Here we will provide an example of summaries generated by the best performing model, namely pointer-generator with coverage, for a sample article from the test set. We provide two summaries, one generated from a model trained with the flat method and another generated from a model trained with SUSIE. We also provide the original abstract of the article for reference. One can find the original article with PMCID PMC5051331 at the PMC websiteFootnote 5.
Comparing the two generated summaries, we can see that the one generated with SUSIE is superior to the flat one in terms of structure, readability and factual correctness. When compared with the original abstract, we can see that both summaries are not perfect but the one generated with SUSIE is in many cases acceptable.
1.1 A.1 Reference Summary
Objective. To examine the efficacy of psychological and psychosocial interventions for reductions in repeated self-harm.
Design. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression to examine the efficacy of psychological and psychosocial interventions to reduce repeat self-harm in adults. We included a sensitivity analysis of studies with a low risk of bias for the meta-analysis. For the meta-regression, we examined whether the type, intensity (primary analyses) and other components of intervention or methodology (secondary analyses) modified the overall intervention effect.
Data Sources. A comprehensive search of medline, psycinfo and embase (from 1999 to june 2016) was performed.
Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies. Randomised controlled trials of psychological and psychosocial interventions for adult self-harm patients.
Conclusions. Consideration of a psychological or psychosocial intervention over and above treatment as usual is worthwhile; with the public health benefits of ensuring that this practice is widely adopted potentially worth the investment. However, the specific type and nature of the intervention that should be delivered is not yet clear. Cognitive–behavioural therapy or interventions with an interpersonal focus and targeted on the precipitants to self-harm may be the best candidates on the current evidence. Further research is required.
1.2 A.2 Flat P-Gen + Coverage
Clinically treated non-fatal self-harm (we use the term self-harm henceforth) is common in terms of adverse outcomes such as repetition of self-harm, suicide and all-cause mortality; mental health morbidity, quality of life and physical, psychological and social functioning, mental health morbidity, quality of life and physical, psychological and social functioning. It is also costly in terms of immediate and ongoing treatment of self-harm of 16.3% after 1 year and 7% after 9 years. A more recent review of 177 studies from western and non-western countries indicated little change in these estimates, with reported repetition of self-harm of 16%, while the suicide rate was 1.6.
1.3 A.3 SUSIE P-Gen + Coverage
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of psychological and pharmacological interventions for reducing repetition of self-harm in unselected populations, but again highlight the poor quality of the evidence base in pooling data. In addition to these cochrane reviews, a number of trials have been published and several systematic reviews produced that aim to highlight what interventions are most often efficacious interventions (cbt) (and not problem-solving therapy).
Methods. We searched medline, embase, and the cochrane central register of controlled trials (rct) published up to february 2016 to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of psychological and psychosocial interventions to reduce repeat self-harm, (primary outcome) and to reduce suicidal ideation, depression and hopelessness (secondary outcomes) using meta-analysis; and (2) examine whether the type, intensity or other specific components of the interventions, or study methodology, modify the pooled intervention effect using meta-regression analysis.
Conclusions. our study is consistent with the updated cochrane review, which in contrast to the original version showed no support for problem-focused (predominantly problem-solving therapy) interventions but a significant effect of interventions. Our study has shown that psychological or psychosocial interventions are effective overall, with cbt and psychodynamic interpersonal therapy currently the most promising for implementation.