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Zusammenfassung

This chapter provides an overview of clock technology and typical clocks (Cs, Rb, H-Maser) in use today for onboard and ground systems and identifies future trends such as fountain clocks, etc. Concepts such as clock drift, trend, random variations and the statistical methods for their characterization (Allan deviation (ADEV ), etc.) are introduced and performance characteristics of global navigation satellite system (GNSS ) onboard clocks are presented. The handling and impact of special and general relativity on timing measurements are discussed. Finally, the generation of a GNSS time from an ensemble of ground clocks is described.

ACES

atom clock ensemble in space

ADEV

Allan deviation

AM

amplitude modulation

BAW

bulk acoustic wave

BCRS

barycentric celestial reference system

BDT

BeiDou time

BIH

Bureau International de l’Heure

BIPM

Bureau International des Poids et Mesures

CCIR

Comité Consultatif International des Radiocommunications

CMCU

clock monitoring and comparison unit

CPT

coherent population trapping

CSAC

chip scale atomic clock

DCFBS

digital cesium beam frequency standard

EAL

Echelle atomique libre (free atomic scale)

ECEF

Earth-centered Earth-fixed

ECI

Earth-centered inertial

FLDR

flicker drift

FLFR

flicker frequency (noise)

FLPH

flicker phase (noise)

GCRS

Geocentric Celestial Reference System

GLONASS

Global’naya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikova Sistema (Russian Global Navigation Satellite System)

GNSS

global navigation satellite system

GPS

Global Positioning System

GPST

GPS Time

GST

Galileo System Time

GTRS

Geocentric Terrestrial Reference System

IAU

International Astronomical Union

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IERS

International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service

IOP

intensity optical pumping

IRNSS

Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System

ITRS

International Terrestrial Reference System

ITU

International Telecommunication Union

IUGG

International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics

JPL

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

MEMS

micro-electromechanical system

MJD

modified Julian day/date

MOT

magneto-optical trap

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NGA

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

NRL

Naval Research Lab

OCXO

oven controlled crystal oscillator

OWCP

one-way carrier-phase technique

PHM

passive hydrogen maser

PM

phase modulation

PRN

pseudo-random noise

QZSS

Quasi-Zenith Satellite System

RAFS

rubidium atomic frequency standard

RF

radio frequency

RWDR

random walk drift

RWFR

random walk frequency (noise)

RWPH

random walk phase (noise)

SAW

surface acoustic wave

SNR

signal-to-noise ratio

ST

system time

SVN

space vehicle number

TAI

International Atomic Time

TCB

barycentric coordinate time

TCG

Geocentric Coordinate Time

TCXO

temperature compensated crystal oscillator

TKS

time keeping system

TT

terrestrial time

TWSTFT

two-way satellite time and frequency transfer

URSI

International Union of Radio Science

USNO

United States Naval Observatory

UTC

Coordinated Universal Time

WHPH

white phase (noise)

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Joseph White, a colleague at the US Naval Research Laboratory, as well as Dr. Bob Nelson. Publication restrictions did not permit including Dr. White or Dr. Nelson in the authorship though many of the sections on individual atomic frequency standards and relativity were either contributed or edited by them.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Space PNT BranchUS Naval Research LaboratoryWashingtonUSA

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