Advertisement

Modelling of Medium-Term (Decadal) Coastal Foredune Morphodynamics- Historical Hindcast and Future Scenarios of the Świna Gate Barrier Coast (Southern Baltic Sea)

  • Wenyan ZhangEmail author
  • Ralf Schneider
  • Jan Harff
  • Birgit Hünicke
  • Peter Fröhle
Chapter
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 19)

Abstract

Coastal foredunes are developed as a result of interplay among multi-scale land-sea processes. Natural foredune ridges along the Świna Gate barrier coast (southern Baltic Sea) developed since 6000 cal. year BP provide an excellent laboratory to study the land-sea interaction under a medium- to long-term climatic control. In this paper we investigate several basic driving mechanisms of coastal foredune morphodynamics as well as natural environmental factors involved in shaping the foredune geometry by a numerical model. The model couples a process-based module for subaqueous sediment transport and a probabilistic-type module for subaerial aeolian sand transport and vegetation growth. After an evaluation of the model performance for a 61-year (1951–2012 AD) historical hindcast of the foredune development along a 1 km-long section of the Świna Gate barrier coast, the model is applied for a future projection of the same area to 2050 AD based on three different climate change scenarios. The climate change scenarios represent three different impact levels with regard to their capacity to shape the coastal morphology. Simulation results demonstrate a remarkable variability in foredune development even along a small (1 km) coast section, implying that the medium-term land-sea interaction and foredune morphodynamics is quite sensitive to boundary conditions and various processes acting on multi-temporal and spatial scales. Foredune morphodynamics such as migration, bifurcation, destruction and separation are determined by different combinations of storm frequency, onshore sediment supply rate and relative sea-level change. In contrast to a low rate of relative sea-level rise during the last few decades, an accelerated sea level-rise over the twenty-first century predicted by existing literature, would result in a dramatic and non-linear response from the foredune development according to our simulations.

Keywords

Aeolian transport Cellular automata Extreme events Land-sea interaction Vegetation cover 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The historical wind and precipitation data (1951–2012) of the southern Baltic Sea were kindly provided by R. Weisse from Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany. The simulations were carried out at MPI-IPP (Max-Plank-Institute for Plasma Physics) in Greifswald and Garching, Germany. We thank the Polish Maritime Office (Szczecin) and J. Dudzinska-Nowak (University of Szczecin) for providing the valuable source data of high-resolution DEM and annual profile measurement from 2005 to 2012. W. Zhang is funded through DFG-Research Center/Excellence Cluster “The Ocean in the Earth System”.

References

  1. Aagaard T, Orford J, Murray AS (2007) Environmental controls on coastal dune formation: Skallingen Spit, Denmark. Geomorphology 83:29–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anthony EJ, Mrani-Alaoui M, Hequette A (2010) Shoreface sand supply and mid- to late- holocene aeolian dune formation on the storm-dominated macrotidal coast of the southern North Sea. Mar Geol 276:100–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arens SM (1997) Transport rates and volume changes in a coastal foredune on a Dutch Wadden island. J Coast Conserv 3:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arens SM, van Kaam-Peters HME, van Boxel JH (1995) Air flow over foredunes and implications for sand transport. Earth Surf Process Landf 20:315–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baas ACW (2002) Chaos, fractals and self-organization in coastal geomorphology: simulating dune landscapes in vegetated environments. Geomorphology 48(1–3):309–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BACC author team (2008) Assessment of climate change in the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, ISBN 978–3–540-72785, pp 473Google Scholar
  7. Bauer BO, Davidson-Arnott RGD (2003) A general framework for modelling sediment supply to coastal dunes including wind angle, beach geometry and fetch effects. Geomorphology 49:89–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauer BO, Davidson-Arnott RGD, Hesp PA, Namikas SL, Ollerhead J, Walker IJ (2009) Aeolian sediment transport on a beach: surface moisture, wind fetch, and mean transport. Geomorphology 105:106–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Christiansen MB, Davidson-Arnott R (2004) Rates of landward sand transport over the foredune at Skallingen, Denmark and the role of dune ramps. Danish Journal of Geography 104(1):31–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davidson-Arnott RGD, MacQuarrie K, Aagaard T (2005) The effect of wind gusts, moisture content and fetch length on sand transport on a beach. Geomorphology 68:115–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Vries S, Southgate HN, Kanning W, Ranasinghe R (2012) Dune behavior and aeolian transport on decadal timescales. Coast Eng 67:41–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dean RG (1977) Equilibrium beach Profiles: U.S. Atlantic and the Gulf Coasts. Dep Civil Eng, Ocean Eng. Rep. 12, Univ. Delaware, NewarkGoogle Scholar
  13. Delgado-Fernandez I (2011) Meso-scale modelling of aeolian sediment input to coastal dunes. Geomorphology 130:230–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deng J, Zhang W, Schneider R, Harff J, Dudzinska-Nowak J, Terefenko P, Giza A, Furmanczyk K (2014) A numerical approach for approximating the historical morphology of wave-dominated coasts - a case study of the Pomeranian Bight, southern Baltic Sea. Geomorphology 204:425–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dudzinska-Nowak J (2006) Coastal morphology changes as an indicator of the coast development tendency (In polish: Zmienność morfologii strefy brzegowej, jako wskaźnik tendencji rozwojowych brzegu), Institute of Marine Sciences University of Szczecin Szczecin, Ph.D. Thesis. p 226Google Scholar
  16. Harff J, Meyer M (2011) Coastlines of the Baltic Sea-zones of competition betweengeological processes and a changing climate: examples from the Southern Baltic-Springer. In: Harff J, Björck S, Hoth P (eds) The Baltic sea basin. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 149–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. HELCOM (2013) Climate change in the Baltic Sea area - HELCOM thematic assessment in 2013. Baltic Sea environment Proceedings 137. Helsinki Commission, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  18. Hesp PA (1988) Morphology, dynamics and internal stratification of some established foredunes in southeast Australia. In: Hesp PA, Fryberger S (eds) Eolian sediments. Journal of Sedimentary Geology 55:17–41Google Scholar
  19. Hesp PA (2002) Foredunes and blowouts: initiation, geomorphology and dynamics. Geomorphology 48:245–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  21. Jackson DWT, Beyers JHM, Lynch K, Cooper JAG, Baas ACW, Delgado-Fernandez I (2011) Investigation of three-dimensional wind flow behaviour over coastal dune morphology under offshore winds using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and ultrasonic anemometry. Earth Surf Process Landf 36:1113–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Keilhack K (1912) Die Verlandung der Swinepforte. Jahrbuch der Königliche-Preussischen Geologischen Landesanstalt XXXII, pp 209–244Google Scholar
  23. Kocurek G, Ewing RC (2005) Aeolian dune field self-organization - implications for the formation of simple versus complex dune - field patterns. Geomorphology 72:94–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kriebel DL, Dean RG (1985) Numerical simulation of time-dependent beach and dune erosion. Coast Eng 9(3):221–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Łabuz TA (2005) Present-day dune environment dynamics on the coast of the Świna Gate Sandbar (Polish West coast). Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 62:507–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Larson M, Kraus NC (1995) Prediction of cross-shore sediment transport at different spatial and temporal scales. Mar Geol 126:111–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Larson M, Kraus NC, Byrnes MB (1990) SBEACH: Numerical model for simulating storm-induced beach change, Rep. 2, Numerical formulation and model tests. Tech. Rep. CERC-89-9, US Army Eng. Waterways Expt Stn, Coastal Eng Res Center, Vicksburg, MissGoogle Scholar
  28. Luna MCMM, Parteli EJR, Durán O, Herrmann HJ (2011) Model for the genesis of coastal dune fields with vegetation. Geomorphology 129:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meyer M, Harff J, Gogina M, Barthel A (2008) Coastline changes of the Darss-Zingst Peninsula - a modelling approach. J Mar Syst 74:S147–S154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nield JM, Baas ACW (2008) Investigating parabolic and nebkha dune formation using a cellular automaton modelling approach. Earth Surf Process Landf 33(5):724–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ollerhead J, Davidson-Arnott R, Walker IJ, Mathew S (2012) Annual to decadal morphodynamics of the foredune system at Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island, Canada. Earth Surf Process Landf. doi: 10.1002/esp.3327 Google Scholar
  32. Orford JD, Wilson IP, Wintle AG, Knight J, Braley S (2000) Holocene coastal dune initiation in Northumberland and Norfolk, eastern UK: climate and sea-level changes as possible forcing agents for dune initiation. In: Shennan I, Andrews J (eds) Holocene land-Ocean interaction and environmental change around the western North Sea, vol 166. The Geological Society, London, pp 197–217Google Scholar
  33. Osadczuk K (2002) Evolution of the Świna barrier spit. Greifswalder Geographische Arbeiten 27:119–125Google Scholar
  34. Psuty NP (1988) Sediment budget and dune/beach interaction. Journal of Coastal Research SI 3:1–4Google Scholar
  35. Reimann T, Tsukamoto S, Harff J, Osadczuk K, Frechen M (2011) Reconstruction of holocene coastal foredune progradation using luminescence dating - an example from the Świna barrier (southern Baltic Sea, NW Poland). Geomorphology 132:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rotnicka J (2013) Aeolian sand transport on a tideless beach: rate, controlling factors and influence on foredune formation (Leba Barrie case, Poland). Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Poznan, p 159 (in Polish)Google Scholar
  37. Saye S, van der Wal D, Pye K, Blott S (2005) Beach-dune morphological relationships and erosion/accretion: an investigation at five sites in England and Wales using LiDAR data. Geomorphology 72:128–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sherman DJ, Bauer BO (1993) Dynamics of beach-dune systems. Prog Phys Geogr 17:413–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tamura T (2012) Beach ridges and prograded beach deposits as palaeoenvironment records. Earth Sci Rev 114:279–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Weisse R, von Storch H, Callies U, Chrastansky A, Feser F, Grabemann I, Guenther H, Pluess A, Stoye T, Tellkamp J, Winterfeldt J, Woth K (2009) Regional meteo-marine reanalyses and climate change projections: results for Northern Europe and potentials for coastal and offshore applications. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 90:849–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Werner BT (1995) Eolian dunes: computer simulation and attractor interpretation. Geology 23:1107–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Werner BT (1999) Complexity in natural landform patterns. Science 284:102–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang W, Harff J, Schneider R, Wu CY (2010) Development of a modeling methodology for simulation of long-term morphological evolution of the southern Baltic coast. Ocean Dyn 60:1085–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang W, Harff J, Schneider R (2011) Analysis of 50-year wind data of the southern Baltic Sea for modelling coastal morphological evolution - a case study from the Darss-Zingst Peninsula. Oceanologia 53:489–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang W, Schneider R, Harff J (2012) A multi-scale hybrid long-term morphodynamic model for wave-dominated coasts. Geomorphology 149–150:49–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang W, Deng J, Harff J, Schneider R, Dudzinska-Nowak J (2013) A coupled modeling scheme for longshore sediment transport of wave-dominated coasts - a case study from the southern Baltic Sea. Coast Eng 72:39–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang W, Harff J, Schneider R, Meyer M, Zorita E, Hünicke B (2014) Holocene morphogenesis at the southern Baltic Sea: simulation of multiscale processes and their interactions for the Darss-Zingst peninsula. J Mar Syst 129:4–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang W, Schneider R, Kolb J, Teichmann T, Dudzinska-Nowak J, Harff J, Hanebuth T (2015) Land-sea interaction and morphogenesis of coastal foredunes – a modelling case study from the southern Baltic coast. Coast Eng 99:148–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenyan Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ralf Schneider
    • 2
  • Jan Harff
    • 3
  • Birgit Hünicke
    • 1
  • Peter Fröhle
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum GeesthachtGeesthachtGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Marine and Coastal SciencesUniversity of SzczecinSzczecinPoland
  4. 4.Institute of River and Coastal Engineering, Hamburg University of TechnologyHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations