Skip to main content

Air Pollution and Atherosclerosis

Abstract

Several lines of evidence support the link between air pollution exposure and accelerated atherosclerosis. The chronic actions of air particulate matter upon the cardiovascular system, such as the enhancement of atherosclerosis, are most likely to be induced through development of a chronic pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant state. Oxidative stress is pro-inflammatory, and many of the pro-inflammatory genes are oxidative stress responsive. In the lung, inhalation of polluted air creates an oxidative stress condition that reverberates systemically in the different body organs. The vessels are particularly sensitive to the insult. An atherogenic cascade may be initiated by the reactive species, involving oxidized lipoproteins, cytokines, and growth factors generated or evoked as a result of the stress condition. In this review, we survey the available information regarding the atherosclerotic process as modified by exposure to air particulate matter.

Keywords

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Air pollution
  • Particulate matter
  • Oxidative stress

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Brook RD, Bard RL, Burnett RT, Shin HH, Vette A, Croghan C, Phillips M, Rodes C, Thornburg J, Williams R. Differences in blood pressure and vascular responses associated with ambient fine particulate matter exposures measured at the personal versus community level. Occup Environ Med. 2011;68(3):224–30.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, Amann M, Anderson HR, Andrews KG, Aryee M, Atkinson C, Bacchus LJ, Bahalim AN, Balakrishnan K, Balmes J, Barker-Collo S, Baxter A, Bell ML, Blore JD, Blyth F, Bonner C, Borges G, Bourne R, Boussinesq M, Brauer M, Brooks P, Bruce NG, Brunekreef B, Bryan-Hancock C, Bucello C, Buchbinder R, Bull F, Burnett RT, Byers TE, Calabria B, Carapetis J, Carnahan E, Chafe Z, Charlson F, Chen H, Chen JS, Cheng AT, Child JC, Cohen A, Colson KE, Cowie BC, Darby S, Darling S, Davis A, Degenhardt L, Dentener F, Des J, Devries K, Dherani M, Ding EL, Dorsey ER, Driscoll T, Edmond K, Ali SE, Engell RE, Erwin PJ, Fahimi S, Falder G, Farzadfar F, Ferrari A, Finucane MM, Flaxman S, Fowkes FG, Freedman G, Freeman MK, Gakidou E, Ghosh S, Giovannucci E, Gmel G, Graham K, Grainger R, Grant B, Gunnell D, Gutierrez HR, Hall W, Hoek HW, Hogan A, Hosgood HD III, Hoy D, Hu H, Hubbell BJ, Hutchings SJ, Ibeanusi SE, Jacklyn GL, Jasrasaria R, Jonas JB, Kan H, Kanis JA, Kassebaum N, Kawakami N, Khang YH, Khatibzadeh S, Khoo JP, Kok C, Laden F, Lalloo R, Lan Q, Lathlean T, Leasher JL, Leigh J, Li Y, Lin JK, Lipshultz SE, London S, Lozano R, Lu, Y, Mak J, Malekzadeh R, Mallinger L, Marcenes W, March L, Marks R, Martin R, McGale P, McGrath J, Mehta S, Mensah GA, Merriman TR, Micha R, Michaud C, Mishra V, Mohd HK, Mokdad AA, Morawska L, Mozaffarian D, Murphy T, Naghavi M, Neal B, Nelson PK, Nolla JM, Norman R, Olives C, Omer SB, Orchard J, Osborne R, Ostro B, Page A, Pandey KD, Parry CD, Passmore E, Patra J, Pearce N, Pelizzari PM, Petzold M, Phillips MR, Pope D, Pope CA III, Powles J, Rao M, Razavi H, Rehfuess EA, Rehm JT, Ritz B, Rivara FP, Roberts T, Robinson C, Rodriguez-Portales JA, Romieu I, Room R, Rosenfeld LC, Roy A, Rushton L, Salomon JA, Sampson U, Sanchez-Riera L, Sanman E, Sapkota A, Seedat S, Shi P, Shield K, Shivakoti R, Singh GM, Sleet DA, Smith E, Smith KR, Stapelberg NJ, Steenland K, Stockl H, Stovner LJ, Straif K, Straney L, Thurston GD, Tran JH, Van DR, van DA, Veerman JL, Vijayakumar L, Weintraub R, Weissman MM, White RA, Whiteford H, Wiersma ST, Wilkinson JD, Williams HC, Williams W, Wilson N, Woolf AD, Yip P, Zielinski JM, Lopez AD, Murray CJ, Ezzati M, AlMazroa MA, and Memish ZA. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2224–2260.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Dockery DW, Pope CA III, Xu X, Spengler JD, Ware JH, Fay ME, Ferris BG Jr, Speizer FE. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(24):1753–9.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Pope CA III, Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Dockery DW, Evans JS, Speizer FE, Heath CW Jr. Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;151(3 Pt 1):669–74.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Pope CA III, Verrier RL, Lovett EG, Larson AC, Raizenne ME, Kanner RE, Schwartz J, Villegas GM, Gold DR, Dockery DW. Heart rate variability associated with particulate air pollution. Am Heart J. 1999;138(5 Pt 1):890–9.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Rossi G, Vigotti MA, Zanobetti A, Repetto F, Gianelle V, Schwartz J. Air pollution and cause-specific mortality in Milan, Italy, 1980-1989. Arch Environ Health. 1999;54(3):158–64.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Schwartz J. Air pollution and daily mortality: a review and meta analysis. Environ Res. 1994;64(1):36–52.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Schwartz J. Air pollution and hospital admissions for heart disease in eight U.S. counties. Epidemiology. 1999;10(1):17–22.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Analitis A, Katsouyanni K, Dimakopoulou K, Samoli E, Nikoloulopoulos AK, Petasakis Y, Touloumi G, Schwartz J, Anderson HR, Cambra K, Forastiere F, Zmirou D, Vonk JM, Clancy L, Kriz B, Bobvos J, Pekkanen J. Short-term effects of ambient particles on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. Epidemiology. 2006;17(2):230–3.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Beelen R, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Stafoggia M, Andersen ZJ, Weinmayr G, Hoffmann B, Wolf K, Samoli E, Fischer P, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Vineis P, Xun WW, Katsouyanni K, Dimakopoulou K, Oudin A, Forsberg B, Modig L, Havulinna AS, Lanki T, Turunen A, Oftedal B, Nystad W, Nafstad P, de Faire U, Pedersen NL, Ostenson CG, Fratiglioni L, Penell J, Korek M, Pershagen G, Eriksen KT, Overvad K, Ellermann T, Eeftens M, Peeters PH, Meliefste K, Wang M, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Sugiri D, Kramer U, Heinrich J, de Hoogh K, Key T, Peters A, Hampel R, Concin H, Nagel G, Ineichen A, Schaffner E, Probst-Hensch N, Kunzli N, Schindler C, Schikowski T, Adam M, Phuleria H, Vilier A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Declercq C, Grioni S, Krogh V, Tsai MY, Ricceri F, Sacerdote C, Galassi C, Migliore E, Ranzi A, Cesaroni G, Badaloni C, Forastiere F, Tamayo I, Amiano P, Dorronsoro M, Katsoulis M, Trichopoulou A, Brunekreef B, Hoek G. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project. Lancet. 2014;383(9919):785–95.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Brook RD, Franklin B, Cascio W, Hong Y, Howard G, Lipsett M, Luepker R, Mittleman M, Samet J, Smith SC Jr, Tager I. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the expert panel on population and prevention science of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2004;109(21):2655–71.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope CA III, Brook JR, Bhatnagar A, Diez-Roux AV, Holguin F, Hong Y, Luepker RV, Mittleman MA, Peters A, Siscovick D, Smith SC Jr, Whitsel L, Kaufman JD. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: an update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010;121(21):2331–78.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Cesaroni G, Forastiere F, Stafoggia M, Andersen ZJ, Badaloni C, Beelen R, Caracciolo B, de Faire U, Erbel R, Eriksen KT, Fratiglioni L, Galassi C, Hampel R, Heier M, Hennig F, Hilding A, Hoffmann B, Houthuijs D, Jockel KH, Korek M, Lanki T, Leander K, Magnusson PK, Migliore E, Ostenson CG, Overvad K, Pedersen NL, Penell J, Pershagen G, Pyko A, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Ranzi A, Ricceri F, Sacerdote C, Salomaa V, Swart W, Turunen AW, Vineis P, Weinmayr G, Wolf K, de Hoogh K, Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Peters A. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE project. BMJ. 2014;348:f7412.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. D'Ippoliti D, Forastiere F, Ancona C, Agabiti N, Fusco D, Michelozzi P, Perucci CA. Air pollution and myocardial infarction in Rome: a case-crossover analysis. Epidemiology. 2003;14(5):528–35.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Laden F, Schwartz J, Speizer FE, Dockery DW. Reduction in fine particulate air pollution and mortality: extended follow-up of the Harvard six cities study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173(6):667–72.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Miller KA, Siscovick DS, Sheppard L, Shepherd K, Sullivan JH, Anderson GL, Kaufman JD. Long-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of cardiovascular events in women. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(5):447–58.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Peters A, Dockery DW, Muller JE, Mittleman MA. Increased particulate air pollution and the triggering of myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2001;103(23):2810–5.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Pope CA III, Muhlestein JB, May HT, Renlund DG, Anderson JL, Horne BD. Ischemic heart disease events triggered by short-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. Circulation. 2006;114(23):2443–8.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Adar SD, Sheppard L, Vedal S, Polak JF, Sampson PD, Diez Roux AV, Budoff M, Jacobs DR Jr, Barr RG, Watson K, Kaufman JD. Fine particulate air pollution and the progression of carotid intima-medial thickness: a prospective cohort study from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis and air pollution. PLoS Med. 2013;10(4):e1001430.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. Kaufman JD, Adar SD, Barr RG, Budoff M, Burke GL, Curl CL, Daviglus ML, Diez Roux AV, Gassett AJ, Jacobs DR Jr, Kronmal R, Larson TV, Navas-Acien A, Olives C, Sampson PD, Sheppard L, Siscovick DS, Stein JH, Szpiro AA, Watson KE. Association between air pollution and coronary artery calcification within six metropolitan areas in the USA (the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis and air pollution): a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet. 2016a;388(10045):696–704.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. Kunzli N, Jerrett M, Mack WJ, Beckerman B, LaBree L, Gilliland F, Thomas D, Peters J, Hodis HN. Ambient air pollution and atherosclerosis in Los Angeles. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113(2):201–6.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Hoffmann B, Moebus S, Mohlenkamp S, Stang A, Lehmann N, Dragano N, Schmermund A, Memmesheimer M, Mann K, Erbel R, Jockel KH. Residential exposure to traffic is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2007;116(5):489–96.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Allen RW, Criqui MH, Diez Roux AV, Allison M, Shea S, Detrano R, Sheppard L, Wong ND, Stukovsky KH, Kaufman JD. Fine particulate matter air pollution, proximity to traffic, and aortic atherosclerosis. Epidemiology. 2009;20(2):254–64.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Gill EA, Curl CL, Adar SD, Allen RW, Auchincloss AH, O'Neill MS, Park SK, Van H, Diez Roux AV, Kaufman JD. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;53(5):353–60.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. Kaufman JD, Adar SD, Allen RW, Barr RG, Budoff MJ, Burke GL, Casillas AM, Cohen MA, Curl CL, Daviglus ML, Dieez Roux AV, Jacobs DR Jr, Kronmal RA, Larson TV, Liu SL, Lumley T, Navas-Acien A, O’Leary DH, Rotter JI, Sampson PD, Sheppard L, Siscovick DS, Stein JH, Szpiro AA, Tracy RP. Prospective study of particulate air pollution exposures, subclinical atherosclerosis, and clinical cardiovascular disease: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis and air pollution (MESA air). Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(9):825–37.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. Bauer M, Moebus S, Mohlenkamp S, Dragano N, Nonnemacher M, Fuchsluger M, Kessler C, Jakobs H, Memmesheimer M, Erbel R, Jockel KH, Hoffmann B. Urban particulate matter air pollution is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis: results from the HNR (Heinz Nixdorf recall) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(22):1803–8.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Kalsch H, Hennig F, Moebus S, Mohlenkamp S, Dragano N, Jakobs H, Memmesheimer M, Erbel R, Jockel KH, Hoffmann B. Are air pollution and traffic noise independently associated with atherosclerosis: the Heinz Nixdorf recall study. Eur Heart J. 2014;35(13):853–60.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Fernandez-Ruiz I. Risk factors: air pollution accelerates progression of atherosclerosis. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2016;13(7):379.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Franklin BA, Brook R, Arden PC III. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2015;40(5):207–38.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Kaufman JD, Spalt EW, Curl CL, Hajat A, Jones MR, Kim SY, Vedal S, Szpiro AA, Gassett A, Sheppard L, Daviglus ML, Adar SD. Advances in understanding air pollution and CVD. Glob Heart. 2016b;11(3):343–52.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Meo SA, Suraya F. Effect of environmental air pollution on cardiovascular diseases. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015;19(24):4890–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Shrey K, Suchit A, Deepika D, Shruti K, Vibha R. Air pollutants: the key stages in the pathway towards the development of cardiovascular disorders. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;31(1):1–9.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Sun Q, Hong X, Wold LE. Cardiovascular effects of ambient particulate air pollution exposure. Circulation. 2010;121(25):2755–65.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. Newby DE, Mannucci PM, Tell GS, Baccarelli AA, Brook RD, Donaldson K, Forastiere F, Franchini M, Franco OH, Graham I, Hoek G, Hoffmann B, Hoylaerts MF, Kunzli N, Mills N, Pekkanen J, Peters A, Piepoli MF, Rajagopalan S, Storey RF. Expert position paper on air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(2):83–93b.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Suwa T, Hogg JC, Quinlan KB, Ohgami A, Vincent R, van Eeden SF. Particulate air pollution induces progression of atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39(6):935–42.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Yatera K, Hsieh J, Hogg JC, Tranfield E, Suzuki H, Shih CH, Behzad AR, Vincent R, van Eeden SF. Particulate matter air pollution exposure promotes recruitment of monocytes into atherosclerotic plaques. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294(2):H944–53.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Tranfield EM, van Eeden SF, Yatera K, Hogg JC, Walker DC. Ultrastructural changes in atherosclerotic plaques following the instillation of airborne particulate matter into the lungs of rabbits. Can J Cardiol. 2010;26(7):e258–69.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  38. Sun Q, Wang A, Jin X, Natanzon A, Duquaine D, Brook RD, Aguinaldo JG, Fayad ZA, Fuster V, Lippmann M, Chen LC, Rajagopalan S. Long-term air pollution exposure and acceleration of atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in an animal model. JAMA. 2005;294(23):3003–10.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Araujo JA, Barajas B, Kleinman M, Wang X, Bennett BJ, Gong KW, Navab M, Harkema J, Sioutas C, Lusis AJ, Nel AE. Ambient particulate pollutants in the ultrafine range promote early atherosclerosis and systemic oxidative stress. Circ Res. 2008;102(5):589–96.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. Miller MR, McLean SG, Duffin R, Lawal AO, Araujo JA, Shaw CA, Mills NL, Donaldson K, Newby DE, Hadoke PW. Diesel exhaust particulate increases the size and complexity of lesions in atherosclerotic mice. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013;10:61.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. Keebaugh AJ, Sioutas C, Pakbin P, Schauer JJ, Mendez LB, Kleinman MT. Is atherosclerotic disease associated with organic components of ambient fine particles? Sci Total Environ. 2015;533:69–75.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Floyd HS, Chen LC, Vallanat B, Dreher K. Fine ambient air particulate matter exposure induces molecular alterations associated with vascular disease progression within plaques of atherosclerotic susceptible mice. Inhal Toxicol. 2009;21(5):394–403.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Soares SR, Carvalho-Oliveira R, Ramos-Sanchez E, Catanozi S, da Silva LF, Mauad T, Gidlund M, Goto H, Garcia ML. Air pollution and antibodies against modified lipoproteins are associated with atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling in hyperlipemic mice. Atherosclerosis. 2009;207(2):368–73.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Rao X, Zhong J, Maiseyeu A, Gopalakrishnan B, Villamena FA, Chen LC, Harkema JR, Sun Q, Rajagopalan S. CD36-dependent 7-ketocholesterol accumulation in macrophages mediates progression of atherosclerosis in response to chronic air pollution exposure. Circ Res. 2014;115(9):770–80.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. Lund AK, Lucero J, Harman M, Madden MC, McDonald JD, Seagrave JC, Campen MJ. The oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor mediates vascular effects of inhaled vehicle emissions. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184(1):82–91.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. Yin F, Lawal A, Ricks J, Fox JR, Larson T, Navab M, Fogelman AM, Rosenfeld ME, Araujo JA. Diesel exhaust induces systemic lipid peroxidation and development of dysfunctional pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory high-density lipoprotein. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33(6):1153–61.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Chen LC, Quan C, Hwang JS, Jin X, Li Q, Zhong M, Rajagopalan S, Sun Q. Atherosclerosis lesion progression during inhalation exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a comparison to concentrated ambient air fine particles exposure. Inhal Toxicol. 2010;22(6):449–59.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. Campen MJ, Lund AK, Knuckles TL, Conklin DJ, Bishop B, Young D, Seilkop S, Seagrave J, Reed MD, McDonald JD. Inhaled diesel emissions alter atherosclerotic plaque composition in ApoE(−/−) mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;242(3):310–7.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Bai Y, Sun Q. Fine particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis: mechanistic insights. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1860(12):2863–8.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Campen MJ, Lund A, Rosenfeld M. Mechanisms linking traffic-related air pollution and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2012;18(2):155–60.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. Du Y, Xu X, Chu M, Guo Y, Wang J. Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: the epidemiological, biomedical and clinical evidence. J Thorac Dis. 2016;8(1):E8–E19.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  52. Fujii T, Hayashi S, Hogg JC, Mukae H, Suwa T, Goto Y, Vincent R, van Eeden SF. Interaction of alveolar macrophages and airway epithelial cells following exposure to particulate matter produces mediators that stimulate the bone marrow. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002;27(1):34–41.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Gurgueira SA, Lawrence J, Coull B, Murthy GG, Gonzalez-Flecha B. Rapid increases in the steady-state concentration of reactive oxygen species in the lungs and heart after particulate air pollution inhalation. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110(8):749–55.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. Wang G, Zhao J, Jiang R, Song W. Rat lung response to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures. Environ Toxicol. 2015;30(3):343–56.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Ghio AJ, Cohen MD. Disruption of iron homeostasis as a mechanism of biologic effect by ambient air pollution particles. Inhal Toxicol. 2005;17(13):709–16.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Lodovici M, Bigagli E. Oxidative stress and air pollution exposure. J Toxicol. 2011;2011:487074.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. Muhlfeld C, Rothen-Rutishauser B, Blank F, Vanhecke D, Ochs M, Gehr P. Interactions of nanoparticles with pulmonary structures and cellular responses. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294(5):L817–29.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Wang T, Chiang ET, Moreno-Vinasco L, Lang GD, Pendyala S, Samet JM, Geyh AS, Breysse PN, Chillrud SN, Natarajan V, Garcia JG. Particulate matter disrupts human lung endothelial barrier integrity via ROS- and p38 MAPK-dependent pathways. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42(4):442–9.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Cui Y, Xie X, Jia F, He J, Li Z, Fu M, Hao H, Liu Y, Liu JZ, Cowan PJ, Zhu H, Sun Q, Liu Z. Ambient fine particulate matter induces apoptosis of endothelial progenitor cells through reactive oxygen species formation. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;35(1):353–63.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  60. Moller P, Jacobsen NR, Folkmann JK, Danielsen PH, Mikkelsen L, Hemmingsen JG, Vesterdal LK, Forchhammer L, Wallin H, Loft S. Role of oxidative damage in toxicity of particulates. Free Radic Res. 2010;44(1):1–46.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Nemmar A, Hoet PH, Vanquickenborne B, Dinsdale D, Thomeer M, Hoylaerts MF, Vanbilloen H, Mortelmans L, Nemery B. Passage of inhaled particles into the blood circulation in humans. Circulation. 2002;105(4):411–4.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Hetland RB, Cassee FR, Lag M, Refsnes M, Dybing E, Schwarze PE. Cytokine release from alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter: heterogeneity in relation to size, city and season. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2005;2:4.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  63. Hiraiwa K, van Eeden SF. Contribution of lung macrophages to the inflammatory responses induced by exposure to air pollutants. Mediat Inflamm. 2013;2013:619523.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  64. Dagher Z, Garcon G, Billet S, Verdin A, Ledoux F, Courcot D, Aboukais A, Shirali P. Role of nuclear factor-kappa B activation in the adverse effects induced by air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5) in human epithelial lung cells (L132) in culture. J Appl Toxicol. 2007;27(3):284–90.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Shoenfelt J, Mitkus RJ, Zeisler R, Spatz RO, Powell J, Fenton MJ, Squibb KA, Medvedev AE. Involvement of TLR2 and TLR4 in inflammatory immune responses induced by fine and coarse ambient air particulate matter. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86(2):303–12.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  66. Kampfrath T, Maiseyeu A, Ying Z, Shah Z, Deiuliis JA, Xu X, Kherada N, Brook RD, Reddy KM, Padture NP, Parthasarathy S, Chen LC, Moffatt-Bruce S, Sun Q, Morawietz H, Rajagopalan S. Chronic fine particulate matter exposure induces systemic vascular dysfunction via NADPH oxidase and TLR4 pathways. Circ Res. 2011;108(6):716–26.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  67. Araujo JA, Nel AE. Particulate matter and atherosclerosis: role of particle size, composition and oxidative stress. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2009;6:24.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  68. Miller MR. The role of oxidative stress in the cardiovascular actions of particulate air pollution. Biochem Soc Trans. 2014;42(4):1006–11.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Hardwick SJ, Hegyi L, Clare K, Law NS, Carpenter KL, Mitchinson MJ, Skepper JN. Apoptosis in human monocyte-macrophages exposed to oxidized low density lipoprotein. J Pathol. 1996;179(3):294–302.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Moller P, Mikkelsen L, Vesterdal LK, Folkmann JK, Forchhammer L, Roursgaard M, Danielsen PH, Loft S. Hazard identification of particulate matter on vasomotor dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2011;41(4):339–68.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Giancarlo Ghiselli .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer International Publishing AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Bove, M., Ghiselli, G. (2018). Air Pollution and Atherosclerosis. In: Capello, F., Gaddi, A. (eds) Clinical Handbook of Air Pollution-Related Diseases. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62731-1_17

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62731-1_17

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-62730-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-62731-1

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)