Utility of Invasive and Non-invasive Cardiovascular Research Methodologies in Drug Development for Diabetes, Obesity and NAFLD/NASH

  • Gerardo Rodriguez-AraujoEmail author
  • Andrew J. Krentz


Mechanistic intersections between metabolic and cardiovascular disorders are increasingly appreciated. Novel pharmacotherapies for diabetes and obesity that may simultaneously impact metabolism and vascular function require careful evaluation from a cardiovascular safety perspective. This consideration extends to medications being developed for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Available methodologies, which may be classified as either invasive or non-invasive, are presently under-utilized in early phase clinical development programs.


Cardiovascular disease Diabetes mellitus Obesity Drug development Early-phase clinical research 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ProSciento, Inc.Chula VistaUSA
  2. 2.University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Graduate School of MedicineLittle RockUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic ResearchUniversity of ReadingReadingUK

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