Research in Educational Psychology: Social Exclusion in School

  • Gary W. LaddEmail author
  • Becky Kochenderfer-Ladd


Peer relationships in the school context play an important role in youths’ social, emotional, and cognitive development. In particular, relationships with classmates immerse students in processes (e.g., participation vs. exclusion, support vs. conflict, receiving assistance vs. being ignored) that affect their ability to adapt to school challenges, which, in turn, influences their development and achievement. Investigators have posited that social exclusion essentially hinders children and adolescents from participating in positive peer interactions, thereby denying them the benefits and provisions (e.g., companionship, help, social support) often conferred by healthy peer relationships. In this chapter, we review theory, research, and evidence that address both the origins of peer social exclusion and its purported detrimental effects on children’s adjustment within school settings. Specifically, consideration is given to (1) the historical and current conceptualization and measurement of peer social exclusion and (2) modern theory and research on the correlates of peer social exclusion in school contexts.


Social exclusion Peer rejection Peer relationships School adjustment Sociometry 



Portions of this chapter and many of the empirical studies cited in it that were published by the authors have been prepared with support from the National Institutes of Health (1-RO1MH-49223, 2-RO1MH-49223, R01HD-045906), the National Science Foundation (Grant #0318462), and the Institute for Educational Studies (R305A090386). Special appreciation is expressed to the children, parents, teachers, and schools that participated in these studies, and to those who assisted with data collection and analyses.


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Arizona State UniversityTempeUSA

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