar Desert, northwest India. CATENA 40:337–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kar A, Bandyopadhyay MK (1974) Mechanisms of rills: an investigation in microgeomorphology. Geogr Rev India 36(3):204–215Google Scholar
  45. Keller EA, Pinter N (1996) Active Tectonics: earthquakes, uplift and landscape. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  46. Lewis SL, Maslin MA (2015) Defining the anthropocene. Nature 519:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lowe J, Walker M (2015) Reconstructing quaternary environments. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Macklin MG, Lewin J, Woodward JC (2012) The fluvial record of climate change. Philos Trans R Soc 310:2143–2172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Malik JN, Mohanty C (2007) Active tectonic influence on the evolution of drainage and landscape: geomorphic signatures from frontal and hinterland areas along the north western Himalayas, India. J Asian Earth Sci 29:604–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mather A (2011) Interpreting quaternary environment. In: Gregory KJ, Goudie AS (eds) The Sage handbook of geomorphology. Sage, London, pp 513–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Meadows ME (2016) Geomorphology in the Anthropocene: perspectives from the past, pointers for the future? In: Meadows ME, Lin J (eds) Geomorphology and society. Springer, New York, pp 7–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Miall AD (2014) Fluvial depositional systems. Springer, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mishra S, Naik S, Rajaguru SN, Deo S, Ghate S (2003) Fluvial response to late Quaternary climate changes: case studies from upland Maharastra. Proc Indian Natl Sci Acad 69:185–200Google Scholar
  54. Moeyersons J (2003) The topographic thresholds of hillslope incisions in southwestern Rwanda. CATENA 50:381–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Montgomery DR, Dietrich WE (2004) Landscape dissection and drainage area-slope thresholds. In: Kirkby MJ (ed) Process models and theoretical geomorphology. Wiley, New York, pp 221–246Google Scholar
  56. Morgan RPC, Mngomezulu D (2003) Threshold conditions for initiation of valley-side gullies in the Middle Veld of Swaziland. CATENA 50:401–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Narayana DVV, Babu R (1983) Estimation of soil erosion in India. J Irrig Drain Eng 109(4):419–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ouchi S (1985) Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol Soc Am Bull 96:504–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pal T, Mukherjee PK, Sengupta S, Bhattacharyya AK, Shome S (2002) Arsenic pollution in groundwater of West Bengal, India—an insight into problem by sub-surface sediment analysis. Gondwana Res 5:501–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Patton PC, Schumm SA (1975) Gully erosion, northwestern Colorado: a threshold phenomenon. Geology 3:88–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pimentel D (2006) Soil erosion—a food and environmental threat. Environ Dev Sustain 8:119–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pimentel D, Burgess M (2013) Soil erosion threatens food production. Agriculture 3:443–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Poesen J (2011) Challenges in gully erosion research. Landf Anal 17:5–9Google Scholar
  64. Poesen J, Nachtergaele J, Verstraeten G, Valentin C (2003) Gully erosion and environmental change: importance and research needs. CATENA 50:91–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Raj R (2012) Active tectonics of NE Gujarat (India) by morphometric and morphostructural studies of Vatrak River Basin. J Asian Earth Sci 50:66–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rajaguru SN, Deo SG, Mishra S (2011a) Pleistocene climate change in western India: a geoarchaeological approach.ãrchaeo/FoP/…/Rajaguru%20climate.pdf [21 June 2018]
  67. Rajaguru SN, Deotare BC, Gangopadhyay K, Sain MK, Panja S (2011b) Potential geoarchaeological sites for luminescence dating in the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hugli Delta, West Bengal, India. Geochronometria 38(3):282–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rajaguru SN, Kale VS, Badam GL (1993) Quaternary fluvial systems in upland Maharastra. Curr Sci 11:817–821Google Scholar
  69. Rajmohan N, Prathapar SA (2013) Hydrogeology of the Eastern Ganges Basin: an overview. IWMI Working Paper 157, New Delhi, pp 1–33Google Scholar
  70. Rana N, Singh S, Sundriyal YP, Rawat GS, Juyal N (2016) Interpreting the geomorphometric indices for neo-tectonic implications: an example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India. J Earth Syst Sci 125(4):841–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rosgen DL (1994) A classification of natural rivers. Catena 22(6):169–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Roy AB, Chatterjee A (2015) Tectonic framework and evolutionary history of the Bengal Basin in the Indian subcontinent. Curr Sci 109(2):271–279Google Scholar
  73. Rudra K (2010) Dynamics of the Ganga in West Bengal, India (1764–2007): implications for science-policy interaction. Quatern Int 227(2):161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rudra K (2014) Changing river courses in the western part of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta. Geomorphology 227:87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sahu S, Raju NJ, Saha D (2010) Active tectonics and geomorphology in the Sone-Ganga alluvial tract in mid-Ganga Basin, India. Quatern Int 227:116–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sanyal P, Sinha R (2010) Evolution of Indian summer monsoon: synthesis of continental records. In: Clift PD, Tada R, Zheng H (eds) Monsoon evolution and tectonic-climate linkage in Asia. Geological Society, London, pp 152–183Google Scholar
  77. Sarkar A, Mukherjee AD, Bera MK, Das B, Juyal N, Morthekai P, Deshpande RD, Sinde VS, Rao LS (2016) Oxygen isotope in archaeological bioapatites from India: implications to climate change and decline of Bronze Age Harappan civilization. Nature Scientific Reports 6:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schumm SA (1977) The fluvial system. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Schumm SA (1979) Geomorphic thresholds: the concept and its applications. Trans Inst Br Geogr 4(4):485–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schumm SA, Dumont JF, Holbrook JM (2002) Active tectonics and alluvial rivers. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  81. Sear DA, Newson MD (2010) Fluvial geomorphology: its basis and methods. In: Sear DA, Newson MD, Throne CR (eds) Guidebook of applied fluvial geomorphology. Thomas Telford, London, pp 1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sengupta S, Kale VS (2011) Evaluation of the role of rock properties in the development of potholes: a case study of Indrayani knickpoint, Maharastra. J Earth Syst Sci 120(1):157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sharda VN, Dogra P (2013) Assessment of productivity and monetary losses due to water erosion in rainfed crops across different states of India for prioritization and conservation planning. Agric Res 4:382–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sharda VN, Dogra P, Prakash C (2010) Assessment of production losses due to water erosion in rainfed areas of India. J Soil Water Conserv 65(2):79–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sharma VK (2010) Introduction to process geomorphology. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shit PK, Maiti R (2014) Gully erosion control—lateritic soil region of West Bengal. Indian Science Cruiser 28(3):54–61Google Scholar
  87. Shit PK, Nandi AS, Bhunia GS (2015a) Soil erosion risk mapping using RUSLE model on Jhargram subdivisional West bengal in India. Model Earth Syst Environ 1:28Google Scholar
  88. Shit PK, Paira R, Bhunia G, Maiti R (2015b) Modeling of potential gully erosion hazard using geo-spatial technology at Garhbeta block, West Bengal in India. Model Earth Syst Environ 1(2).
  89. Siddiqui S (2014) Appraisal of active deformation using DEM-based morphometric indices analysis in Emilia-Romagna Apennines, Northern Italy. Geodyn Res Int Bull 1(3):34–42Google Scholar
  90. Singh IB (1996) Geological evolution of Ganga Plain—an overview. J Palaeontol Soc India 41:99–137Google Scholar
  91. Singh LP, Parkash B, Singhvi AK (1998) Evolution of the lower Gangetic plain landforms and soils in West Bengal, India. CATENA 33:75–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Singhvi AK, Kale VS (2009) Paleoclimatie studies in India: last ice age to the present. IGBP-WCRP-SCOPE-Report Series 4, Indian National Science Academy, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  93. Sinha R (2009) The great avulsion of Kosi on 18th August 2008. Curr Sci 97(3):429–433Google Scholar
  94. Sinha R, Friend PF (2007) Quaternary fluvial systems in India. Quatern Int 159:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sinha R, Friend PF, Switsur VR (1996) Radiocarbon dating and sedimentation rates in the Holocene alluvial sediments of the north Bihar plains, India. Geol Mag 133:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sinha R, Ghosh S (2012) Understanding dynamics of large rivers aided by satellite remote sensing: a case study from Lower Ganga plains, India. Geocarto Int 27(3):207–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sinha R, Sarkar S (2009) Climate-induced variability in the Late Pleistocene–Holocene fluvial and fluvio-deltaic successions in the Ganga plains, India: a synthesis. Geomorphology 113:173–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sinha R, Sripriyanka K, Jain V, Mukul M (2014) Avulsion threshold and planform dynamics of the Kosi River in north Bihar (India) and Nepal: a GIS framework. Geomorphology 216:157–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sinha R, Tandon SK, Gibling MR, Bhattacharjee PS, Dasgupta AS (2005) Late Quaternary geology and alluvial stratigraphy of the Ganga Basin. Himalayan Geol 26(1):223–240Google Scholar
  100. Sridhar A, Chamyal LS, Patel M (2014) Palaeoflood record of high-magnitude events during historical time in the Sabarmati River, Gujarat. Curr Sci 107(4):675–679Google Scholar
  101. Srivastava P, Aruche M, Arya A, Pal DK, Singh LP (2015) A micromorphological record of contemporary and reclit pedogenic processes in soils of the Indo-Gangetic Plains: implications for mineral weathering, province and climate changes. Earth Surf Proc Land 41(6):771–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Srivastava P, Rajak MK, Sinha R, Pal DK, Bhattacharyya T (2010) A high-resolution micromorphological record of the late Quaternary paleosols from Ganga-Yamuna interfluve: stratigraphic and paleoclimatic implications. Quatern Int 227:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Steckler MS, Mondal DR, Akhter SH, Seeber L, Feng L, Gale J, Hill EM, Howe M (2016) Locked and loading megathrust linked to active subduction on beneath the Indo-Burman Ranges. Nat Geosci. Scholar
  104. Tandon SK, Singa R, Gibling MR, Dasgupta AS, Ghazanfari P (2008) Late Quaternary evolution of the Ganga Plains: nyths and misconceptions, recent developments and future direction. J Geol Soc India 66:259–299Google Scholar
  105. Tare V, Roy G, Bose P (2013) Ganga river basin environment management plan: interim report. IIT Consortium.
  106. Thomas M, Kale V (2011) Tropical environment. In: Gregory KJ, Goudie AS (eds) The Sage handbook of geomorphology. Sage, London, pp 449–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Thornbury WD (1969) Principles of geomorphology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  108. Tornqvist TE (2013) Reponses to rapid environmental change. In: Elias S, Mock C (eds) Encyclopedia of quaternary science. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  109. Torri D, Poesen J (2014) A review of topographic threshold conditions for gully head development in different environment. Earth-Sci Rev 130:73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Toy TJ, Foster GR, Renard KG (2013) Soil erosion: processes, prediction: Measurement and Control. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  111. Valentin C, Poesen J, Li Y (2005) Gully erosion: impacts, factors and control. CATENA 63:132–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Vandaele K, Poesen J, Govers G, Wesemael B (1996) Geomorphic threshold conditions for ephemeral gully incision. Geomorphology 16(2):161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vandekerckhove L, Poesen J, Wijdenes DO, Figueiredo T (1998) Topographic thresholds for ephemeral gully initiation in intensively cultivated areas of the Mediterranean. CATENA 33:271–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wilson CA, Goodbred SL (2015) Construction and maintenance of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta: linking process, morphology and stratigraphy. Ann Rev Marine Sci 7:67–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Witze A (2015) Major earthquake hits Nepal. Nature 10.
  116. Zalasiewicz J, Williams M, Haywood A, Ellis M (2011) The Anthropocene: a new epoch of geological time? Philos Trans R Soc 369:835–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Balai Chandra Das
    • 1
  • Sandipan Ghosh
    • 2
    Email author
  • Aznarul Islam
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeographyKrishnagar Government CollegeKrishnagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeographyChandrapur CollegeBarddhamanIndia
  3. 3.Department of GeographyAliah UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations