Advertisement

Intestinal Inorganic Phosphate Transport

  • Marlin W. Walling
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 103)

Abstract

Evidence indicating that the intestinal absorption of phosphate occurs, at least in part by regulated processes, has been available since the 1930’s when balance studies showed that vitamin D increased both calcium and phosphate absorption (1–3). However, it was not until the extensive studies of Harrison and Harrison in the early 1960’s that it became clear that vitamin D directly effected inorganic phosphate (Pi) absorption by mammalian small intestine (4). The transport-mediated changes in Pi concentration between the outer and inner compartments of everted gut sacs reported by the Harrisons are much larger than the changes that could result solely from effects of the transmural potential difference (PD) which is about 5 mV, so that these results (4) clearly indicate active Pi absorption. Nevertheless, in several studies in which bidirectional Pi fluxes were analyzed in relationship to the PD by means of the Ussing flux ratio test (5), the observed ratios were not different from those predicted as the result of the electrical gradients (6,7). This apparent discrepancy in results can most likely be explained by an increasing body of data which indicate that the activity of intestinal Pi absorptive processes tends to reflect the needs of the animal for this molecule.

Keywords

Phosphate Transport Active Transport Process Isolate Frog Skin Basal Adenylate Cyclase Activity Basal Lateral Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Harris, J.L., and Innes, J.R.M.: The mode of action of vitamin D. Studies on hypervitaminosis D. The influence of the calcium phosphate intake. Biochem. J. 25: 367, 1931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nicolaysen, R.: Studies upon the mode of action of vitamin D. II. The influence of vitamin D on the faecal output of endogenous calcium and phosphorus in the rat. Biochem. J. 31: 107, 1937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nicolaysen, R.: Studies upon the mode of action of vitamin D. III. The influence of vitamin D on absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Biochem. J. 31: 122, 1937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harrison, H.E., and Harrison, H.C.: Intestinal transport of phosphate: action of vitamin D, calcium, and potassium. Am. J. Physiol. 201: 1007, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ussing, H.H.: The distinction by means of tracers between active transport and diffusion. The transfer of iodide across the isolated frog skin. Acta Physiol. Scand. 19: 43, 1949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asano, T.: Transport of calcium and inorganic phosphate across the intestinal wall of the rat. Seitai no Kagaku 11: 55, 1960.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Noble, H.M., and Matty, A.J.: The effect of thyroxine on the movement of calcium and inorganic phosphate through the small intestine of the rat. J. Endocr. 37: 111, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carlsson, A.: The effect of vitamin D on the absorption of inorganic phosphate. Acta Physiol. Scand. 31: 301, 1954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tanaka, Y., and DeLuca, H.F.: The control of 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolism by inorganic phosphorus. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 154: 566, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caniggia, A., and Gennari, C.: Absorption du phosphate radioactif chez l’homme et sa regulation. In Symposium Internatinal sur Phosphate et Metabolisme Phosphocalcique. Sandoz Edition’s, Paris, 1970, pp. 209–235.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frizzell, R.A., and Schultz, S.G.: Ionic conductances of extra-cellular shunt pathway in rabbit ileum. J. Gen. Physiol. 59: 318, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Okada, Y., Sato, T., and Inouye, A.: Effects of potassium ions and sodium ions on membrane potential of epithelial cells in rat duodenum. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 413: 104, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kowarski, S., and Schachter, D.: Effects of vitamin D on phosphate transport and incorporation into mucosal constituents of rat intestinal mucosa. J. Biol. Chem. 244: 211, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berner, W., Kinne, R., and Murer, H.: Phosphate transport into brush border membrane vesicles isolated from rat small intestine. Biochem. J. 160: 467, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ussing, H.H., and Zerahn, K.: Active transport of sodium as the source of electric current in the short-circuited isolated frog skin. Acta Physiol. Scand. 23: 110, 1951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Walling, M.W., and Rothman, S.S.: Phosphate-independent, carrier-mediated active transport of calcium by rat intestine. Am. J. Physiol. 217: 1144, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Walling, M.W., and Kimberg, D.V.: Active secretion of calcium by adult rat ileum and jejunum in vitro. Am. J. Physiol. 225: 415, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Walling, M.W., and Kimberg, D.V.: Effects of 1x,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Solanum glaucophyllum on intestinal calcium and phosphate transport and on plasma Ca, Mg, and P levels in the rat. Endocrinology 97: 1567, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Frizzell, R.A., Marksheid-Kaspi, L., and Schultz, S.G.: Oxidative metabolism of rabbit ileal mucosa. Am. J. Physiol. 226: 1142, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kimberg, D.V., Schachter, D., and Schenker, H.: Active transport of calcium by intestine: effects of dietary calcium. Am. J. Physiol. 200: 1256, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Walling, M.W., and Kimberg, D.V.: Calcium absorption or secretion by rat ileum in vitro: effects of dietary calcium intake. Am. J. Physiol. 226: 1124, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Walling, M.W., Brautbar, N., and Coburn, J.W.: Jejunal phosphate active transport: effects of phosphorus depletion and vitamin D. Federation Proc. 36: 1097, 1977.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Walling, M.W.: Intestinal Ca and phosphate transport: differential responses to vitamin D3 metabolites. Am. J. Physiol. In Press.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Walling, M.W., Hartenbower, D.L., Coburn, J.W., and Norman, A.W.: Effects of la,25-, 24R,25-, and la,24R,25-hydroxylated metabolites of vitamin D3 on calcium and phosphate absorption by duodenum from intact and nephrectomized rats. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 182: 251, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kimberg, D.V., Field, M., Johnson, J., Henderson, A., and Gershon, E.: Stimulation of intestinal mucosal adenyl cyclase by Cholera enterotoxin and prostaglandins. J. Clin. Invest. 50: 1218, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Walling, M.W., Brasitus, T.A., and Kimberg, D.V.: Effects of calcitonin and substance P on the transport of Ca, Na and Cl across rat ileum in vitro. Gastroenterology 73: 89, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Minkin, C., Blackman, L., Newbrey, J., Pokress Posek, R., and Walling, M.: Effects of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin on adenylate cyclase in murine mononuclear phagocytes. Biochem. Biophys. R.s. Commun. 76: 875, 1977.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Walling, M.W., Brasitus, T.A., and Kimberg, D.V.: Elevation of cyclic AMP levels and adenylate cyclase activity in duodenal mucosa from vitamin D-deficient rats by la,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. Endocr. Res. Commun. 3: 83, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Walling, M.W.: Effects of la,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 on active intestinal inorganic phosphate absorption. In Vitamin D: Biochemical Chemical and Clinical Aspects Related to Calcium Metabolism. Ed. Norman, A.W., Schaefer, K., Coburn, J.W., DeLuca, H.F., Fraser, D., Grigoleit, and von Herrath, D.: Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, N.Y., 1977, pp 321–330.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Borle, A.B., Keutmann, H.T., and Neuman, W.F.: Role of parathyroid hormone in phosphate transport across rat duodenum. Am. J. Physiol. 204: 705, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen, T.C., Castillo, L., Korycka-Dahl, M., and DeLuca, H.F.: Role of vitamin D metabolites in phosphate transport of rat intestine. J. Nutr. 104: 1056, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Helbock, H.J., Forte, J.G., Saltman, P.: The mechanism of calcium transport by rat intestine. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 126: 81, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wasserman, R.H., and Taylor, A.N.: Intestinal absorption of phosphate in the chick: effect of vitamin D3 and other parameters. J. Nutr. 103: 586, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Taylor, A.N.: In vitro phosphate transport in chick ileum: effect of cholecalciferol, calcium, sodium and metabolic inhibitors. J. Nutr. 104: 489, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Neville, E., and Holdworth, E.S.: Phosphorus metabolism during transport of calcium. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 163: 362, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Short, E.M., Binder, H.J., and Rosenberg, L.E.: Familial hypophosphatemic rickets: defective transport of inorganic phosphate by intestinal mucosa. Science 179: 700, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Peterlik, M., and Wasserman, R.H.: Effect of vitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 on intestinal transport of phosphate. In Phosphate Metabolism, Ed. Massry, S.G., and Ritz, E. Plenum Press, N.Y. and Lond. 1977, pp. 323–332.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Baumann, K., de Rouffignac, C., Roinel, N., Rumrich, G., and Ullrich, K.J.: Renal phosphate transport: Unhomogeneity of local proximal rates and sodium dependence. Pflugers Arch. 356: 287, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hoffman, N., Thees, M., and Kinne, R.: Phosphate transport by isolated renal brush border vesicles. Pflugers Arch. 362: 147, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Moog, F., and Glazier, H.S.: Phosphate absorption and alkaline phosphatase activity in the small intestine of the adult mouse and of the chick embryo and hatched chick. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 42A: 321, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    McHardy, G.J.R., and Parsons, D.S.: The absorption of inorganic phosphate from the small intestine of the rat. Quart. J. Exp. Physiol. 41: 398, 1956.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Harrison, H.E., and Harrison, H.C.: Sodium, potassium, and intestinal transport of glucose, L-tyrosine, phosphate and calcium. Am. J. Physiol. 205: 107, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marlin W. Walling
    • 1
  1. 1.VA Wadsworth Hospital Center and Schools of Dentistry and MedicineUniv. of Calif.Los AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations