Advertisement

Mental Health and Substance Use

  • Sana Loue
Chapter

Abstract

The chapter explores legal issues confronting social workers in the context of mental health and substance use treatment. These include the standards for involuntary outpatient commitment, the emergency hospitalization for evaluation, the mandated reporting of pregnant women who are using substances during pregnancy, and the role of social workers in the context of specialized courts such as drug court and mental health court. Provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act that relate to mental illness are also discussed.

References

  1. ADA National Network. (n.d.). Mental health conditions in the workplace and the ADA. https://adata.org/factsheet/health. Accessed 19 October 2017.
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2015). Position statement on involuntary outpatient commitment and related programs of assisted outpatient treatment. https://www.psychiatry.org/.../Position-2015-Involuntary-Outpatient-Commitment.pdf. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  3. American Psychological Association. (2004, July 28). APA resolution on outpatient civil commitment. http://www.apa.org/about/policy/outpatient.pdf. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  4. Anderson, T. (2008, June 30). Race tilt in foster care hit; hospital staff more likely to screen minority mothers. L.A. Daily News. http://www.dailynews.com/2008/06/30/hospital-staff-more-likely-to-screen-minority-mothers/. Accessed 13 October 2017.
  5. Bachrach, L. L. (1983). Deinstitutionalization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  6. Bazelon Center on Mental Health Law. (2004). Position statement on involuntary commitment. http://www.bazelon.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Position-Statement-on-Involuntary-Commitment.pdf. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  7. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law. (2004). The role of mental health courts in system reform. http://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/MHCtsSysReform.pdf. Accessed 12 October 2017.
  8. Bazemore, G., & Maloney, D. (1994). Rehabilitating community service: Toward restorative service sanctions in a balanced justice system. Federal Probation, 55, 24–35.Google Scholar
  9. Bernstein, R., & Seltzer, T. (2003). Criminalization of people with mental illnesses: The role of mental health courts in system reform. University of District Columbia Law Review, 7, 143–162.Google Scholar
  10. Boothroyd, R. A., Poythress, N. G., McGaha, A., & Petrila, J. (2003). The Broward mental health court: Process, outcomes, and service utilization. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 26, 55–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braithwaite, J. (1998). Restorative justice. In M. Tonry (Ed.), The handbook of crime and punishment (pp. 323–344). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame and reintegration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bureau of Justice Assistance. (2004). Mental health courts program grantee meeting. January 22–23, Cincinnati, OH. Cited in Hodges, J.Q., & Anderson, K.M. (2005). What do social workers need to know about mental health courts? Social Work in Mental Health, 4(2), 17–30.Google Scholar
  14. Bureau of Justice Assistance Mental Health Courts Program. (n.d.). Mental health courts: A national snapshot. https://www.bja.gov/Programs/MHC_National_Snapshot.pdf. Accessed 11 October 2017.
  15. Center for Prisoner Health and Human Rights. (n.d.). Incarceration, substance abuse, and addiction. Providence, RI: Author. http://www.prisonerhealth.org/educational-resources/factsheets-2/incarceration-substance-abuse-and-addiction/. Accessed 08 October 2017.
  16. Chasnoff, I. J., Landress, H. J., & Barrett, M. E. (1990). The prevalence of illicit-drug or alcohol use during pregnancy and discrepancies in mandatory reporting in Pinellas County, Florida. New England Journal of Medicine, 322(17), 1202–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chavkin, W. (2001). Cocaine and pregnancy: Time to look at the evidence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(12), 1626–1628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clear, T. R. (1994). Harm in American penology: Offenders, victims, and their communities. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  19. Cosden, M., Ellens, J. K., Schnell, J. L., Yamini-Diouf, Y., & Wolfe, M. M. (2003). Evaluation of a mental health treatment court with assertive community treatment. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 21(4), 415–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dewees, M. (2002). Contested landscape: The role of critical dialogue for social workers in mental health practice. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 13(1), 73–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Denckla, D., & Berman, G. (2001). Rethinking the revolving door: A look at mental illness in the courts. State Justice Institute, New York State Unified Court System, Center for Court Innovation. https://www.courtinnovation.org/sites/default/files/rethinkingtherevolvingdoor.pdf. Accessed 01 May 2018.
  22. Ellsworth, M. A., Stevens, T. P., & D’Angio, C. T. (2010). Infant race affects application of clinical guidelines when screening for drugs of abuse in newborns. Pediatrics, 125(6), e1379–e1385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Erickson, S. K., Campbell, A., & Lamberti, J. S. (2006). Variations in mental health courts: Challenges, opportunities, and a call for caution. Community Mental Health Journal, 42(4), 335–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fisler, C. (2005). Building trust and managing risk: A look at a felony mental health court. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11(4), 587–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frank, D. A., Augustyn, M., Knight, W. G., Pell, T., & Zuckerman, B. (2001). Growth, development, and behavior in early childhood following prenatal cocaine exposure: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(12), 1613–1625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldkamp, J. S., & Irons-Guynn, C. (2000). Emerging judicial strategies for the mentally ill in the criminal caseload: Mental health courts in Fort Lauderdale, Seattle, San Bernardion, and Anchorage [NCJ 182504]. Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance.Google Scholar
  27. Guttmacher Institute. (2017). Substance use during pregnancy. https://www.guttmacher.org/print/state-policy/explore/substance-use-during-pregnancy. Accessed 12 October 2017.
  28. Hodges, J. Q., & Anderson, K. M. (2005). What do social workers need to know about mental health courts? Social Work in Mental Health, 4(2), 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hora, H. P. (2002). A dozen years of drug treatment courts: Uncovering our theoretical foundation and the construction of a mainstream paradigm. Substance Use & Misuse, 37(12–13), 1469–1488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Huddleston, C. W., III, Freeman-Wilson, K., Marlowe, D. B., & Roussell, A. (2005). Painting the current picture: A national report card on drug courts and other problem solving court programs in the United States. National Drug Court Institute, 1(2), 1–22. https://www.ndci.org/wp-content/uploads/PCPI.2.2005.pdf. Accessed 08 October 2017.Google Scholar
  31. James, D. J., & Glaze, L. E. (2006). Mental health problems of prison and jail inmates [NCJ 213600]. Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.Google Scholar
  32. Jeltsen, M. (2015, October 13). Relief for woman sentenced to 20 years for using meth while pregnant. Huffington Post. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/melissa-mccann-arms-sentence-reversed_us_561bbb8fe4b0e66ad4c872f1. Accessed 13 October 2017.
  33. Khazan, O. (2015a, May 8). Into the body of another. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/05/into-the-body-of-another/392522/. Accessed 13 October 2017.
  34. Khazan, O. (2015b, April 7). Most prisoners are mentally ill. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/04/more-than-half-of-prisoners-are-mentally-ill/389682/. Accessed 08 October 2017.
  35. Kisely, S. R., Campbell, L. A., & Preston, N. J. (2012). Compulsory community and involuntary outpatient treatment for people with severe mental disorders. Cochrane Database System Review, 2: CD00408.pub.3.Google Scholar
  36. Lamb, H. R., & Weinberger, L. E. (1998). Persons with severe mental illness in jails and prisons: A review. Psychiatric Services, 49, 483–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lloyd, M. H., & Brook, J. P. (2014). Strengths based approaches to practice and family drug courts: Is there a fit? Journal of Family Strengths, 14(1), 15. http:digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu/jfs/vol14/iss1/15. Accessed 08 October 2017.Google Scholar
  38. Marlowe, D. B. (2002). Effective strategies for intervening with drug abusing offenders. Villanova Law Review, 47, 988–995.Google Scholar
  39. Marshall, T. F. (1996). The evolution of restorative justice in Britain. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 4(4), 21–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McNiel, D. E., & Binder, R. L. (2007). Effectiveness of a mental health court in reducing criminal recidivism and violence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(9), 1395–1403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mental Health America. (2013). Position statement 22: Involuntary mental health treatment. http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/positions/involuntary-treatment. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  42. Mental Health America. (2017). Position statement 53: Mental health courts. http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/positions/mental-health-courts. Accessed 11 October 2017.
  43. Miranda, L., Dixon, V., & Reyes, C. (2015). How states handle drug use during pregnancy. Propublica: Journalism in the Public Interest. https://projects.propublica.org/graphics/maternity-drug-policies-by-state. Accessed 12 October 2017.
  44. Mohapatra, S. (2011). Unshackling addiction: A public health approach to drug use during pregnancy. Wisconsin Journal of Law, Gender & Society, 26, 241–274.Google Scholar
  45. National Association of Drug Court Professionals, Drug Court Standards Committee. (2004). Defining drug courts: The key components. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/205621.pdf. Accessed 08 October 2017.
  46. National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics. https://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/code.asp. Accessed 11 February 2016.
  47. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, Columbia University. (2010). Behind bars II: Substance abuse and America’s prison population. New York: Author. https://www.centeronaddiction.org/newsroom/press-releases/2010-behind-bars-II. Accessed 08 October 2017.Google Scholar
  48. National Coalition for Mental Health Recovery. (n.d.). Involuntary outpatient commitment myths and facts. https://www.ncmhr.org/downloads/NCMHR-Fact-Sheet-on-Involuntary-Outpatient-Commitment-4.3.14.pdf. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  49. National Conference of State Legislatures. (2017). Fetal homicide laws. http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/fetal-homicide-state-laws.aspx. Accessed 13 October 2017.
  50. National Conference of State Legislatures. (1999, July 15). Health policy tracking service. Fact sheet: Outpatient civil commitment. http://www.courts.state.ny.us/reporter/webdocs/HPTS.htm. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  51. Pach, J. N. M. (2009). An overview of operational family dependency treatment courts. National Drug Court Institute, 6(1), 67–122.Google Scholar
  52. Phelps, L., & Cottone, J. W. (1999). Long-term developmental outcomes of prenatal cocaine exposure. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 17, 343–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Paltrow, L. M. (1998). Punishing women for their behavior during pregnancy: An approach that undermines the health of women and children. In C. L. Wetherington & A. D. Roman (Eds.), Drug addiction research on the health of women (pp. 467–501). Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  54. Paltrow, L. M., & Flavin, J. (2013). Arrests of and forced interventions on pregnant women in the United States, 1973–2005: Implications for women’s legal status and public health. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 38(2), 299–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Prins, S. J. (2014). The prevalence of mental illnesses in US state prisons: A systematic review. Psychiatric Services, 65(7), 862–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rapp, C. A., Saleebey, D., & Sullivan, W. P. (2005). The future of strengths-based social work. Advances in Social Work, 6(1), 79–90.Google Scholar
  57. Redlich, A. D., Steadman, H. J., Monahan, J., Robbins, P. C., & Petrila, J. (2006). Patterns of practice in mental health courts: A national survey. Law and Human Behavior, 30(3), 347–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ridgely, M. S., Borum, R., & Petrila, J. (2001). The effectiveness of involuntary outpatient treatment: Empirical evidence and the experience of eight states. Santa Monica, CA: Rand. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monograph_reports/2007/MR1340.pdf. Accessed 19 October 2017.Google Scholar
  59. Roberts, L. (2010). Mental health courts: An interface between social work and criminal justice. Columbia Social Work Review, 1, 36–44.Google Scholar
  60. Roberts, S. C., & Nuru-Jeter, A. (2011). Universal alcohol/drug screening in prenatal care: A strategy for reducing racial disparities? Questioning the assumptions. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15(8), 1127–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Roberts, M. R., Phillips, I., Bordelon, T. D., & Seif, L. (2014). A social worker’s role in drug court. Sage Open, 4(2).  https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014535413.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rotzoll, B. W. (2001, March 16). Black newborns likelier to be drug-tested: Study. Chicago Sun-Times, https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-4579175.html. Accessed 13 October 2017.
  63. Schroedel, J. R., & Fiber, P. (2001). Punitive versus public health oriented approaches to drug use by pregnant women. Yale Journal of Policy, Law & Ethics, 1, 217–236.Google Scholar
  64. Schwartz, A. R. (2015). Dangerousness or just pregnant? How sanism & biases infect the dangerousness determination in the civil commitment of pregnant women. Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality, 3(2.) article 4.Google Scholar
  65. Singer, L. T., Salvator, A., Arendt, R., Minnes, S., Farkas, K., & Kliegman, R. (2002). Effects of cocaine/polydrug exposure and maternal psychological distress on infant birth outcomes. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 24, 127–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Slate, R. N., & Johnson, W. W. (2008). Criminalization of mental illness. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  67. Slobogin, C. (1995). Therapeutic jurisprudence: Five dilemmas to ponder. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1(1), 193–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Smiley, A. (2001). Forensic mental health in the United Sates—An overview. In G. Landsberg & A. Smiley (Eds.), Forensic mental health: Working with offenders with mental illness (pp. 1–16). Kingston, NJ: Civil Research Institute.Google Scholar
  69. Steadman, H. J., Davidson, S., & Brown, C. (2001). Mental health courts: Their promise and unanswered questions. Psychiatric Services, 52, 457–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Swanson, A. (2015, April 30). A shocking number of mentally ill Americans end up in prison instead of treatment. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/04/30/a-shocking-number-of-mentally-ill-americans-end-up-in-prisons-instead-of-psychiatric-hospitals/?utm_term=.a0345d7bf333. Accessed 08 October 2017.
  71. Swanson, J., Swartz, M., Van Dorn, R. A., Monahan, J., McGuire, T. G., Steadman, H. J., & Robbins, P. C. (2009). Racial disparities in involuntary outpatient commitment: Are they real? Health Affairs, 28(3), 816–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Swartz, M. S., Swanson, J. W., Hiday, V. A., Wagner, H. R., Burns, B. J., & Borum, R. (2001). A randomized controlled trial of outpatient commitment in North Carolina. Psychiatric Services, 52, 325–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Treatment Advocacy Center. (n.d.). Promoting assisted outpatient treatment. http://www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/fixing-the-system/promoting-assisted-outpatient-treatment. Accessed 20 October 2017.
  74. Tyuse, S. W., & Linhorts, D. M. (2005). Drug courts and mental health courts: Implications for social work. Health & Social Work, 30(3), 233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. United States Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division (n.d.). Information and technical assistance on the Americans with Disabilities Act. https://www.ada.gov/2010_regs.htm. Accessed 19 October 2017.
  76. United States Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section. (2009). A guide to disability rights laws. https://www.ada.gov/cguide.htm#anchor62335. Accessed 19 October 2017.
  77. United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. (n.d.) Drug courts. http://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/drug-courts/Pages/welcome.aspx. Accessed 01 October 2017.
  78. Watson, A., Luchins, D., Hanrahan, P., Hyerman, M. J., & Lurigio, A. (2000). Mental health courts: Promises and limitations. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 28, 476–482.Google Scholar
  79. Wenzel, M., Okimoto, T. G., Feather, N. T., & Platow, M. J. (2008). Retributive and restorative justice. Law and Human Behavior, 32(5), 375–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wolff, N., & Pogorzelski, W. (2005). Measuring the effectiveness of mental health courts: Challenges and recommendations. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11(4), 539–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zehr, H. (1990). Changing lenses: Restorative justice for our times. Harrisonburg, VA: Herald Press.Google Scholar
  82. Zehr, H. (2002). The little book of restorative justice. Intercourse, PA: Good Book.Google Scholar
  83. Zilber, C. (2016, November 29). Ethics considerations of involuntary outpatient treatment. Psychiatric News. http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.pn.2016.12a16. Accessed 20 October 2017.

Legal References

    Cases

    1. Arkansas Department of Human Services v. Collier, 95 S.W.3d 772 (Ark. 2003).Google Scholar
    2. Ankrom v. State, 152 So. 3d 373 (Ct. Crim. App. 2011).Google Scholar
    3. Carothers v. County of Cook, 808 F.3d 1140 (7th Cir. 2015).Google Scholar
    4. Cochran v. Commonwealth, 315 S.W.3d 325 (Ky. 2010).Google Scholar
    5. Collins v. Texas, 890 S.W.2d 893 (Tex. App. 1994).Google Scholar
    6. Commonwealth v. Kemp, 1992 Pa. Dist. & Cty. Dec. LEXIS 35 (1992).Google Scholar
    7. Commonwealth v. Pellegrini, 608 N.E.2d 717 (Mass. 1993).Google Scholar
    8. Commonwealth v. Welch, 864 S.W.2d 280 (Ky. 1993).Google Scholar
    9. Herron v. State, 729 N.E.2d 1008 (Ind. Ct. App. 2000).Google Scholar
    10. In re Baby Boy Blackshear, 736 N.E.2d 462 (2000), affirming 1999 Ohio App. LEXIS 4274 (Ohio Ct. App. 1999).Google Scholar
    11. In re Unborn Child, 683 N.Y.S.2d 366 (N.Y. Fam. Ct. 1998).Google Scholar
    12. In re Unborn Child Julie Starks, 18 P.3d 342 (Okla. 2001).Google Scholar
    13. In re Valerie, 613 A.2d 748 (Conn. 1992).Google Scholar
    14. In re V.R., 2008 Ohio App. LEXIS 1285 (Ct. App. Ohio 2008).Google Scholar
    15. Johnson v. State, 602 So. 2d 1288 (1992).Google Scholar
    16. Kilmon v. State, 905 A.2d 306 (Md. Ct. App. 2006).Google Scholar
    17. Matter of Smith, 492 N.Y.S.2d 331 (Monroe Co. Fam. Ct. 1985).Google Scholar
    18. New Jersey Department of Children and Families v. A.L., 59 A.3d 576 (N.J. 2013).Google Scholar
    19. People v. Bedenkop, 625 N.E. 2d 123 (Ill. App. Ct. 1993).Google Scholar
    20. People v. Hardy. 469 N.W.2d 50 (Mich. Ct. App. 1991).Google Scholar
    21. People v. Morabito, 151 Misc.2d 259 (Geneva Cty. Ct. 1992).Google Scholar
    22. Reinesto v. Superior Court, 894 P.2d 733 (Ariz. Ct. App. 1995).Google Scholar
    23. Reyes v. Superior Court of San Bernardino County, 141 Cal. Rptr. 912 (Cal. Ct. App. 1977).Google Scholar
    24. Sheriff v. Encoe, 885 P.2d 596 (1994).Google Scholar
    25. State v. Aiwohi, 123 P.3d 1210 (Hawaii 2005).Google Scholar
    26. State v. Amanda H., 154 P.3d 674 (N.M. Ct. App. 2007).Google Scholar
    27. State v. Arandus, No. 93072, slip. Op. (D. Neb. June 17, 1993).Google Scholar
    28. State v. Dun, 916 P.2d 952 (Wash. Ct. App. 1996).Google Scholar
    29. State v. Gethers, 595 So. 2d 1140 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 1991).Google Scholar
    30. State v. Grubbs, No. 4 FA S89–415 (Alaska Super. Ct. Oct. 2, 1989).Google Scholar
    31. State v. Inzar, 90CRS6960, 90CRS696, slip op. (N.C. Super. Ct. Apr. 9, 1991).Google Scholar
    32. State v. Louk, 786 S.E.2d 219 (West Va. 2016).Google Scholar
    33. State v. Luster, 419 S.E.2d 32 (Ga. Ct. App. 1992).Google Scholar
    34. State v. McKnight, Indictment No. 2000 GS26432 (Horry Co. Ct. May 17, 2001).Google Scholar
    35. State v. Wade, 232 S.W.3d 663 (Mo. Ct. App. 2007).Google Scholar
    36. State ex. rel. M.E.C., 942 P.2d 955 (1997).Google Scholar
    37. Summers v. Altarum Institute Corp., 740 F.3d 325 (4th Cir. 2014).Google Scholar
    38. United States v. Vaughn, No. F-2172-88B (D.C. Super. Ct. Aug. 23, 1988).Google Scholar
    39. Whitner v. State, 492 S.E.2d 777 (S.C. 1997).Google Scholar
    40. Wisconsin ex. rel. Angela M.W. v. Kruzicki, 561 N.W.2d 729 (Wis. 1997).Google Scholar

Statutes

  1. 42 U.S.C. § 12102.Google Scholar
  2. ADA Amendments Act of 2008, P.L. 110–325.Google Scholar
  3. Colorado Revised Statutes § 27-5-105(1) (2016).Google Scholar
  4. D.C. Code Annotated § 21-521 (2016).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sana Loue
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Medicine, Department of BioethicsCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations