Evaluation of Solid-Solid Bonds Nondestructively Using Ultrasound
The need for quantitative nondestructive characterization of solid-solid bonds has grown in response to the increasing industrial demand for production. The work to be reported here is restricted to diffusion bonds in metallic systems and is devoted to a correlation of the bond strength with ultrasonic results. Bond strength is defined as the ultimate stress in a uniaxial tensile test at slow strain rate. Reductions in strength are assumed to occur due to a lack of bonding over a fraction of the surfaces due to non-optimum bonding conditions. The voids produced in the unbonded areas are considered to be crack-like, containing a vacuum or at most a low-pressure gas. Diffusion of the species from the two sides to be bonded is the only process considered, thus neglecting for the moment such effects as precipitate reactions, phase transformations and grain growth. The initial work was performed using identical materials on either side, thus considering only the ultrasonic response of the voids produced at the bonded interface. This paper reports on initial studies using dissimilar materials, necessitating inclusion of the effect of the acoustic impedance mismatch. During the work on dissimilar materials, production of a brittle layer at the bond interface was examined. This brittle layer was caused by a thin layer of carbon present at the bond interface. The challenge of detection of this brittle layer is posed for the nondestructive evaluation community.
KeywordsBond Strength Reflection Coefficient Bond Interface Crack Opening Displacement Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanic
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 5.Buck, D. K. Rehbein, R. B. Thompson, D. D. Palmer and L. J. H. Brasche in Review of Progress in QNDE, Vol. 8B, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, Eds., Plenum Press, New York and London, 1989, P. 1949.Google Scholar
- 6.H. Tada, P. C. Paris and G. R. Irwin, in The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, Del Research Corporation, St. Louis, 1973.Google Scholar
- 10.G. Faninger, Z. Metallkde. 59, 277 (1968).Google Scholar