Advertisement

On the Cytotoxic Modes of Action of Clostridium difficile Toxins

  • Monica Thelestam
  • Mimmi Caspar Shoshan
  • Carla Fiorentini
Part of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies Symposium Series book series (FEMS, volume 58)

Abstract

Clostridium difficile, the major aetiological agent of antibiotic associated colitis, produces two high molecular weight protein toxins, designated as toxins A and B, which are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease1. Toxin A is an enterotoxin which induces hemorrhagic fluid secretion and tissue necrosis in intestinal loops. Toxin B lacks these activities. Both are cytotoxins which act intracellularly2,3 although the mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effects are unknown.

Keywords

Clostridium Difficile Inositol Phosphate Human Lung Fibroblast Intracellular Calcium Release Human Embryonic Lung Fibroblast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D.M. Lyerly, H.C. Krivan, and T.D. Wilkins, Clostridium difficile: its disease and toxins, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 1: 1 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Henriques, I. Florin, and M. Thelestam, Cellular internalization of Clostridium difficile toxin A, Microb. Pathogen. 2: 455 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    I. Florin and M. Thelestam, Lysosomal involvement in cellular intoxication with Clostridium difficile toxin B, Microb. Pathogen. 1: 373 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Fiorentini, G. Arancia, S. Paradisi, G. Donelli, M. Giuliano, F. Piemonte, and P. Mastrantonio, Effects of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B on cytoskeleton organization in HEp-2 cells: a comparative morphological study, Toxicon. 27: 1209 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. Fiorentini, W. Malorni, S. Paradisi, M. Giuliano, P. Mastrantonio, and G. Donelli, Interaction of Clostridium difficile toxin A with cultured cells: cytoskeletal changes and nuclear polarization, Infect. Immun. 58:2329 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Thelestam and I. Florin, Studies on cellular intoxication with Clostridium difficile toxins, in: “Anaerobes Today”, J. M. Hardie and S. P. Boriello, eds, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Meador and R.K. Tweten, Purification and characterization of toxin B from Clostridium difficile, Infect. Immun. 56: 1708 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Caspar Shoshan, P. Åman, S. Skog, I. Florin, and M. Thelestam, Microfilament-disrupting Clostridium difficile toxin B causes multinucleation of transformed cells but does not block capping of membrane Ig, Eur. J. Cell Biol. 53, (1990, in press).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Nicotera, H. Thor, and S. Orrenius, Cytosolic-free Ca2+ and cell killing in hepatoma 1c1c7 cells exposed to chemical anoxia, FASEB J. 3: 59 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Triadafilopoulos, C. Pothoulakis, R. Weiss, C. Giampaolo, and J. T. LaMont, Comparative study of Clostridium difficile toxin A and cholera toxin in rabbit ileum, Gastroenterol., 97:1186 (1989).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L.G. Giugliano and B.S. Drasar, The influence of drugs on the response of a cell culture preparation to bacterial toxins, J. Med. Microbiol. 17: 151 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Caspar, I. Florin, and M. Thelestam, Calcium and calmodulin in cellular intoxication with Clostridium difficile toxin B, J. Cell. Physiol. 132:168 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.A.M. Lima, D. M. Lyerly, T. D. Wilkins, D. J. Innes, and R. L. Guerrant, Effects of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B in rabbit small and large intestine in vivo and on cultured cells in vitro, Infect. Immun. 56: 582 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Pothoulakis, R. Sullivan, D. A. Melnick, G. Triadafilopoulos, A.-S. Gadenne, T. Meshulam, and J. T. LaMont, Clostridium difficile toxin A stimulates intracellular calcium release and chemotactic response in human granulocytes, J. Clin. Invest. 81:1741 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Oishi, R. L. Raynor, P. A. Charp, and J. F. Kuo, Regulation of protein kinase C by lysophospholipids. Potential role in signal transduction, J. Biol. Chem. 263: 6865 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monica Thelestam
    • 1
  • Mimmi Caspar Shoshan
    • 1
  • Carla Fiorentini
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BacteriologyKarolinska instituteStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of UltrastructuresIstituto Superiore di SanitaRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations