Abendroth, A., M.L. Huffman, and J. Treas. 2014. The parity penalty in life course perspective: Motherhood and occupational status in 13 European countries. American Sociological Review 79 (5): 993–1014.
Adena, M., and M. Myck. 2014. Poverty and transitions in health in later life. Social Science & Medicine 116: 202–210.
Akerlind, I., and J.O. Hornquist. 1992. Loneliness and alcohol abuse: A review of evidences of an interplay. Social Science & Medicine 34 (4): 405–414.
Akerstedt, T., K. Hume, D. Minors, and J. Waterhouse. 1994. The meaning of good sleep: A longitudinal study of polysomnography and subjective sleep quality. Journal of Sleep Research 3 (3): 152–158.
Alexander, K.L., and T.W. Reilly. 1981. Estimating the effects of marriage timing on educational attainment: Some procedural issues and substantive clarifications. American Journal of Sociology 87 (1): 143–156.
Balestrino, A., and C. Ciardi. 2008. Social norms, cognitive dissonance and the timing of marriage. The Journal of Socio-Economics 37 (6): 2399–2410.
Bettio, F., and J. Plantenga. 2004. Comparing care regimes in Europe. Feminist Economics 10 (1): 85–113.
Billari, F.C., and A.C. Liefbroer. 2010. Towards a new pattern of transition to adulthood? Advances in Life Course Research 15 (2): 59–75.
Billari, F.C., A. Goisis, A.C. Liefbroer, R.A. Settersten, A. Aassve, G. Hagestad, and Z. Speder. 2011. Social age deadlines for the childbearing of women and men. Human Reproduction 26 (3): 616–622.
Bowling, A., D. Banister, S. Sutton, O. Evans, and J. Windsor. 2002. A multidimensional model of the quality of life in older age. Aging & Mental Health 6 (4): 355–371.
Budig, M.J., J. Misra, and I. Boeckmann. 2012. The motherhood penalty in cross-national perspective: The importance of work-family policies and cultural attitudes. Social Politics 19 (2): 163–193.
Byrne, A. 2000. Singular identities: Managing stigma, resisting voices. Women’s Studies Review 7: 13–24.
Cacioppo, J.T., M.E. Hughes, L.J. Waite, L.C. Hawkley, and R.A. Thisted. 2006. Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychology and Aging 21 (1): 140–151.
Cacioppo, S., J.P. Capitanio, and J.T. Cacioppo. 2014. Toward a neurology of loneliness. Psychological Bulletin 140 (6): 1464–1504.
Chen, J. 2019. Experience of poverty and problem sleep in later life. Research on Aging 41 (7): 697–722.
Cherchye, L., B. De Rock, and F. Vermeulen. 2012. Economic well-being and poverty among the elderly: An analysis based on a collective consumption model. European Economic Review 56 (6): 985–1000.
Cherlin, A.J. 2010. Demographic trends in the United States: A review of research in the 2000s. Journal of Marriage and Family 72 (3): 403–419.
Correll, S.J., S. Benard, and I. Paik. 2007. Getting a job: Is there a motherhood penalty? American Journal of Sociology 112 (5): 1297–1338.
Crystal, S., and D. Shea. 1990. The economic well-being of the elderly. Review of Income and Wealth 36 (3): 227–247.
Davies, H., and H. Joshi. 1994. The foregone earnings of Europe’s mothers. In Standards of living and families: Observation and analysis, ed. O. Eckert, 101–134. Paris: INED John Libbey Eurotext.
De Jong Gierveld, J., and T. Van Tilburg. 2006. A 6-item scale for overall, emotional, and social loneliness confirmatory tests on survey data. Research on Aging 28 (5): 582–598.
Diener, E., C.N. Scollon, and R.E. Lucas. 2009. The evolving concept of subjective Well-being: The multifaceted nature of happiness. In Social indicators research series: Vol. 39. Assessing well-being: The collected works of Ed Diener, ed. E. Diener, 67–100. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Dykstra, P.A. 2006. Off the beaten track: Childlessness and social integration in late life. Research on Aging 28 (6): 749–767.
———. 2009. Older adult loneliness: Myths and realities. European Journal of Ageing 6 (2): 91–100.
Dykstra, P.A., and R. Keizer. 2009. The wellbeing of childless men and fathers in mid-life. Ageing and Society 29 (08): 1227–1242.
Elder, G.H., M.K. Johnson, and R. Crosnoe. 2004. The emergence and development of life course theory. In Handbook of the life course, ed. J.T. Mortimer and M.J. Shanahan, 3–19. New York: Springer.
Esping-Andersen, G. 1999. Social foundations of postindustrial economies. New York: Oxford University Press.
———. 2009. The incomplete revolution: Adapting to women’s new roles. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Fokkema, T., J. De Jong Gierveld, and P.A. Dykstra. 2012. Cross-national differences in older adult loneliness. The Journal of Psychology 146 (1–2): 201–228.
Fortin, N.M. 2005. Gender role attitudes and the labour-market outcomes of women across OECD countries. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 21 (3): 416–438.
Friedman, E.M., M.S. Hayney, G.D. Love, H.L. Urry, M.A. Rosenkranz, R.J. Davidson, B.H. Singer, and C.D. Ryff. 2005. Social relationships, sleep quality, and interleukin-6 in aging women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (51): 18757–18762.
Goldin, C. 2006. The quiet revolution that transformed women’s employment, education, and family. American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings 96 (2): 1–21.
Gough, M. 2017. Birth spacing, human capital, and the motherhood penalty at midlife in the United States. Demographic Research 37: 363–416.
Gough, M., and M. Noonan. 2013. A review of the motherhood wage penalty in the United States. Sociology Compass 7 (4): 328–342.
Gow, A.J., A. Pattie, M.C. Whiteman, L.J. Whalley, and I.J. Deary. 2007. Social support and successful aging: Investigating the relationships between lifetime cognitive change and life satisfaction. Journal of Individual Differences 28 (3): 103–115.
Hallden, K., A. Levanon, and T. Kricheli-Katz. 2016. Does the motherhood wage penalty differ by individual skill and country family policy? A longitudinal study of ten European countries. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 23 (3): 363–388.
Hansen, T., and B. Slagsvold. 2015. Late-life loneliness in 11 European countries: Results from the Generations and Gender Survey. Social Indicators Research 129 (1): 445–464.
Hansen, T., B. Slagsvold, and T. Moum. 2009. Childlessness and psychological well-being in midlife and old age: An examination of parental status effects across a range of outcomes. Social Indicators Research 94 (2): 343–362.
Hantrais, L., and M. Letablier. 1996. Families and family policies in Europe. New York: Longman.
Harkness, S., and J. Waldfogel. 2003. The family gap in pay: Evidence from seven industrialized countries. Research in Labor Economics 22 (1): 369–414.
Hawkley, L.C., R.A. Thisted, and J.T. Cacioppo. 2009. Loneliness predicts reduced physical activity: Cross-sectional & longitudinal analyses. Health Psychology 28 (3): 354–363.
Houseknecht, S.K. 1977. Reference group support for voluntary childlessness: Evidence for conformity. Journal of Marriage and Family 39 (2): 285–292.
Inglehart, R. 1997. Modernization and postmodernization: Cultural, economic, and political change in 43 societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
———. 2006. Mapping global values. Comparative Sociology 5 (2–3): 115–136.
Inglehart, R., and W.E. Baker. 2000. Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. American Sociological Review 65 (1): 19–51.
Juhn, C., and K. Mccue. 2017. Specialization then and now: Marriage, children, and the gender earnings gap across cohorts. Journal of Economic Perspectives 31 (1): 183–204.
Kearns, A., E. Whitley, C. Tannahill, and A. Ellaway. 2015. Loneliness, social relations and health and well-being in deprived communities. Psychology, Health & Medicine 20 (3): 332–344.
Keyes, C.L.M. 1998. Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly 61 (2): 121–140.
Killewald, A., and J. Garcia-Manglano. 2016. Tethered lives: A couple-based perspective on the consequences of parenthood for time use, occupation, and wages. Social Science Research 60: 266–282.
Killewald, A., and M. Gough. 2013. Does specialization explain marriage penalties and premiums? American Sociological Review 78 (3): 477–502.
Killewald, A., and X. Zhuo. 2019. US mothers’ long-term employment patterns. Demography 56 (1): 285–320.
Koropeckyj-Cox, T. 1998. Loneliness and depression in middle and old age: Are the childless more vulnerable? The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 53 (6): S303–S312.
Koropeckyj-Cox, T., A.M. Pienta, and T.H. Brown. 2007. Women of the 1950s and the “normative” life course: The implications of childlessness, fertility timing, and marital status for psychological well-being in late midlife. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development 64 (4): 299–330.
Langner, L.A. 2015. Within-couple specialisation in paid work: A long-term pattern? A dual trajectory approach to linking lives. Advances in Life Course Research 24: 47–65.
Lauder, W., K. Mummery, M. Jones, and C. Caperchione. 2006. A comparison of health behaviours in lonely and non-lonely populations. Psychology, Health & Medicine 11 (2): 233–245.
Lesthaeghe, R. 2010. The unfolding story of the second demographic transition. Population and Development Review 36 (2): 211–251.
Liefbroer, A.C., and F.C. Billari. 2010. Bringing norms back in: A theoretical and empirical discussion of their importance for understanding demographic behaviour. Population, Space and Place 16 (4): 287–305.
Liefbroer, A.C., E. Merz, and M.R. Testa. 2015. Fertility-related norms across Europe: A multi-level analysis. In Reproductive decision-making in a macro-micro perspective, ed. D. Philipov, A.C. Liefbroer, and J.E. Klobas, 141–163. Dordrecht: Springer.
Mandel, H., and M. Semyonov. 2006. A welfare state paradox: State interventions and women’s employment opportunities in 22 countries. American Journal of Sociology 111 (6): 1910–1949.
Marini, M.M. 1984. Age and sequencing norms in the transition to adulthood. Social Forces 63 (1): 229–244.
McMunn, A., E. Breeze, A. Goodman, J. Nazroo, and Z. Oldfield. 2006. Social determinants of health in older age. In Social determinants of health, ed. M. Marmot and R. Wilkinson, 267–298. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Miller, A.R. 2011. The effects of motherhood timing on career path. Journal of Population Economics 24 (3): 1071–1100.
Mirowsky, J., and C.E. Ross. 2002. Depression, parenthood, and age at first birth. Social Science & Medicine 54 (8): 1281–1298.
Moore, K.A., and L.J. Waite. 1977. Early childbearing and educational attainment. Family Planning Perspectives 9 (5): 220–225.
Muller, J.S., N. Hiekel, and A.C. Liefbroer. 2020. The long-term costs of family trajectories: Women’s later-life employment and earnings across Europe. Demography 57: 1007–1034.
Mullins, L.C., C.H. Elston, and S.M. Gutkowski. 1996. Social determinants of loneliness among older Americans. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs 122 (4): 453–473.
Neugarten, L. 1979. Time, age, and the life cycle. American Journal of Psychiatry 136 (7): 887–894.
Neugarten, B.L., J.W. Moore, and J.C. Lowe. 1965. Age norms, age constraints, and adult socialization. American Journal of Sociology 70 (6): 710–717.
O’Flaherty, M., J. Baxter, M. Haynes, and G. Turrell. 2016. The family life course and health: Partnership, fertility histories, and later-life physical health trajectories in Australia. Demography 53 (3): 777–804.
Perlman, D., and L.A. Peplau. 1982. Perspectives on loneliness. In Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy, ed. L.A. Peplau and D. Perlman, 1–18. New York: John Wiley.
Peters, A., and A.C. Liefbroer. 1997. Beyond marital status: Partner history and well-being in old age. Journal of Marriage and Family 59 (3): 687–699.
Reher, D. 2005. Family ties in Western Europe strong family and low fertility: A paradox? 45–76. Dordrecht: Springer.
Roman, C. 2017. Between money and love: Work-family conflict among Swedish low-income single mothers. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies 7 (3): 23–41.
Ross, C.E., and J. Huber. 1985. Hardship and depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 26 (4): 312–327.
Ryff, C.D. 1995. Psychological well-being in adult life. Current Directions in Psychological Science 4 (4): 99–104.
Salvador-Carulla, L., R. Lucas, J.L. Ayuso-Mateos, and M. Miret. 2014. Use of the terms “Wellbeing” and “Quality of Life” in health sciences: A conceptual framework. The European Journal of Psychiatry 28 (1): 50–65.
Saraceno, C., and W. Keck. 2010. Can we identify intergenerational policy regimes in Europe? European Societies 12 (5): 675–696.
Settersten, R.A.J. 2003. Age structuring and the rithm of the life course. In Handbook of the life course, ed. J.T. Mortimer and M.J. Shanahan, 81–98. New York: Kluwer Academic Press.
Settersten, R.A., and G.O. Hagestad. 1996. What’s the latest? Cultural age deadlines for family transitions. The Gerontologist 36 (2): 178–188.
Siegrist, J., and M. Wahrendorf. 2010. Socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of well-being in early old age. In Ageing, health and pensions in Europe, ed. L. Bovenberg, A. van Soest, and A. Zaidi, 107–139. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sigle-Rushton, W., and J. Waldfogel. 2007. Motherhood and women’s earnings in Anglo-American, continental European, and Nordic countries. Feminist Economics 13 (2): 55–91.
Smeeding, T.M. 1991. Cross-national comparisons of inequality and poverty position. In Economic inequality and poverty: International perspectives, ed. L. Osberg, 39–59. London: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Sobotka, T. 2004. Postponement of childbearing and low fertility in Europe. Amsterdam: Dutch University Press.
———. 2010. Shifting parenthood to advanced reproductive ages: Trends, causes and consequences. In A young generation under pressure? ed. J. Tremmel, 129–154. Berlin: Springer.
Sundstrom, G., E. Fransson, B. Malmberg, and A. Davey. 2009. Loneliness among older Europeans. European Journal of Ageing 6 (4): 267–275.
Thornton, A., and L. Young-DeMarco. 2001. Four decades of trends in attitudes toward family issues in the United States: The 1960s through the 1990s. Journal of Marriage and Family 63 (4): 1009–1037.
Tilvis, R.S., V. Laitala, P.E. Routasalo, and K.H. Pitkala. 2011. Suffering from loneliness indicates significant mortality risk of older people. Journal of Aging Research 2011: 1–5.
Victor, C.R., S.J. Scambler, S. Shah, D.G. Cook, T. Harris, E. Rink, and S. De Wilde. 2002. Has loneliness amongst older people increased? An investigation into variations between cohorts. Ageing & Society 22 (5): 585–597.
Vikstrom, J., M. Bladh, M. Hammar, J. Marcusson, E. Wressle, and G. Sydsjo. 2011. The influences of childlessness on the psychological well-being and social network of the oldest old. BMC Geriatrics 11 (1): 78.
Wilson, R.S., K.R. Krueger, S.E. Arnold, J.A. Schneider, J.F. Kelly, L.L. Barnes, Y. Tang, and D.A. Bennett. 2007. Loneliness and risk of Alzheimer disease. Archives of General Psychiatry 64 (2): 234–240.
Wrosch, C., and A.M. Freund. 2001. Self-regulation of normative and non-normative developmental challenges. Human Development 44 (5): 264–283.
Wrosch, C., and J. Heckhausen. 1999. Control processes before and after passing a developmental deadline: Activation and deactivation of intimate relationship goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77 (2): 415–427.
Yang, K., and C. Victor. 2011. Age and loneliness in 25 European nations. Ageing and Society 31 (8): 1368–1388.
Yanguas, J., S. Pinazo-Henandis, and F.J. Tarazona-Santabalbina. 2018. The complexity of loneliness. Acta Bio Medica: Atenei Parmensis 89 (2): 302–314.
Zhang, X. 2009. Earnings of women with and without children, 5–13. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
Zoutewelle-Terovan, M., and A.C. Liefbroer. 2018. Swimming against the stream: Non-normative family transitions and loneliness in later life across 12 nations. The Gerontologist 58 (6): 1096–1108.