Abstract
The following chapter describes the basic concepts of fuzzy systems and approximate reasoning. The study focuses mainly on fuzzy models based on Zadeh’s compositional rule of inference. The presentation begins with an introduction of fundamental ideas of fuzzy conditional (ifthen) rules. A collection of fuzzy ifthen rules formulates the socalled knowledge base, which formally represents the knowledge to be processed during approximate reasoning. The subsequent sections present formal definitions related to the compositional rule of inference and approximate reasoning using a knowledge base. Theoretical considerations are supplemented with practical examples of fuzzy systems as the foundation of many modern structures. The description includes fuzzy systems proposed by Mamdani and Assilan, Takagi, Sugeno and Kang, and Tsukamoto.
You have full access to this open access chapter, Download chapter PDF
Similar content being viewed by others
1 Introduction
The main inspiration behind the introduction of fuzzy sets theory was the necessity for modeling realworld phenomena, which are inherently vague and ambiguous. Human knowledge about complex problems can be successfully represented using the imprecise terms of natural language. The theories of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic provide formal tools for mathematical representation and efficient processing of such information.
The term “system” is usually understood as a set of interacting components with welldefined structure and organized as an intricate whole that can be distinguished from the “external” environment. A system communicates with the environment through socalled inputs and outputs. Fuzzy systems are structures based on fuzzy techniques oriented towards information processing, where the usage of classical sets theory and binary logic is impossible or difficult. In the literature, terms such as fuzzy system, fuzzy model, system based on fuzzy rules, fuzzy controller, or fuzzy associative memory are used interchangeably depending on the application type [16]. Their main characteristic involves symbolic knowledge representation in a form of fuzzy conditional (ifthen) rules.
The typical structure of a fuzzy system (Fig. 2.1) consists of four functional blocks: the fuzzifier, the fuzzy inference engine, the knowledge base, and the defuzzifier. Both linguistic values (defined by fuzzy sets) and crisp (numerical) data can be used as inputs for a fuzzy system. If crisp data are applied, then the inference process is preceded by fuzzification, which assigns the appropriate fuzzy set to the nonfuzzy input. The values of input variables are mapped into linguistic values of the output variable by means of the appropriate method of approximate reasoning (inference engine) using expert knowledge, which is represented as a collection of fuzzy conditional rules (knowledge base). In addition to the linguistic values, the numerical data may be required as the fuzzy system output. In such cases defuzzification methods are used, which assign the representative crisp data to the resultant output fuzzy set.
Practical applications of fuzzy systems include problems for which the complete mathematical description is unavailable, or where the usage of the precise (nonfuzzy) model is uneconomical or highly inconvenient. The ability to process inaccurate information makes a fuzzy system an excellent tool, for example, for control processes [12, 19], system identification [11, 20], decision support [24, 33], and signal and image processing [4, 23].
In the following sections only static fuzzy systems (i.e., systems where the outputs are determined only on the basis of the current input values) are considered. Included are concepts of knowledge representation in the form of fuzzy conditional rules, the idea of approximate reasoning, and the description of basic structures of fuzzy systems.
2 Fuzzy Conditional Rules
One of the fundamental concepts of fuzzy sets theory is a linguistic variable [34]. Its values are the statements of natural language (terms), which are the labels (descriptions) of fuzzy sets defined on a given universe (space) of discourse. Formally, a linguistic variable is defined as a quintuple [35]:
where \(\mathscr {N}\) is a name of the linguistic variable, \(\mathscr {L}\left( \mathsf {G}\right) \) denotes the family of values of the linguistic variable being a collection of labels of the fuzzy sets defined on the universe \(\mathbb {X}\), \(\mathsf {G}\) is the set of syntactic rules defined by a grammar determining all terms in \(\mathscr {L}(\mathsf {G})\), and \(\mathsf {S}\) represents the semantics of the variable X, that defines the meaning of all labels.
As an example we can use a linguistic variable describing the fetal heart rate (FHR). The name of the variable can be defined as \(\mathscr {N} = \text {``mean FHR''}\). According to FIGO guidelines [21], the set of possible linguistic values is a collection of three labels describing the fetal state as: \(\mathscr {L} = \) {“normal,” “suspicious,” “pathological”}. To each of the labels we can assign a fuzzy set \(A_{i}: i = 1, 2, \ldots , 5,\) defined on \(\mathbb {X} = [0, 250]\) bpm, which represents the range of possible number of heart beats per min [3]. The examples of membership functions \(\mu _{A_{i}}(x)\) of the fuzzy sets \(A_{i}\) are shown in Fig. 2.2.
An elementary statement for the linguistic variable X is the fuzzy expression:
where \(L_A\) is a label from the collection \(\mathscr {L}(\mathsf {G})\), defined by a fuzzy set A on the universe \(\mathbb {X}\). The logical value of the expression is determined on the basis of membership function \(\mu _{A}\left( x\right) \) of the fuzzy set A. In the preceding example, an elementary statement is:
which value for the measurement 110 bpm is equal to \(\mu _{A_3}\left( x\right) = 0.5\) (see Fig. 2.2).
A more complex fuzzy expression can be obtained by combining two or more elementary expressions. It can be presented in the conjunctive:
or the disjunctive form:
where \(X_{1},X_{2}\) are linguistic variables with labels \(L_{A_{1}},L_{A_{2}}\) defined by the fuzzy sets \(A_{1}\) and \(A_{2}\), respectively, on the universes \(\mathbb {X}_{1}\) and \(\mathbb {X}_{2}\).
The value of a complex fuzzy expression for \(x_{1}\in \mathbb {X}_{1}\) and \(x_{2}\in \mathbb {X}_{2}\) is determined on the basis of the membership functions of fuzzy sets \(A_{1}\) and \(A_{2}\) [16]:
for the conjunctive form, and
for the disjunctive form, where \(\star _{T}\) denotes a tnorm, and \(\star _{S}\) an snorm.
An elementary fuzzy statement can also be expressed in the form of an implication forming a fuzzy ifthen rule (fuzzy conditional statement):
defining a relationship between linguistic variables. The statement “X \(\mathbf {is}\) \(L_A\)” is called the antecedent (premise), and the statement “Y \(\mathbf {is}\) \(L_B \)” is called the consequent (conclusion).
A generalized form of the fuzzy conditional statement can be defined as an implication of complex fuzzy expressions. For the conjunctive form it can be written as:
and for the disjunctive form as:
where \(X_{1},X_{2},\ldots ,X_{N}\) are the input linguistic variables; \(Y_{1},Y_{2},\ldots ,Y_{M}\) are the output linguistic variables; \(L_{A_{1}},L_{A_{2}}, \ldots ,\) \(L_{A_{N}}\), and \(L_{B_{1}},L_{B_{2}}, \ldots ,\) \(L_{B_{M}}\) are their linguistic values, defined with fuzzy sets \(A_{1},A_{2}, \ldots ,\) \(A_{N}\) and \(B_{1}, B_{2}, \ldots ,\) \(B_{M}\) on universes \(\mathbb {X}_{1}, \mathbb {X}_{2}, \ldots ,\) \(\mathbb {X}_{N}\), and \(\mathbb {Y}_{1}, \mathbb {Y}_{2}, \ldots , \mathbb {Y}_{M}\), respectively.
Both implications are the fuzzy ifthen rules with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO). The MIMO fuzzy rule can be decomposed into the corresponding set of canonical fuzzy ifthen rules [16], which are the MISO (multiple inputs and single output) type of fuzzy conditional statements with conjunctive antecedent:
Canonical fuzzy conditional statements are the basics for representing expert knowledge in a fuzzy system. Using pseudovector notation, the canonical fuzzy ifthen rule can be written as
which is an \(N + 1\)nary fuzzy relation [4]:
defined on \(\mathbb {X}_{1}\times \mathbb {X}_{2}\times \cdots \times \mathbb {X}_{N}\times \mathbb {Y}\), with the membership function:
where \(\mathbf {x} = {\left[ x_{1},\ldots ,x_{N}\right] }^T \in \mathbb {X}_{1}\times \mathbb {X}_{2}\times \cdots \times \mathbb {X}_{N}\), \(y \in \mathbb {Y}\), and depending on the interpretation of the fuzzy ifthen rule, \(\varPhi \left( \cdot ,\cdot \right) \) denotes a tnorm (a conjunctive interpretation) [8, 16] or fuzzy implication (logical interpretation) [8, 9, 16].
If the conjunction “and” in the antecedents of the fuzzy ifthen rules is represented by a tnorm T, then:
where \(A_{1},A_{2},\ldots ,A_{N}\) are fuzzy sets representing the values of linguistic variables in the antecedent of the canonical fuzzy rule.
Hence, for the conjunctive interpretation we get:
where \(\star _{T_{r}}\) is a tnorm representing the fuzzy ifthen rule, whereas for logical interpretation:
where \(\varPsi \left( \cdot ,\cdot \right) \) denotes a fuzzy implication.
Fuzzy implication is usually introduced using an axiomatic approach [9], where it is defined as a continuous function \(\varPsi :[0,1]\times [0,1]\rightarrow [0,1]\), which for each \(a,b,c\in [0,1]\) fulfills five necessary (general) conditions:

P1:
\(\quad \text {if } a\le c, \text {then } \varPsi \left( a,b\right) \ge \varPsi \left( c,b\right) \),

P2:
\(\quad \text {if } b\le c, \text {then } \varPsi \left( a,b\right) \le \varPsi \left( a,c\right) \),

P3:
\(\quad \varPsi \left( 0,b\right) = 1\),

P4:
\(\quad \varPsi \left( a,1\right) = 1\),

P5:
\(\quad \varPsi \left( 1,0\right) = 0\),
and eight recommended (specific) conditions [4]. Properties P3, P4, and P5 are called falsity, neutrality, and Booleanity, respectively [4, 22]. As examples we can use Lukasiewicz:
Reichenbach:
and Zadeh fuzzy implication:
A single fuzzy rule describes a local relationship between the input and output variables of the fuzzy system within the limits defined by the domain of fuzzy sets in the rule antecedent. The complete input–output mapping is represented by the whole collection of fuzzy ifthen rules from the knowledge (rule) base. For further considerations we assume a base consisting of I rules in the form:
A welldefined fuzzy rule base should be complete, consistent, and continuous [31]. The completeness means that for each value from the input space at least one rule is activated, that is \(\exists _{i = 1,2, \ldots , I} \quad \mu _{\mathbf {A}^{(i)}}(\mathbf {x}) \ne 0\). The knowledge base is consistent if there are no rules with the same antecedent but different consequents. And finally, the knowledge base is continuous if there are no neighboring rules, for which the result of intersection of fuzzy sets in their consequents is an empty set.
The knowledge base is constructed first by acquiring knowledge about the modeled phenomenon, and next by representing it in a form of fuzzy conditional rules. In practice, there are three basic methods to create a fuzzy rule base [16]:

by using knowledge of a human expert or based on the physical laws describing the phenomenon (white box modeling),

by automatically extracting the rules based on numerical data representing the relationship between inputs and outputs of the phenomenon (black box modeling),

mixed, where part of the knowledge is derived from a human expert and part from automated extraction (grey box modeling).
The possible applications of a fuzzy system depend, however, not only on the properly defined knowledge base, but also on the appropriate design of an inference engine.
3 Approximate Reasoning
Inference methods originating from classical logic are based on socalled rules of inference. A rule of inference is a pattern of reasoning that explains how a conclusion may be logically derived from a given premise previously assumed to be true. One of the most commonly used rules of inference is the rule of detachment, often referred to as modus ponendo ponens (“the way that affirms by affirming”). Modus ponendo ponens (MPP) is based on two premises. The first is the conditional statement \(p \Longrightarrow q\), namely that “p implies q”. The second assumes that the antecedent p of the conditional statement is true. From these two premises it can be concluded that the consequent q is true. The MPP rule can be written as [4]:
\(\text {Premise I (fact):}\)  p 
\(\text {Premise II (rule):}\)  \(p \Longrightarrow q\) 
\(\text {Conclusion:}\)  q 
or symbolically:
Binary logic assumes only two possibilities: total compliance or total noncompliance of the fact with the implication antecedent. In contrast, fuzzy inference engines use an approximate reasoning based on the generalized rules of inference. The generalized modus ponendo ponens (GMPP) may be written as [34]:
\(\text {Premise I (fact):}\)  \(p^{\prime }\) 
\(\text {Premise II (rule):}\)  \(p \Longrightarrow q\) 
\(\text {Conclusion:}\)  \(q^{\prime }\) 
or:
where statements \(p^{\prime }\) and \(q^{\prime }\) are similar, respectively, to p and q.
A conditional fuzzy rule can be defined as a fuzzy relation, and hence, the statements in antecedents and consequents as fuzzy sets. The statement X \(\mathbf {is}\) \(L_{A^{\prime }}\) is a fact, where \(L_{A^{\prime }}\) denotes the label of a linguistic variable X defined by a fuzzy set \(A^{\prime }\) on the universe \(\mathbb {X}\). The knowledge is represented by the fuzzy conditional rule “\(\mathbf {if}\) X \(\mathbf {is}\) \(L_A\), \(\mathbf {then}\) Y \(\mathbf {is}\) \(L_B\),” where \(L_A\) and \(L_B\) are the linguistic values of linguistic variables X and Y, defined by fuzzy sets A and B, on the universes \(\mathbb {X}\) and \(\mathbb {Y}\), respectively. Consequently, the inference scheme of GMPP takes the form:
\(\text {Premise I (fact):}\)  X \(\mathbf {is}\) \(L_{A^{\prime }}\) 
\(\text {Premise II (rule):}\)  \(\mathbf {if}\) X \(\mathbf {is}\) \(L_A\), \(\mathbf {then}\) Y \(\mathbf {is}\) \(L_B\) 
\(\text {Conclusion:}\)  Y \(\mathbf {is}\) \(L_{B^{\prime }}\) 
or:
The fuzzy set \(B^{\prime }\) is determined using Zadeh’s compositional rule of inference [34].
3.1 Compositional Rule of Inference
The compositional rule of inference (CRI), also known as supremumstar composition [34], is a generalization of an operation for determining the function value. The first stage of CRI is to construct a cylindrical extension of a fuzzy set \(A^{\prime }\left( x\right) \) from the universe \(\mathbb {X}\) to \(\mathbb {X}\times \mathbb {Y}\):
Secondly, an intersection (logical product) of cylindrical extension \(\text {Ce}\left( A^{\prime }\right) \) and fuzzy relation R is constructed using tnorm T:
The final CRI outcome is a result of the \({\text {Ce}\left( A^{\prime }\right) \cap R}\) projection on \(\mathbb {Y}\):
The fuzzy set \(B^{\prime }\) can also be presented as a composition of a fuzzy set \(A^{\prime }\), which is an unary fuzzy relation, with conditional fuzzy rule R being a binary fuzzy relation:
where \(\circ \) is the operator of the supremumtnorm composition.
The GMPP for the ith canonical fuzzy ifthen rule (2.20) can be written as [16]:
where \(\mathbf {A}^{\prime } = A_{1}^{\prime }\times A_{2}^{\prime }\times \cdots \times A_{N}^{\prime }\) is a multidimensional fuzzy set that defines the value of the multidimensional input linguistic variable on the space \(\underline{\mathbb {X}} = \mathbb {X}_{1}\times \mathbb {X}_{2}\times \cdots \times \mathbb {X}_{N}\).
The membership function of the conclusion \(B^{\prime (i)}\) is calculated as follows.
where \(T_{s}\) is a tnorm of the supremumtnorm composition. In the case of the conjunctive interpretation (2.15) we can write:
And for logical interpretation (2.16) we get:
Under certain conditions [5], logical and conjunctive interpretation of fuzzy conditional rules leads to equivalent inference results.
Equations (2.30) and (2.31) define the membership function of a fuzzy set representing the resulting conclusion of an inference using only one fuzzy ifthen rule. For a knowledge base consisting of many fuzzy conditional statements it is necessary to combine conclusions from all individual rules.
3.2 Approximate Reasoning with Knowledge Base
Generally, there are two methods of approximate reasoning that can be applied to determine the outcome fuzzy set \(B^{\prime }\) on the basis of a collection of fuzzy ifthen rules [4]:

compositionbased inference (first aggregate then infer: FATI), where first a combination of all rules from the knowledge base is constructed, and then inference using the supremumstar composition is conducted,

individual rulebased inference (first infer then aggregate: FITA), in which the first step involves inference using the supremumstar composition for each of the rules individually and then, a combination of inference results is performed.
The FATI process of combining the rules, as well as the stage in the FITA schema of determining the resulting conclusion, is called aggregation [10]. The aggregation can be defined by introduction of the concept of the aggregation operator [16], which for I values \(x_{1},x_{2},\ldots ,x_{I}\in \left[ 0,1\right] \) represents a mapping \(\oplus :[0,1]^{I}\Rightarrow [0,1]\):
There are various definitions of aggregation operator including logical sum, represented by an snorm (Mamdani combination [19]), logical product, represented by a tnorm (Gödel combination [16]), as well as nonmonotonic fuzzy operations that allow conducting the inference even if part of the knowledge is missing [32]. Most of them can be defined as special cases of the generalized average operator [4]:
for \(\alpha \in \mathbb {R}\setminus \left\{ 0\right\} \).
Consequently, the first stage of the FATI method can be defined as:
where \(R^{(i)}\) is the ith fuzzy relation.
Next, the outcome fuzzy set \(B_{FATI}^{\prime }\) is determined for an input fuzzy set \(\mathbf {A}^{\prime }\) using the GMPP:
the membership function of which is defined as
In the case of the FITA method, first the conclusion of each fuzzy ifthen rule is determined:
the membership function of which is written as:
During the next stage, these partial results of the inference are aggregated forming the outcome fuzzy set:
defined by the membership function:
It can be proven [7], that the results of the FATI method are a subset of those obtained using the FITA procedure:
that is:
Usually, for simplicity of calculations, the \(B_{FATI}^{\prime }\) is used instead of \(B_{FITA}^{\prime }\), under the assumption that the difference is insignificant [4].
3.3 Fuzzification and Defuzzification
In many applications inputs of the fuzzy systems are defined as crisp numerical data. However, approximate reasoning requires inputs to be represented as fuzzy sets. The process of mapping real values \(\mathbf {x}_{0} = \left[ x_{01},x_{02},\ldots ,x_{0N}\right] ^{\top } \in \underline{\mathbb {X}} \subset \mathbb {R}^{N}\) to an Ndimensional fuzzy set \(\mathbf {A^{\prime }}\) defined on \(\underline{\mathbb {X}}\) is called fuzzification. The fuzzification can be symbolically expressed as a transformation of Ndimensional space into a multitude of fuzzy sets [16]:
Using membership functions we can write:
Among many definitions of a fuzzification operator, the singleton fuzzifier can be distinguished:
for which both methods of approximate reasoning (FATI and FITA) provide equivalent inference results [5].
The result of approximate reasoning is a fuzzy set \(B^{\prime }\left( y\right) \), which can be associated with a specific linguistic label. However, there are applications that require a crisp numerical inference outcome. The process of calculating a representative numerical output \(y_{0}\in \mathbb {Y}\) from the outcome fuzzy set \(B^{\prime }\left( y\right) \) on \(\mathbb {Y}\) is called defuzzification. Defuzzification is a mapping of a multitude of fuzzy sets defined on the space \(\mathbb {Y}\) to a single numerical value from \(\mathbb {Y}\) [16]:
Using membership functions we get:
Due to the different criteria for determining which element \(y_0\) of the fuzzy set \(B^{\prime }\left( y\right) \) should be regarded as the most representative one, there are many definitions of the defuzzification procedure [6, 14, 31]. One of the most popular is a center of gravity method (COG), which specifies the result as a center of the area under the membership function \(\mu _{B^{\prime }}\left( y\right) \):
4 Basic Types of Fuzzy Systems
Due to a wide range of possible applications there are many different types of fuzzy systems that have been proposed in the literature thus far [4, 16, 22, 23, 31]. But new solutions characterized by decreased computation complexity, improved modeling quality, or greater ease of the linguistic interpretation of the inference results are still the topic of research. The model proposed by E.H. Mamdani and S. Assilan [19] is generally regarded as the first fuzzy system presented in the literature. Currently, it can be considered as the foundation of the fuzzy models family based on ifthen rules with fuzzy sets in antecedents as well as consequents.
4.1 Mamdani–Assilan Fuzzy Model
The Mamdani–Assilan fuzzy system (MAFS) uses a set of conditional fuzzy rules in the canonical form (2.20), which can be determined by a human expert. The MAFS is based on the conjunctive interpretation of fuzzy rules, where the conjunctive “and” of a rule antecedent is defined with the tnorm minimum \((\wedge )\). The inference results from individual rules are aggregated by applying the snorm maximum \((\vee )\). The numerical inputs \(\mathbf {x}_{0} = \left[ x_{01},x_{02},\ldots ,x_{0N}\right] ^{\top }\) are mapped into fuzzy sets with the singleton fuzzifier, and the numerical outcome is calculated using the COG method. The approximate reasoning schema is realized on the basis of Eq. (2.40), which takes the form:
where
The above equation defines the socalled firing strength of the ith rule, denoted as \(F^{\left( i\right) }\left( \mathbf {x}_{0}\right) \). Hence, the formula (2.49) can also be written as
Using the COG defuzzification we get:
Figure 2.3 shows an example of fuzzy inference using MAFS with two inputs and the knowledge base consisting of two conditional fuzzy rules.
The defuzzification requires high computational complexity, however, some simplifications can be applied. Using the algebraic product tnorm and the arithmetic mean as the aggregation operator we obtain a Larsen fuzzy system, which is defined as [16]:
By substitution of (2.53) into (2.52) we get:
Denoting the area under a membership function of the fuzzy set \({B^{\left( i\right) }}\left( y\right) \) as
and its center of gravity as \(y^{\left( i\right) }\), we can write:
The above solution requires only a single calculation of the areas under the membership functions and centers of gravity locations for all fuzzy rules. By assuming additionally that \(\mathscr {A}\left( \mu _{B^{\left( i\right) }}\left( y\right) \right) \) are the same for all I consequents, we get the Sugeno–Yasukawa fuzzy model [26].
Approximate reasoning without the defuzzification necessity was presented in papers by Takagi and Sugeno [27] and Sugeno and Kang [25]. The proposed model, called the Takagi–Sugeno–Kang fuzzy system (TSKFS), is described in the following subsection.
4.2 Takagi–Sugeno–Kang Fuzzy System
The knowledge base of the TSKFS consists of conditional fuzzy rules with the consequents in the form of classical functions, the arguments of which are the input numerical data:
where \(x_{0n}\) is an input singleton, \(\mathbf {x}_{0} = \left[ x_{01},x_{02},\ldots ,x_{0N}\right] ^{\top }\), and \(y^{\left( i\right) }\left( \mathbf {x}\right) \) is the function in the ith consequent.
The output of each fuzzy rule is a crisp numerical datum \(y = y^{\left( i\right) }\left( \mathbf {x}_{0}\right) \), and the TSKFS outcome is calculated as a weighted average of individual outputs:
where
is the firing strength and \(\star _{T}\) is a tnorm (usually a minimum or algebraic product).
Equation (2.58) can be interpreted as a mixture of experts, each modeled by a single fuzzy rule. Each rule defines the relationship between outputs and inputs of the system in the relevant input range. The weighted average of statements from all local experts (rules) determines the reasoning result. The weight, represented by the firing strength of the rule, specifies the influence level of a single expert on the final inference outcome.
The consequent of the ith TSKFS fuzzy rule can also be understood as a singleton [4], the location of which is determined by the function \(y^{\left( i\right) }\left( \mathbf {x}\right) \):
Hence, the TSKFS is usually referred to as the fuzzy system with “moving” singletons. The term “moving” relates to the relationship between a singleton location and the input numerical data. The amplitude (height) of the singleton after the approximate reasoning is defined by the firing strength of a rule.
The TSKFS consequents are frequently defined as linear functions (firstorder polynomials):
where \(\mathbf {p}^{\left( i\right) }\) is the \((N + 1)\)dimensional vector of parameters of the function \(y^{\left( i\right) }\left( \mathbf {x}\right) \), and \(\mathbf {x}_{0}^{\prime }\) denotes the extended input vector:
A collection of simple linear functions \(y^{\left( i\right) }\left( \mathbf {x}\right) \) allows for modeling the most complex input–output relationships. Overlapping areas of antecedents in neighboring rules ensure smooth switching between the local models.
An example of TSKFS inference with two inputs and two conditional fuzzy rules is shown in Fig. 2.4. The main advantage of the TSKFS is the low computational effort required to determine the numerical output of the system as the inference process does not involve defuzzification. However, it does not allow for the application of different interpretations of the fuzzy rules and different types of aggregation operators. This is due to the application of singletons in the rules consequents. The artificial neural network based fuzzy inference system (ANNBFIS) [17] is devoid of such disadvantages. The ANNBFIS combines the benefits of the usage of a fuzzy set in the rule consequent (as in the MAFS) together with the dependency of the consequent location on system inputs (as in the TSKFS) [4, 15, 16]. Another extension of the TSKFS is the Tsukamoto fuzzy system (TFS) [28]. The main difference between TSKFS and TFS is the method of determining the singleton location in the consequent of the fuzzy rule. In TFS it is defined using a monotonic function as well as a firing strength of the rule.
4.3 Tsukamoto Fuzzy System
The knowledge base of TFS is a collection of fuzzy conditional statements in the form:
where \(f_{i}\left( y\right) \) is a monotonic function in the ith consequent.
For the firing strength equal to \(F^{\left( i\right) }\left( \mathbf {x}_{0}\right) \) the consequent is a singleton with the amplitude \(F^{\left( i\right) }\left( \mathbf {x}_{0}\right) \) and the location \(y^{\left( i\right) }\) such that \(F^{\left( i\right) }\left( \mathbf {x}_{0}\right) = f_{i}\left( y^{\left( i\right) }\right) \):
where \(y^{\left( i\right) } = f_{i}^{1}\left( F^{\left( i\right) }\left( \mathbf {x}_{0}\right) \right) \).
The inference outcome of the TFS is calculated as a weighted average of singleton locations from all rules, with weights defined as the rules firing strengths:
An example of the Tsukamoto approximate reasoning with two inputs and two fuzzy ifthen rules is shown in Fig. 2.5.
The TFS is rarely used due to the difficulty in obtaining the conditional fuzzy rules from a human expert in the form (2.63). For the same reasons the Baldwin fuzzy system (BFS) [1, 2] is difficult to apply in practice. The BFS represents a different approach to fuzzy modeling, which is not based on Zadeh’s compositional rule of inference but on reasoning using fuzzy truth value restrictions. The literature describes many other interesting proposals of fuzzy models, including those based on intervalvalued fuzzy sets and type2 fuzzy sets. A detailed overview can be found, for example, in [13, 18, 29, 30].
5 Summary
In this chapter we discussed basic problems related to the idea of fuzzy systems based on the Zadeh compositional rule of inference. The presentation started with explaining the concepts of the linguistic variable and fuzzy conditional statement. Next, different types of the fuzzy ifthen rules and various methods of their mathematical representation were presented. Also, an overview of the compositional rule of inference proposed by Zadeh was introduced. General theoretical considerations on approximate reasoning were supplemented with examples of elementary fuzzy models. We described the basic solutions being the foundation of many modern constructions including fuzzy systems of Mamdani–Assilan, Takagi–Sugeno–Kang, and Tsukamoto.
References
Baldwin, J.: A new approach to approximate reasoning using a fuzzy logic. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 2, 309–325 (1979)
Baldwin, J., Guild, N.: Feasible algorithms for approximate reasoning using fuzzy logic. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 3, 225–251 (1980)
Czabanski, R., Jezewski, J., Horoba, K., Jezewski, M.: Fetal state assessment using fuzzy analysis of the fetal heart rate signals  agreement with the neonatal outcome. Biocybern. Biomed. Eng. 33, 145–155 (2013)
Czogala, E., Leski, J.: Fuzzy and NeuroFuzzy Intelligent Systems. PhysicaVerlag, Springer Comp., Heidelberg (2000)
Czogala, E., Leski, J.: On equivalence of approximate reasoning results using different interpretations of ifthen rules. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 117, 279–296 (2001)
Dobrosielski, W.T., Szczepanski, J., Zarzycki, H.: A Proposal for a Method of Defuzzification Based on the Golden Ratio—GR, pp. 75–84. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
Dubois, D., Prade, H.: Fuzzy sets in approximate reasoning  part 1: inference with possibility distributions. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 40, 143–202 (1991)
Dubois, D., Prade, H.: What are fuzzy rules and how to use them. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 84, 169–185 (1996)
Fodor, J.: On fuzzy implication operators. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 42, 293–300 (1991)
Fodor, J., Roubens, M.: Fuzzy Preference Modelling and Multicriteria Decision Support. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht (1994)
Hellendoorn, H., Driankov, D.: Fuzzy Model Identification. Selected Approaches. Springer, Berlin (1997)
Kacprzyk, J.: Multistage Decisionmaking Under Fuzziness: Theory and Applications. Verlag TV Rheinland, Cologne (1983)
Karnik, N., Mendel, J., Liang, Q.: Type\(2\) fuzzy logic systems. IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst. 7(6), 643–658 (1999)
Leekwijck, W., Kerre, E.: Defuzzification: criteria and classification. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 108, 159–178 (1999)
Leski, J.: \(\varepsilon \)insensitive fuzzy \(c\)regression models: introduction to \(\varepsilon \)insensitive fuzzy modeling. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part B Cybern. 34(1), 4–15 (2004)
Leski, J.: NeuroFuzzy Systems (in Polish). WNT, Warsaw (2008)
Leski, J., Czogala, E.: A new artificial neural network based fuzzy inference system with moving consequents in ifthen rules and its applications. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 108, 289–297 (1999)
Liang, Q., Mendel, J.: Interval type\(2\) fuzzy logic systems: theory and design. IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst. 8(5), 535–550 (2000)
Mamdani, E., Assilan, S.: An experiment in linguistic synthesis with a fuzzy logic controller. Int. J. ManMachine Studies 20(2), 1–13 (1975)
Marszalek, A., Burczyński, T.: Modeling and forecasting financial time series with ordered fuzzy candlesticks. Inf. Sci. 273, 144–155 (2014)
Rooth, G.: Guidelines for the use of fetal monitoring. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 25, 159–167 (1987)
Rutkowska, D.: NeuroFuzzy Architectures and Hybrid Learning. PhysicaVerlag, Springer Comp., Heidelberg (2002)
Rutkowski, L.: New Soft Computing Techniques for System Modeling, Pattern Classification and Image Processing. PhysicaVerlag, Springer Comp., Heidelberg (2004)
Stachowiak, A., Dyczkowski, K., Wojtowicz, A., Zywica, P., Wygralak, M.: A Bipolar View on Medical Diagnosis in OvaExpert System, vol. 400, pp. 483–492. Springer, Berlin (2016)
Sugeno, M., Kang, G.: Structure identification of fuzzy model. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 28, 15–33 (1988)
Sugeno, M., Yasukawa, T.: A fuzzylogicbased approach to qualitative modeling. IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst. 1(1), 7–31 (1993)
Takagi, T., Sugeno, M.: Fuzzy identification of systems and its application to modeling and control. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 15(1), 116–132 (1985)
Tsukamoto, Y.: An approach to fuzzy reasoning method. In: Gupta, M., Ragade, R., Yager, R. (eds.) Advances in Fuzzy Set Theory and Applications, pp. 137–149. NorthHolland, Amsterdam (1979)
Türkşen, I.: Four methods of approximate reasoning with intervalvalued fuzzy sets. Int. J. Approx. Reason. 3, 121–142 (1989)
Türkşen, I.: Type I and type II fuzzy system modeling. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 106, 11–34 (1999)
Wang, L.X.: A Course in Fuzzy Systems and Control. PrenticeHall, Upper Saddle River (1997)
Yager, R., Filev, D.: Essentials of Fuzzy Modeling and Control. Wiley, New York (1994)
Yu, X., Kacprzyk, J. (eds.): Applied Decision Support with Soft Computing. PhysicaVerlag, Springer Comp., Heidelberg (2003)
Zadeh, L.: Outline of a new approach to the analysis of complex systems and decision processes. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 3(1), 28–44 (1973)
Zadeh, L.: The concept of a linguistic variable and its application to approximate reasoningI. Inf. Sci. 8, 199–249 (1975)
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education funding for statutory activities (BK220/RAu3/2016).
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Corresponding author
Editor information
Editors and Affiliations
Rights and permissions
Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.
The images or other third party material in this book are included in the book’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the book’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.
Copyright information
© 2017 The Author(s)
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Czabanski, R., Jezewski, M., Leski, J. (2017). Introduction to Fuzzy Systems. In: Prokopowicz, P., Czerniak, J., Mikołajewski, D., Apiecionek, Ł., Ślȩzak, D. (eds) Theory and Applications of Ordered Fuzzy Numbers. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, vol 356. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/9783319596143_2
Download citation
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/9783319596143_2
Published:
Publisher Name: Springer, Cham
Print ISBN: 9783319596136
Online ISBN: 9783319596143
eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)