Synthesis of Insulin or a Similar Peptide in the Pituitary Gland and in Retinal Muller Cells

  • G. Colin Budd
  • Ben Pansky


Insulin or insulin-like peptides have been reported to be present in, and may be synthesized by, organisms that do not have pancreatic beta cells (LeRoith, et al., 1980, 1981, 1983; Falkner, et al., 1975; Meneses and Oritz, 1975; Duve and Thorpe, 1979; Yuri, et al., 1980)., Similar reports have appeared claiming localization and possible synthesis of insulin in the extrapancreatic tissues of vertebrates (Hendricks, et al.,1983). Proposed extrapancreatic sites of insulin synthesis in mammalian species have including the brain (Havrankova, et al., 1978; Raizada, et al., 1979; Bernstein, et al., 1980; Rosenzweig, et al.,1980; Stevenson, 1982; Raizada, et al., 1983; Lee, et al., 1984; Clarke, et al., 1986), rodent and human pituitary (Hatfield, et al., 1981; Budd, et al., 1986; Budd, et al., 1987), rodent and human retina (Das et al., 1984, 1985), human retinoblastoma cells (Pansky, et al., 1986),, yolk sac (Muglia and Locker, 1984), human placenta (Liu, et al., 1985) and mouse seminal vesicle (Stahler et al., 1986, 1987).


Pituitary Cell Anterior Pituitary Cell Spiny Mouse Insulin mRNA Human Retinoblastoma Cell 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Colin Budd
    • 1
  • Ben Pansky
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Physiology and AnatomyMedical College of OhioToledoUSA

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