When tissue heating with water-filtered infrared A irradiation (wIRA) is used, an exact terminology and compliance with the International System of Units (SI) are mandatory. In order to avoid misconceptions and confusion of readers/users, a glossary of basic physical terms and SI-based radiometry is presented in this chapter. Recommendations-inter alia-include: (1) terms and tools to characterize the spectrum of infrared irradiation, (2) terms and parameters of wIRA emitted by a device and incident on the surface of an exposed object, (3) terms quantifying absorption, transmittance, scattering, and remittance, (4) terms quantifying propagation of wIRA within tissues, and (5) terms quantifying optical and thermal properties, and thermal responses of tissues. Empirical and basic data for wIRA skin exposures in radiation oncology and physical therapy are also presented. Finally, obsolete and incorrect terms and vocabularies are listed. As a key information, tissue temperature levels characterizing typical wIRA-HT-related sensitizing effects and related tissue penetration depths are outlined.
- Water-filtered infrared A irradiation
- Radiation oncology
- Physical therapy
- SI-based terminology and radiometry
- ESHO criteria
Tissue heating by water-filtered infrared A radiation (wIRA) is based on interactions between radiation and tissues. wIRA-hyperthermia (wIRA-HT) requires an interdisciplinary approach involving photobiological principles and laws, (patho-)physiological tissue responses, and the needs of proper dosimetry. Thus, an exact terminology is crucial to prevent interdisciplinary misunderstanding and to be consistent with the International System of Units (SI). Science-based terms are also the key for traceability and comparability of measured data published by different authors and to prevent misconceptions and confusion of readers/users due to imprecise vocabulary or different denominations of identical parameters. Therefore, a glossary of basic physical terms and of SI-based radiometry units is proposed for consistent use in wIRA-HT. Also provided are terms defined by the European Society of Hyperthermic Oncology (ESHO) which are currently recommended for quality proof of superficial hyperthermia in oncology, and empirical, basic data for wIRA skin exposures in radiation oncology and in physical therapy (Tables 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.7 and Figs. 1.1, and 1.2).
2 Recommended Terms
3 Occasionally Used, Obsolete, and Non-Recommended Terms
4 Empirical and Basic Data for wIRA Skin Exposures in Radiation Oncology and in Physical Therapy [8, 10,11,12,13]
Bureau International de Poids and Measures (BIPM). The International system of units (SI). 8th ed. Paris: Organisation Intergouvernementale de la Convention du Métre, BIPM; 2006.
Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE). International lighting vocabulary. Vienna: CIE; 2007.
Braslavsky SE. Glossary of terms used in photochemistry. Pure Appl Chem. 2007;79:293–465.
Sliney DH. Radiometric quantities and units used in photobiology and photochemistry: recommendations of the commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (international commission on illumination). Photochem Photobiol. 2007;83:425–32.
Jacques SL. Brief summary of the major points from a tutorial lecture. Ven: Graduate Summer School; 2003.
Piazena H, Kelleher DK. Effects of infrared A irradiation on skin: discrepancies in published data highlight the need for an exact consideration of physical and photobiological laws and appropriate experimental settings. Photochem Photobiol. 2010;86:687–705.
Venugupalan V. Tutorial on tissue optics. Optical Society of America BIOMED topical meeting. Beckman laser institute. Irvine: University of California; 2004.
Dobsicek Trefna H, Creeze H, Schmidt M, et al. Quality assurance guidelines for superficial hyperthermia clinical trials: I Clinical requirements. Int J Hyperthermia. 2017;33:471–82.
Dobsicek Trefna H, Crezee J, Schmidt M, et al. Quality assurance guidelines for superficial hyperthermia clinical trials: II. Technical requirements for heating devices. Strahlenther Onkol. 2017;193:351–66.
Vaupel P, Piazena H, Müller W, Notter M. Biophysical and photobiological basics of water-filtered infrared- A hyperthermia of superficial tumors. Int J Hyperthermia. 2019;35(1):26–36.
Notter M, Piazena H, Vaupel P. Hypofractionated re-irradiation of large-sized recurrent breast cancer with thermography-controlled, contact-free water-filtered infrared-A hyperthermia: a retrospective study of 73 patients. Int J Hyperthermia. 2016;33:471–82.
Seegenschmiedt MH, Klautke G, Walther E, et al. Water-filtered infrared-A-hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy for advanced and recurrent tumours. Strahlenther Onkol. 1996;172:475–84.
Thomsen AR, Saalmann MR, Nicolay NH, et al. Temperature profiles and oxygenation status in human skin and subcutis upon thermography-controlled wIRA-hyperthermia. (see Chapter 5, this book).
Editors and Affiliations
Rights and permissions
Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.
The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.
© 2022 The Author(s)
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Piazena, H., Müller, W., Vaupel, P. (2022). Glossary Used in wIRA-Hyperthermia. In: Vaupel, P. (eds) Water-filtered Infrared A (wIRA) Irradiation. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-92880-3_1
Publisher Name: Springer, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-030-92879-7
Online ISBN: 978-3-030-92880-3
eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)