Changing the Criminal Lifestyle

Chapter
Part of the Palgrave's Frontiers in Criminology Theory book series (FCRT)

Abstract

In this chapter I explores interventions designed to alter a criminal lifestyle. Principles derived from individuals who have changed on their own, a process known as natural recovery or unassisted change, are used to construct a model of assisted change. The three phases of lifestyle change (preparation, action, and follow-up) are outlined and then applied to the case history first introduced in Chap.  6. Three principles from nonlinear dynamical systems theory (sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation, and self-organization) figure prominently in this chapter.

Keywords

Lifestyle change model Preparation phase Action phase Follow-up phase 

References

  1. Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010). The psychology of criminal conduct (5th ed.). New Providence, NJ: Matthew Bender.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, D. A., & Dowden, C. (2006). Risk principle of case classification in correctional treatment: A meta-analytic investigation. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50, 88–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1982). The psychology of chance encounters and life paths. American Psychologist, 37, 747–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A. J., & Maruschak, L. M. (2001, July). Mental health treatment in state prisons, 2000. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report (NCJ 188215). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  6. Biernacki, P. (1986). Pathways from heroin addiction: Recovery without treatment. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Blasko, B. L., Friedmann, P. D., Rhodes, A. G., & Taxman, F. S. (2015). The parolee-parole officer relationship as a mediator of criminal justice outcomes. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 42, 722–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brezina, T., & Topalli, V. (2012). Criminal self-efficacy: Exploring the correlates and consequences of a “successful criminal” identity. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 1042–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bush, J., Glick, B., & Taymans, J. (1997). Thinking for a change: Integrated cognitive behavior change program. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections.Google Scholar
  10. Center for Human Resource Research. (2009). NLSY79 user’s guide. Columbus, OH: CHRR NLS User Services, The Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  11. Cusson, M., & Pinnsoneault, P. (1986). The decision to give up crime. In D. Cornish & R. Clarke (Eds.), The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending (pp. 72–82). New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dowden, C., & Andrews, D. A. (1999). What works in young offender treatment: A meta-analysis. Forum on Corrections Research, 11, 21–24.Google Scholar
  13. Duwe, G., & Clark, V. (2014). The effects of prison-based educational programming on recidivism and employment. Prison Journal, 94, 454–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Farrington, D. P. (2003). Developmental and life-course criminology: Key theoretical and empirical issues. Criminology, 41, 221–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Festinger, L. (1962). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Folk, J. B., Disabato, D. J., Daylor, J. M., Tangney, J. P., Barboza, S., ... Holwager, J. (2016). Effectiveness of a self-administered intervention for criminal thinking: Taking a chance on change. Psychological Services, 13, 272–282.Google Scholar
  17. Friedmann, P. D., Katz, E. C., Rhodes, A. G., Taxman, F. S., O’Connell, D. J., … Martin, S. S. (2008). Collaborative behavioral management for drug-involved parolees: Rationale and design of the Step’n Out study. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 47, 290‒318.Google Scholar
  18. Garner, B. R., Knight, K., Flynn, P. M., Morey, J. T., & Simpson, D. D. (2007). Measuring offender attributes and engaging in treatment using the client evaluation of self and treatment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 1113–1130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Glueck, S., & Glueck, E. (1968). Delinquents and nondelinquents in perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goldstein, A. P., Glick, B., & Reiner, S. (1987). Aggression Replacement Training. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hatcher, R. M., Palmer, E. J., McGuire, J., Hounsome, J. C., Bilby, C. A. L., & Hollin, C. R. (2008). Aggression Replacement Training with adult male offenders within community settings: A reconviction analysis. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 19, 517–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hirschi, T., & Gottfredson, M. (1983). Age and the explanation of crime. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 552–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hubbard, D. (2007). Getting the most out of correctional treatment: Testing the responsivity principle on male and female offenders. Federal Probation, 71(1), 2–8.Google Scholar
  24. Hughes, M. (1998). Turning points in the lives of young inner-city men forgoing destructive criminal behaviors: A qualitative study. Social Work, 22, 143–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Imel, Z. E., & Wampold, B. E. (2008). The importance of treatment and the science of common factors in psychotherapy. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (4th ed, pp. 249–266). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. Inciardi, J. A., Martin, S. S., & Butzin, C. A. (2004). Five-year outcomes of therapeutic community treatment of drug involved offenders after release from prison. Crime & Delinquency, 50, 88–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Karver, M. S., Handelsman, J. B., Fields, S., & Bickman, L. (2006). Meta-analysis of therapeutic relationship variables in youth and family therapy: The evidence for different relationship variables in the child and adolescent treatment outcome literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 50–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Koehler, J. A., Lösel, F., Akoensi, T. D., & Humphreys, D. K. (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of young offender treatment programs in Europe. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9, 19–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Landenberger, N. A., & Lipsey, M. W. (2005). The positive effects of cognitive-behavioral programs for offenders: A meta-analysis of factors associated with effective treatment. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1, 451–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Langan, P. A., & Levin, D. J. (2002, June). Recidivism of prisoners released in 1994. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report (NCJ 193427). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  31. Latessa, E. J., & Lowenkamp, C. (2006). What works in reducing recidivism. University of St. Thomas Law Journal, 3, 521–525.Google Scholar
  32. Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (1993). Turning points in the life course: Why change matters to the study of crime. Criminology, 31, 301–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. LeBel, T. P., Burnett, R., Maruna, S., & Bushway, S. D. (2008). The “chicken and egg” of subjective and social factors in desistance from crime. European Journal of Criminology, 5, 131–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. LeBlanc, M., & Fréchette, M. (1989). Male criminal activity from childhood through youth: Multilevel and developmental perspectives. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lipsey, M. W., Chapman, G., & Landenberger, N. A. (2001). Cognitive-behavioral programs for offenders. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 578, 144–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Little, G. L. (2005). Meta-analysis of Moral Reconation Therapy: Recidivism results from probation and parole implementations Cognitive-Behavioral. Treatment Review, 14(1/2), 14–16.Google Scholar
  37. Little, G. L., & Robinson, K. D. (1986). How to escape your prison. Memphis, TN: Eagle Wing Books.Google Scholar
  38. Lloyd, C. D., Hanby, L. J., & Serin, R. C. (2014). Rehabilitation group co-participants’ risk levels are associated with offenders’ treatment performance, treatment change, and recidivism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82, 298–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., & Petechuk, D. (2013, July). From juvenile delinquency to young adult offending. Final Report, NCJ 242931, http://nij.ncjrs.gov/publications.
  40. Lorenz, E. (1979, December). Predictability: Does the flap of a butterfly’s wings in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas? Paper p resented at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  41. Lowenkamp, C. T., Hubbard, D., Makarios, M. D., & Latessa, E. J. (2009). A quasi-experimental evaluation of Thinking for a Change: A “real-world” application. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36, 137–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lowenkamp, C. T., Pealer, J., Smith, P., & Latessa, E. J. (2006). Adhering to the risk and need principles: Does it matter for supervision-based programs? Federal Probation, 70(3), 3–8.Google Scholar
  43. Loza, W. (2005). Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ): A tool for assessing violent and nonviolent recidivism. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  44. Mace, C. (Ed.). (1996). The art and science of assessment in psychotherapy. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. Maruna, S. (2001). Making good: How ex-convicts reform and build their lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McLellan, A. T., Kushner, H., Metzger, D., Peters, R., Smith, I., & Grissom, G. (1992). The fifth edition of the Addiction Severity Index. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 9, 199–213.Google Scholar
  47. Meier, P. S., Barrowclough, C., & Donmall, M. C. (2005). The role of the therapeutic alliance in the treatment of substance misuse: A critical review of the literature. Addiction, 100, 304–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  49. Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Mitchell, O., & Harrell, A. (2006). Evaluation of the Breaking the Cycle Demonstration Project: Jacksonville, FL and Tacoma, WA. Journal of Drug Issues, 36, 97–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Paternoster, R., & Bushway, S. D. (2009). Desistance and the feared self: Toward an identity theory of desistance. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 99, 1103–1156.Google Scholar
  52. Paternoster, R., Bachman, R., Kerrison, E., O’Connell, D., & Smith, L. (2016). Desistance from crime and identity: An empirical test with survival time. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43, 1204–1224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pearson, F. S., Lipton, D. S., Cleland, C. M., & Yee, D. S. (2002). The effects of behavioral/cognitive-behavioral programs on recidivism. Crime & Delinquency, 48, 476–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Peele, S. (1998). Ten radical things NIAAA research shows about alcoholism. The Addictions Newsletter, 5(2), 6, 17–19.Google Scholar
  55. Rocque, M., Posick, C., & Paternoster, R. (2016). Identities through time: An exploration of identity change as a cause of desistance. Justice Quarterly, 33, 45–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ross, R. R., & Fabiano, E. A. (1985). Time to think: A cognitive model of delinquency prevention and offender rehabilitation. Johnson City, TN: Institute of Social Sciences and Arts.Google Scholar
  57. Samenow, S. (2014). Inside the criminal mind (rev ed.). New York: Broadway Books.Google Scholar
  58. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (2016). Turning points and future of life-course criminology: Reflections on the 1986 criminal careers report. Journal of Research in Crime and Dellinquency, 53, 321–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schmucker, M., & Lösel, F. (2015). The effects of sexual offender treatment on recidivism: An international meta-analysis of sound quality evaluations. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 11, 597–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shover, N. (1996). Great pretenders: Pursuits and careers of persistent thieves. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  62. Sommers, I., Baskin, D., & Fagan, J. (1994). Getting out of the life: Crime desistance among female street offenders. Deviant Behavior, 15, 125–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Spiegler, M. D., & Guevremont, D. C. (2016). Contemporary behavior therapy (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  64. Tong, L. S. J., & Farrington, D. P. (2006). How effective is the “Reasoning and Rehabilitation” programme in reducing reoffending? A meta-analysis of evaluations in four countries. Psychology, Crime & Law, 12, 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. van der Stouwe, T., Asscher, J. J., Stams, G. J. J. M., Dekovíc, M., & van der Laan, P. H. (2014). The effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy (MST); A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 34, 468–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Visher, C. A., Winterfield, L., & Coggeshall, M. B. (2005). Ex-offender employment programs and recidivism: A meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1, 295–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Walters, G. D. (1995). The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles: Part I. Reliability and initial validity. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 22, 307–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Walters, G. D. (1998a). Changing lives of crime and drugs: Intervening with the substance abusing criminal offender. Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  69. Walters, G. D. (1998b). Planning for change: An alternative to treatment planning with sexual offenders. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 24, 217‒229.Google Scholar
  70. Walters, G. D. (2000). Spontaneous remission from alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse: Seeking quantitative answers to qualitative questions. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 26, 443‒460.Google Scholar
  71. Walters, G. D. (2009). The differential impact of anger management training on proactive and reactive criminal thinking. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 8, 214‒217.Google Scholar
  72. Walters, G. D. (2012). Crime in a psychological context: From career criminals to criminal careers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  73. Walters, G. D. (2014). Applying CBT to the criminal thought process. In R. C. Tafrate & D. Mitchell (Eds.), Forensic CBT: A handbook for clinical practice (pp. 104‒121). Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  74. Walters, G. D. (2015). Early childhood temperament, maternal monitoring, reactive criminal thinking, and the origin(s) of low self-control. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43, 369‒376.Google Scholar
  75. Walters, G. D. (2016a). Breaking the Cycle Demonstration Project: Using a quasi-experimental analysis to test the “worst of both worlds” hypothesis and risk principle. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 12, 127‒141.Google Scholar
  76. Walters, G. D. (2016b). Proactive criminal thinking, cold heartedness, and counselor rapport in correctional clients participating in substance abuse treatment. Personality and Individual Differences, 98, 239‒243.Google Scholar
  77. Walters, G. D. (2016c). The working alliance between substance abusing offenders and their parole officers and counselors: Its impact on outcome and role as a mediator. Journal of Crime and Justice, 39, 421‒437.Google Scholar
  78. Walters, G. D. (in press). Effect of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention on criminal thinking and prison misconduct in male inmates: Variable-oriented and person-oriented analyses. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health.Google Scholar
  79. Walters, G. D., & Morgan, R. D. (2017). Assessing criminal thought content: Development and preliminary validation of the Criminal Thought Content Inventory (CTCI). Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  80. Walters, S. T., Clark, M. D., Gingerich, R., & Meltzer, M. L. (2007). Motivating offenders to change: A guide for probation and parole (NIC #022253). Washington, DC: National Institute of Corrections.Google Scholar
  81. Webster, C. D., Douglas, K. S., Eaves, D., & Hart, S. D. (1997). HCR-20: Assessing risk for violence (Version 2). Burnaby, BC, Canada: Simon Fraser University, Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  82. Wilson, D. B., Bouffard, L. A., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2005). A quantitative review of structured, group-oriented, cognitive-behavioral programs for offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 32, 172–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kutztown UniversityKutztownUSA

Personalised recommendations