The Collagen of the Arthropoda

  • Jean François
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 93)


Collagen has been described in several regions of the arthropod body, but this molecule does not perform the ubiquitous connective tissue role as is evident in both Vertebrata and Inverte-brata. The Arthropoda, despite the widespread occurrence of collagen fibrils, are characterized by the relative scarcity of connective elements; there is also a scarcity of works concerning the biochemistry and physiology of collagen. Before examining these points in detail, a number of preliminary remarks are in order:


Basement Membrane Horseshoe Crab Ventral Nerve Cord Perineurial Cell Dorsal Vessel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, N.J., 1971, The organization of the cerebral ganglion in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas. I. Morphology, Z. Zellforsch., 120:386.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, E., 1978, Invertebrate collagens, Science, 202:591.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altner, H., 1968, Die Ultrastruktur der Labialnephridien von Onychiurus quadriocellatus (Collembola), J. Ultrastruct. Res., 24:345.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, M., and Cochrane, D.G., 1978, Studies on the mid-gut of the desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria, J. Morph., 156:257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashhurst, D.E., 1961, A histochemical study of the connective-tissue sheath of the nervous system of Periplaneta americana, Q. Jl. microsc. Sci., 102:455.Google Scholar
  6. Ashhurst, D.E., 1964, Fibrillogenesis in the wax-moth, Galleria mellonella, Q. Jl. microsc. Sci., 105:391.Google Scholar
  7. Ashhurst, D.E., 1965, The connective tissue sheath of the locust nervous system: its development in the embryo, Q. Jl. microsc. Sci., 106:61.Google Scholar
  8. Ashhurst, D.E., 1968, The connective tissues of insects, Ann. Rev. Ent., 13:45.Google Scholar
  9. Ashhurst, D.E., 1979, Hemocytes and connective tissue: a critical assessment, in: “Insect Hemocytes: Development, Form, Functions and Techniques”, A.P. Gupta ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  10. Ashhurst, D.E., 1982, The structure and development of Insect connective Tissues, in “Insect Ultrastructure”, R.C. King and H. Akai eds., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Ashhurst, D.E., and Bailey, A.J., 1980, Locust collagen: morphological and biochemical characterization, J. Eur. Biochem., 103:75.Google Scholar
  12. Ashhurst, D.E., and Costin, N.M., 1974, The development of a collagenous connective tissue in the locust, Locusta migratoria, Tissue & Cell, 6:279.Google Scholar
  13. Ashhurst, D.E., and Costin, N.M., 1976, The secretion of collagen by insects: uptake of (3H) proline by collagen- synthesizing cells in Locusta migratoria and Galleria mellonella, J. Cell Sci., 20:377.Google Scholar
  14. Ashhurst, D.E., and Richards, A.G., 1964, A study of the changes occurring in the connective tissue associated with the central nervous system during the pupal stage of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella L., J. Morph., 114:225.Google Scholar
  15. Babu, D.E., Rao, K.H., and Shyamasundari, K., 1979, Presence of elas-tin and collagen in the inner lining of the oesophagus in the crab Xanthobidentatus Edw., Current Sci., 48:224.Google Scholar
  16. Baccetti, B., 1956, Ricerche preliminari sui connettivi e sulle membrane basali degli insetti, Redia, 41:75.Google Scholar
  17. Baccetti, B., 1961a, Primi reperti sulla struttura submicroscopica dello stroma di sostegno di alcuni organi degli insetti, Atti Accad. Sci. (Torino), 95:343.Google Scholar
  18. Baccetti, B. 1961b, Indagini submicroscopiche sullo stroma di sostegno di alcuni organi degli insetti. Atti III° Congr. It. Micr. Elettronica: 59.Google Scholar
  19. Baccetti, B., 1963, Sulla presenza di fibrille collagene in alcune membrane basali e nella tunica dei corpi grassi di un Ortottero. Monit. Zool. Ital., 70:361.Google Scholar
  20. Baccetti, B., and Bigliardi, E., 1969a, Studies on the fine structure of the dorsal vessel of Arthropods. I, Z. Zeilforsch., 99:13.Google Scholar
  21. Baccetti, B., and Bigliardi, E., 1969b, Studies on the fine structure of the dorsal vessel of Arthropods. II, Z. Zellfosch., 99:125.Google Scholar
  22. Baccetti, B., and Lazzeroni, G., 1969, The envelopes of the nervous system of pseudoscorpions and scorpions, Tissue & Cell, 1:417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bächinger, H.P., Doege K.J., Petschek, J.P., Fessier L.I, and Fessier, J.H., Structural implications from an electron- microscopic comparison of procollagen V with procollagen I, pC-collagen I, procollagen IV, and a Drosophila procollagen, J. Biol. Chem., 257:14590.Google Scholar
  24. Bailey, A.J., and Robins, S.P., 1973, Development and maturation of the crosslinks in the collagen fibres of skin, Front. Matrix Biol., 1:130.Google Scholar
  25. Bairati, A., 1972, Collagen: an analysis of phylogenetic aspects, Boll. Zool., 39:205.Google Scholar
  26. Barlet, J., 1953, Morphologie du thorax de Lepisma saccharina L. (Apterygote Thysanoure), Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 89:214.Google Scholar
  27. Barlet, J., 1967, Squelette et musculature thoraciques de Lepismachilis Y-signata Kratochvil (Thysanoures), Bull. Ann. Soc. R. Belg., 103:110.Google Scholar
  28. Barlet, J., 1981, Remarques sur le squelette des larves et adultes de Coléoptères, Bull. Ann. Soc. R. Belg., 117:97.Google Scholar
  29. Barth, R., 1963, Beobachtungen an der Muskelinsertionen einer Machi-lide (Thysanura), Anais. Acad. Bras. Cienc., 35:131.Google Scholar
  30. Bayon, C., and François, J., 1976, Ultrastructure de la lame basale du mésenteron chez la larve d’Oryctes nasicornis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Int. J. Insect Morph. Embryol., 5:205.Google Scholar
  31. Bazin, F., 1979, Ultrastructure de l’organe hematopoïétique chez le crabe Carcinus maenas (L.) (Crustacea, Decapoda), Arch. Anat.Micr. Morph. Exper., 68:141.Google Scholar
  32. Bazin, F., 1980, Participation des hémoctyes à la formation du blastème de régénération chez le Crabe Carcinus maenas, Arch. Zool. Exp. Gén., 121:49.Google Scholar
  33. Beaulaton, J., 1968, Etude ultrastructurale et cytochimique des glandes prothoraciques de vers à soie aux quatrième et cinquième âges larvaires, J. Ultrastr. Res., 23:474.Google Scholar
  34. Bertram, D.S., and Bird, R., G, 1961, Studies on mosquito-borne viruses in their vectors. I. The normal fine structure of the midgut epithelium of the adult female Aedes aegypti (L.) and the functional significance of its modification following a blood meal, Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., 55:404.Google Scholar
  35. Binnington, K.C., and Lane, N.J., 1980, Perineurial and glial cells in the tick Boophilus microplus (Acarina: Ixodidae): freeze-fracture and tracer studies, J. Neurocytology, 9:343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bitsch, J., 1973, Morphologie abdominale des Machilides (Thysanura). I. Squelette et musculature des segments pregénitaux, Ann. Sci Nat., 15:173.Google Scholar
  37. Bitsch, J., 1974a, Morphologie abdominale des Machilides (Thysanura). II. Squelette et musculature des segments génitaux femelles, Int. J. Insect Morph. Embryol., 3:101.Google Scholar
  38. Bitsch, J., 1974b, Morphologie abdominale des Machilides (Thysanura). III. Squelette et musculature des segments génitaux mâles et des segments postgénitaux, Int. J. Insect Morph. Embryol., 3:203.Google Scholar
  39. Bitsch, J., 1978, Structure de la gaine conjonctivo-musculaire entourant les ovarioles de Lepismachilis targionii (Grassi) (Thysanura: Machilidae). Rôle possible de granulocytes présents à son contact, Int. J. Insect Morph. Embryol., 7:347.Google Scholar
  40. Boudreaux, H.B., 1979, Significance of intersegmental tendon system in Arthropod phylogeny and a monophyletic classification of Ar-thropoda, in “Arthropod Phylogeny”, A.P. Gupta ed., Van Nostrand, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Cannon, H.G., 1931, On the anatomy of a marine ostracod, Cypridina (Doloria) levis Skogsberk, Discovery Rep., 2:435.Google Scholar
  42. Cannon, H.G., 1940, On the anatomy of Gigantocypris mülleri, Discovery Rep., 19:185.Google Scholar
  43. Crossley, A.C., 1979, Biochemical and ultrastructural aspects of synthesis, storage and secretion in hemocytes, in “Insect Hemo-cytes: Development, Forms, Functions and Techniques”, A.P. Gupta ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  44. Cruz-Landim, C.D., 1976, Connective tissue of Apis mellifera: an ultrastructural study, Insectes Sociaux, 23:263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dumont, J.N., Anderson, E., and Chomyn, E., 1965, The anatomy of the peripheral nerve and its ensheathing artery in the horseshoe crab, Xiphosura (Limulus) polyphemus, J. Ultrastruct. Res., 13:38.Google Scholar
  46. De Biasi, S., and Pilotto, F., 1976, Ultrastructural study of collagenous structure in some Diptera, J. Submicr. Cytol., 8:337.Google Scholar
  47. Dierichs, R., 1972, Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen des ventralen Diaphragmas von Locusta migratoria und der langsamen Konkraktionswelle nach Fixation durch Gefriersubstitution, Z. Zellforsch., 126:402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Duhamel, R.C., Finerty, M., Lightner, D.V., and Brendel, K., 1982, Reexamination of the amino acid compositions of proteins from penaeid shrimp: failure to find uncommonly-high tryptophan levels, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 73B:301.Google Scholar
  49. Eisenbeis, G., 1979, Die Thorakal und Abdominal Muskulatur von Arten der Springschwanz-Gattung Tomocerus (Collembola: Tomoceridae), Ent. Germ., 4:55.Google Scholar
  50. Edwards, G.A., Ruska, H., and De Harven, E., 1958, Electron microscopy of peripheral nerves and neuromuscular junctions in the wasp leg, J. Biophys. Bioch. Cytol., 4:107.Google Scholar
  51. El-Hifnawi, E.S., and Seifert, G., 1971, Uber den Feinbau den Maxil-larnephridien von Polyxenus lagurus (L) (Diplopoda, Penicillata), Z. Zellforsch., 113:518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Factor, J.R., 1981, Unusually complex basement membranes in the midgut of two decapod crustaceans, the stone crab (Menippe mercenaria) and the lobster (Homarus americanus), Anat. Rec., 200:253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. François, J., 1968, Nature conjonctive du tentorium des Diploures (Insectes, Aptérygotes), C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 267:1976.Google Scholar
  54. François, J., 1971, L’endosquelette céphalique des Insectes aptéry-gotes: étude anatomique, histochimique et ultrastructurale. I, Arch. Anat. micr. Morph. Exp., 60:389.Google Scholar
  55. François, J., 1972a, Ultrastructure du rein labial céphalique de Campodea chardardi Condé (Diplura, Insecta), Z. Zellforsch., 127: 34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. François, J., 1972b, L’endosquelette céphalique des insectes aptéry-gotes. II, Arch. Anat. micr. Morph. Exp., 61:279.Google Scholar
  57. François, J., 1973, Sur la présence de fibroblastes caractéristiques chez le Thysanoure Thermobia domestica (Packard) (Insecte, Apté-rygote), C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 277:2505.Google Scholar
  58. François, J., 1975, Hémocytes et organe hématopoïétique de Thermobia domestica (Packard) (Thysanura: Lepismatidae), Int. J. Insect Morph. Embryol., 4:477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. François, J., 1976, Le tissu conjonctif des insectes, in: “Traité de Zoologie, 8, P.P. Grassé ed., Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  60. François, J., 1977, Development of collagenous endoskeletal structures in the firebrat, Thermobia domestica (Packard) (Thysanura: Lepismatidae), Int. J. Insect Morph. Embryol., 6:161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. François, J., 1978. The ultrastructure and histochemistry of the mesenteric connective tissue of the cockroach Periplaneta americana L. (Insecta, Dictyoptera), Int. J. Insect Morph. Embryol., 189:91.Google Scholar
  62. François, J., 1980, Secretion of collagen by insects: autoradiographic study of L-proline 3H-5 incorporation by the firebrat Thermobia domestica, J. Insect Physiol., 26:125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. François, J., 1984, Un rôle méconnu des cellules musculaires des insectes: la fonction fibroblastique, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 299:77.Google Scholar
  64. Francois, J., Herbage, D., and Junqua, S., 1980b, Cockroach collagen: isolation, biochemical and biophysical characterization, Eur. J. Biochem., 112:389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. François, J., and Chaudonneret, J., 1982, Les formations endosque-lettiques céphaliques des Collemboles et autres Aptérygotes, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., 107:537.Google Scholar
  66. Füller, H., 1963, Histologische, polarisationsoptische und histoche-mische Untersuchungen über das Bindegewebe Innenskelett der Chi-lopoden, Z. wiss. Zool., 168:184.Google Scholar
  67. Füller, H., 1964, Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen von Kollagenfibrillen aus dem Endoskelett der Chilopoden, Z. Wiss. Zool., 169:387.Google Scholar
  68. Füller, H., and Damaschun, G., 1963, Röntgengraphische Untersuchungen der Molecularstruktur des Kollagens bei Chilopoden. Zool. Jb. (Phys.), 70:407Google Scholar
  69. Füller, H., and Ude, H., 1969, Elektronenmikroskopische Untesuchungen über den Feinbau der Neurallamelle bei Chilopoden, Z. Wiss. Zool., 180:21.Google Scholar
  70. Gardner, P.J., and Weidler, D.J., 1975, Ultrastructural study of the neural fat-body system in the cockroach Periplaneta americana, Cell Tissue Res., 159:485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Garrone, R., 1978, Phylogenesis of connective tissue. Morphological aspects and biosynthesis of sponge intercellular matrix, Frontr. Matrix, Biol., 5:1.Google Scholar
  72. Garrone, R., 1982, Le collagène des Invertébrés: matrice intercellulaire, squelette ou revêtement ?, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., 107:387.Google Scholar
  73. Gouranton, J., 1970, Etude d’une lame basale présentant une structure d’un type nouveau, J. Microscopie, 9:1029.Google Scholar
  74. Grimstone, A.V., Mullinger, A.M., and Ramsay, J.A., 1968, Further studies on the rectal complex of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (L)(Coleoptea, Tenebrionidae), Phil. Trans. R. Soc, 253:343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Groepler, W., 1969, Zur Feinstruktur der Coxalorgane bei der Gattung Ornithodurus (Acari: Argasidae), Z. Wiss. Zool., 178:235.Google Scholar
  76. Gupta, B.L., and Berridge M.J., 1966, Fine structural organization of the rectum in the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala (Meig.) with special reference to connective tissue, trachae and neurosecretory innervation in the rectal papillae, J. Morph., 120:23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hagopian, M., and Spiro, D., 1968, The filament lattice of cockroach thoracic muscle, J. Cell Biol., 36:433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Harper, E., Seifter, S., and Scharrer, B., 1967, Electron microscopic and biochemical characterization of collagen in blattarian insects, J. Cell Biol., 33:385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Haupt, J., 1969a, Zur Feinstruktur des Labialniere des Silberfischen Lepisma saccharina L. (Thysanura, Insecta), Zool. Beitr., 15:139.Google Scholar
  80. Haupt, J., 1969b, Zur Feinstruktur der Maxillarnephridien von Scutigellera immaculata Newport (Symphila, Myriapoda), Z. Zellforsch., 101:401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hess, R.T., and Pinnock, D.E., 1975, The ultrastructure of a complex basal lamina in the midgut of larvae of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), Z. Morph. Tiere, 80:277.Google Scholar
  82. Hessler, R.R., 1964, The Cephalocarida comparative skeleto-muscula-ture, Mem. Com. Acad. Sci., 16:1.Google Scholar
  83. Hoffmann, J.A., 1970, Les organes hématopoiétiques de deux insectes orthoptères: Locusta migratoria et Gryllus bimaculatus, Z. Zellforsch., 106:451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hoffmann, J.A., and Levi, C., 1965, Etude au microscope électronique du vaisseau dorsal de Locusta migratoria, C.R. Acad. Sei. Paris, 260:6988.Google Scholar
  85. Holmgren, N., 1920, Vergleichendes über den Kopfbau der Crustaceen und Hexapoden, Ark. Zool., 13:1.Google Scholar
  86. Holter, P., 1970, Regular grid-like substructures in the midgut epithelial basement membrane of some Coleoptera, Z. Zellforsch., 110:373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Howse, H.D., Ferrans, V.H., and Hibbs, R.G., 1971, A light and electron microscopic study of the heart of a crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Giraud). II, J. Morph., 133:353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hubert, M., Chassard-Bouchaud, C., and Bocquet-Vedrine, 1976, Aspects ultrastructuraux des hémocytes de Carcinus maenas L. (Crustacé Décapode), parasité par Sacculina carcini Thompson (Crustacé Cirripède): activité réactionnelle, genèse de collagène, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 283:789.Google Scholar
  89. Huddart, H., Greenwood, M., and Oates K., 1973, Fine structure of the abdominal neural fat-body sheath in the stick insect (Carausius morosus Br.), J. Morph., 140:87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hunter, J., Magarelli, P.C., Lightner, D.V., and Colvin, L.B., 1979, Ascorbic acid-dependant collagen formation in penaeid shrimp, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 64B:381.Google Scholar
  91. Jahromi, S.S., and Atwood, H.L., 1976, Attachments of phasic and tonic abdominal extensor muscles in crayfish, Canad. J. Zool., 54:1256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jones, J.C., 1976, Do insect hemocytes normally transform into basement membrane or fat-body ?, Amer. Zool., 16:220.Google Scholar
  93. Kimura, S., 1972, Studies on marine invertebrate collagens. I. The neutral sugar composition and glycosylated hydroxylysine contents of several collagens, Bull. Jap. Sci. Fish., 38:1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kimura, S., and Matsuura, F., 1974, The chain compositions of several invertebrate collagens, J. Biochem., 75:1231.Google Scholar
  95. Kimura, S., Nagaoka, Y., and Kubota, M., 1969, Studies on marine invertebrate collagens. I. Some collagens from Crustaceans and Molluscs, Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish, 35:743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kovoor, J., 1974, Cytologie et histochimie comparées de l’endosternite dans trois ordres d’arachnides (scorpions, opilions et araignées), in “Recherches biologiques contemporaines”, L. Arvy ed., Vagner, Nancy.Google Scholar
  97. Kovoor, J., 1978, Natural calcification of the prosomatic endosternite in the Phalangiidae (Arachnida: Opiliones), Calcif. Tiss. Res., 26:267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kühn, K., 1982, Segment-long-spacing crystallites, a powerful tool in collagen research, Collagen. Rel. Res., 2:61.Google Scholar
  99. Lane, N.J., 1972, Fine structure of a Lepidopteran nervous system and its accessibility to peroxidase and lanthanum, Z. Zeilforsch., 131:205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lane, N.J., and Abbott, N.J., 1975, The organization of the nervous system in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii with emphasis on the blood-brain interface, Cell Tiss. Res., 156:173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lane, N.J., and Treherne, 1973, The ultrastructural organization of peripheral nerves in two insect species (Periplaneta americana and Schistocerca gregaria), Tissue & Cell, 5:703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lankester, E.R., 1884, Comparison of the muscular and endoskeletal systems of Scorpio and Limulus, Trans. Zool. Soc., 11:311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Locke, M., and Huie, P., 1972, The fiber components of insect connective tissue, Tissue & Cell, 4:601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lunstrum, G.P., 1980, Structure and biosynthesis of a collagen from Drosophila melanogaster, Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  105. Manton, S.M., 1956, The evolution of arthropodan mechanisms. Part 5. The structure, habits and evolution of Pselaphognatha, (Diplopoda), J. Linn. Soc, 43:153.Google Scholar
  106. Manton, S.M., 1964, Mandibular mechanisms and the evolution of arthropods, Phil. Trans. R. Soc, B, 247:1.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Manton, S.M., 1966, The evolution of arthropodan mechanism. Part 9. Functional requirements and body design in Symphyla and Pauropoda and the relationships between Myriapoda and Pterygota, J. Linn. Soc., 51:203.Google Scholar
  108. Manton, S.M., 1972, The evolution of arthropodan mechanisms. Part 10. Locomotory habits, morphology and evolution of hexapod classes, Zool. J. Linn. Soc, 51:203.Google Scholar
  109. Martoja, R., and Bassot, J.M., 1965, Existence d’un tissu conjonctif de type cartilagineux chez certains insectes orthoptères, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 261:2954.Google Scholar
  110. Mathews, M.B., 1975, Connective tissue. Macromolecular structure and evolution, Springer, New-York, Heidelberg, Berlin.Google Scholar
  111. Matsumura, T., 1972, Relationship between amino-acid composition and differentiation of collagen, Int. J. Biochem., 3:265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. McLaughlin, B.J., 1974, Fine-structural changes in a lepidopteran nervous system during metamorphosis, J. Cell Sci., 14:369.Google Scholar
  113. Miller, T.A., Benedeczky, I., and Rozsa, K.S., 1979, Ultrastructure of the muscles of the dorsal diaphragm in Locusta migratoria, Cell Tissue Res., 203:93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Millot, J., 1949, Classe des Arachnides. I. Morphologie générale et anatomie interne, in “Traité de Zoologie”, 6, P.P. Grassé ed., Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  115. Monson, J.M., Natzle, J., Friedman, J., and McCarthy, B.J., 1981, Expression and novel structure of a collagen gene in Drosophila, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 79:1761.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Moulins, M., 1968, Etude ultrastructurale d’une formation de soutien épidermo-conjonctive inédite chez les Insectes, Z. Zeilforsch., 91:112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Natzle, J.E., Monson, J.M., and McCarthy, B.J., 1982, Cytogenetic location and expression of collagen-like genes in Drosophila, Nature, 296:368.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Nordwig, A., and Hayduk, U., 1969, Invertebrate collagens: isolation, characterization and phylogenetic aspects, J. Mol. Biol., 44:161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Noirot, C., and Noirot-Timothée, C., 1965, Organisation de la glande sternale chez Calotermes flavicollis F. (Insecta, Isoptera). Etude au microscope électronique, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 260:6202.Google Scholar
  120. Oschman, J., and Wall, B.J. 1969, The structure of the rectal pads of Periplaneta americana L. with regard to fluid transport, J. Morph., 127:475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Økland, S., Tjønneland, A., Nylund, A, Larsen, L.N., and Christ, I., 1982, I. The membrane systems and the sarcomere in the heart of Lithobius forficatus L. (Arthropoda, Chilopoda), Zool Anz., 208: 124.Google Scholar
  122. Osinska, H.E., 1981, Ultrastructural study of the postembryonic development of the neural lamella of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera), Cell Tissue Res., 217:425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Packard, A.S., 1880, The anatomy, histology and embryology of Limulus polyphemus, Anniversary Mem. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. Google Scholar
  124. Patten, W., and Redenbaugh, W.A., 1899, Studies on Limulus. The endocrania of Limulus, Apus and Mygale, J. Morph., 16:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Percy, J., 1978, Haemocytes associated with basement membrane of sex pheromone gland of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera Noctuidae). Ultrastructural observations, Canad. J. Zool., 56:238.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Person, P., and Philpott, D.E., 1969, The biology of cartilage. I. Invertebrate cartilages: Limulus gill cartilage, J. Morph., 128: 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pipa, R.L., and Cook, E.F., 1958, The structure and histochemistry of the connective tissue of the sucking lice, J. Morph., 103:353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ravoux, P., 1962, Etude sur la segmentation des Symphyles, Annales Sci. Nat., 4:141.Google Scholar
  129. Ravoux, P., 1975, Endosquelette et musculature céphaliques de Scutigerella immaculata Newport (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae), Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., 332:1189.Google Scholar
  130. Rajendranath, T., Hanumantha Rao, K., and Shyamasundari, K., 1982, Presence of elastin and collagen in the inner lining of the oesophagus in the shrimp Aldephus edwarsi (Andouin), Current Sci., 51:369.Google Scholar
  131. Rheinardt, C., and Hecker, H., 1973, Structure and function of the basal lamina and of the cell junctions in the midgut epithelium (stomach) of female Aedes aegypti L. (Insecta, Diptera), Rev. Suisse Zool, 79:1130.Google Scholar
  132. Reinhart, C., Schulz, U., Hecker, H., and Freyvogel, T.A., 1972, Zur Ultrastruktur des Mitteldarmepithels bei Flöhen (Insecta, Siphonaptera), Rev. Suisse Zool., 79:1130.Google Scholar
  133. Richards, A.G., and Richards, P.A., 1963, Flea Ctenophthalmus: heterogeneous hexagonally organized layer in the midgut, Science, 160:423.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Richards, G., and Schneider, D., 1958, Uber den Komplexen Bau der Membranen des Bindegewebes von Insekten, Z. Naturf., 13:680.Google Scholar
  135. Rilling, G., 1960, Zur Anatomie des braunen Steinlaufers Lithobius forficatus L. (Chilopoda), Zool. Jb., (A), 78:39.Google Scholar
  136. Rinterknecht, E., and Levi, P., 1966, Etude au microscope électronique du cycle cuticulaire au cours du 4ème stade larvaire chez Locusta migratoria, Z. Zellforsch., 72:390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rosenberg, J., and Seifert, G., 1978, Die Myelinscheide um Zentralnervensystem und periphere Nerven der Geophilomorpha (Chilopoda), Zoomorph., 89:21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Rousset, A., 1968, Déplacements d’attaches musculaires et formation de structures endosquelettiques chez les insectes: cas de la musculature spinale des larves de Conioptérygidés (Névroptères, Planipennes), C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 267:1458.Google Scholar
  139. Rousset, A., 1972, Squelette et musculature des régions génitales et postgénitales de la femelle de Thermobia domestica (Packard). Comparaison avec la région génitale de Nicoletia sp. (Insecta; Apterygota; Lepismatida), Int. J. Insect. Morph. Embryol., 2:55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Scharrer, B., 1963, Neurosecretion. XIII. The ultrastructure of the corpus cardiacum of the insect Leucophaea maderae, Z. Zeilforsch., 60:761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Scharrer, B., 1966, Ultrastructural study of the regressing prothoracic glands of blattarian insects, Z. Zeilforsch., 69:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Schmidt-Nielsen, B., Gertz, K.H., and Davis, L.E., 1968, Excretion and ultrastructure of the antennal gland of the fiddler crab Uca mordax, J. Morph., 125:473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Schimkewitsch, W., 1895, Uber Bau und Entwicklung des Endosternits der Arachniden, Zool. Jb., 8:191.Google Scholar
  144. Sherman, R.G., 1974, Muscle attachments in horseshoe crab walking legs, Biol. Bull., 146:88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sichel, G., and Alicata, P., 1968, Sull’ultrastruttura dell’endosternite degli aracnidi. L’endosternite di Pholcus phalangioides (Füsslin) (Araneae), Boll. Zool., 35:143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Smith, U., and Smith, D.S., 1966, Observations on the secretory processes in the corpus cardiacum of the stick insect Carausius morosus, J. Cell Sci., 1:59.Google Scholar
  147. Smith, D.S., Järlfors, U., and Russell, F.E., 1969, The fine structure of muscle attachments in a spider (Latrodectus mactans, Fabr.), Tissue & Cell, 1:673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Smith, D.S., and Treherne, J.E., 1963, Functional aspects of the organization of the insect nervous system, Adv. Insect. Physiol., 1:401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Szöllösi, A., 1982, Relationships between germ and somatic cells in the testes of locusts and moths, in “Insect Ultrastructure”, 1, R.C. King and H. Akai eds., Plenum Press, New-York.Google Scholar
  150. Terzakis, J.A., 1967, Substructures in an epithelial basal lamina (basement membrane), J. Cell Biol., 35:273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Thomson, H.C., and Thomson M.H., 1968, Isolation and amino acid composition of the collagen of white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus). I, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 27:127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Thomson, H.C., and Thomson, M.H., 1970a, Isolation and amino acid composition of the collagens of white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus). II, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 35:471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Thomson, H.C., and Thomson, M.H., 1970b, Amino acid compositional relatedness between the protocollagen and insoluble collagen of white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) and the collagens of certain other invertebrates, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 36:189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Tyson, G.E., 1968, The fine structure of the maxillary gland of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina: the end-sac, Z. Zeilforsch., 86: 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wall, B.J., Oschman, J.L., and Schmidt, B.A. 1975, Morphology and function of Malpighian tubules and associated structures in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. J. Morph., 146:265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Whitten, J.M., 1962, Breakdown and formation of connective tissue in the pupal stage of an insect, Q. Jl. microsc. Sci., 103:359.Google Scholar
  157. Whitten, J.M., 1964, Haemocytes and the metamorphosing tissues in Sarcophaga bullata, Drosophila melanogaster, and other cyclorrhaphous Diptera, J. Insect Physiol., 10:447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Wigglesworth, V.B., 1979a, Secretory activity of plasmatocytes and oenocytoids during the moulting cycle of an insect (Rhodnius), Tissue & Cell, 11:69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Wigglesworth, V.B., 1979b, Hemocytes and growth in insect, in: “Insect Hemocytes: Development, Form, Functions and Techniques,” A.P. Gupta, ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean François
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Zoology, U.A. C.N.R.S. 674University of DijonDijonFrance

Personalised recommendations