Advertisement

Structure and Expression of Zein Genes in Maize Endosperm

  • B. A. Larkins
  • K. Pedersen
  • M. D. Marks
  • D. R. Wilson
  • P. Argos
Part of the NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 63)

Abstract

The storage proteins of maize seed are a group of alcohol-soluble proteins called zeins. These proteins can be separated by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into four major groups that have apparent mol wts of 22,000, 19,000, 15,000 and 10,000 (Lee et al., 1976; Gianazza et al., 1977). The Mr 22,000 and Mr 19,000 components are made up of several polypeptides. Their NH2-terminal sequences are heterogeneous (Larkins et al., 1980) and on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gels they show substantial charge heterogeneity (Hagen and Rubenstein, 1981). The Mr 15,000 and Mr 10,000 polypeptides are less heterogeneous, and appear to consist of only one or two proteins (Hurkman et al., 1981). Charge heterogeneity among different zeins is genotype specific (Righetti et al., 1977) and has been shown in several instances to be inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion (Soave et al., 1978). These studies suggest that the zeins are a highly homologous group of proteins encoded by multiple and closely related genes.

Keywords

Maize Endosperm Normal Genotype Charge Heterogeneity Zein Protein Zein Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agros, P., Pedersen, K., Marks, M.D., and Larkins, B.A. 1982, A structural model for maize zein proteins, J. Biol. Chem. (in press).Google Scholar
  2. DiFonzo, N., Fornasari, E., Salamini, F., Reggianai, R., and Soave, C. 1980, Interaction of maize mutants floury-2 and opaque-7 with opaque-2 in the synthesis of endosperm proteins, J. Heredity, 71, 397.Google Scholar
  3. Gianazza, E., Viglienghi, V., Righetti, P.C., Salamini, F., and Soave, C. 1977, Amino acid composition of zein molecular components, Phytochemistry, 16, 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hagen, G. and Rubenstein, I, 1980, Two-dimensional gel analysis of the zein proteins in maize, Plant Science Lett., 19, 217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hurkman, W.J., Smith, L.D., Richter, J., and Larkins, B.A., 1981, Subcellular compartmentalization of maize storage proteins in Xenopus oocytes injected with zein messenger RNAs, J. Cell Biol., 89, 292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jones, R.A., Larkins, B.A., and Tsai, C.Y., 1977, Reduced synthesis of a major zein component by the opaque-2 mutant of maize, Plant Physiol., 59, 525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jones, R.A., 1978, Effects of floury-2 locus on zein accumulation and RNA metabolism during maize endosperm development, Biochem. Genet., 16, 27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Larkins, B.A., Pedersen, K., Hurkman, W.J., Handa, A.K., Mason, A.C., Tsai, C.Y., and Hermodson, M.A., 1980, Maize storage proteins: Characterization and biosynthesis in Genome Organization and Expression in Plants, (C.J. Leaver, ed.) Plenum Press, N.Y. pp. 203.Google Scholar
  9. Lee, K.H., Jones, R.A., Dalby, A., and Tsai, C.Y., 1976, Genetic regulation of storage protein synthesis in maize endosperm, Biochem. Genet., 14, 641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Marks, M.D. and Larkins, B.A., 1982, Analysis of sequence micro-heterogeneity among zein messenger RNAs, J. Biol. Chem. (in press).Google Scholar
  11. Pedersen, L., Bloom, K.S., Anderson, J.N., Glover, D.V., and Larkins, B.A., 1980, Analysis of the complexity and frequency of zein genes in the maize genome, Biochemistry, 19, 1644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pedersen, K., Devereux, J., Wilson, D.R., Sheldon, E., and Larkins, B.A., 1982, Cloning and sequence analysis reveals structural variation among related zein genes, Cell, 29, 1015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Righetti, P.G., Gianazza, E., Viotti, A., and Soave, C., 1977, Heterogeneity of storage proteins in maize, Planta, 136, 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Soave, C., Suman, N., Viotti, A., and Salamini, F., 1978, Linkage relationships between regulatory and structural gene loci involved in zein synthesis in maize, Theoret. Appl. Genetics., 52, 263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Soave, C., Tardani, L., DiFonzo, N., and Salamini, F., 1981, Zein level in maize endosperm depends on a protein under control of the opaque-2 and opaque-6 loci, Cell, 27, 403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Larkins
    • 1
  • K. Pedersen
    • 1
  • M. D. Marks
    • 1
  • D. R. Wilson
    • 1
  • P. Argos
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Botany and Plant PathologyPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations