Advertisement

Childhood Outdoors: Toward a Social Ecology of the Landscape

  • Robin Moore
  • Donald Young
Part of the Human Behavior and Environment book series (HUBE, volume 3)

Abstract

In the urban environment, the creation of childhood places cannot be left to chance or the vagaries of pressure groups; they must be deliberately fostered by planning, design, and management to satisfy basic human needs. Our purpose therefore is to present existing empirical findings, within a behavior-environment ecological framework, to support more rational decision-making.

Keywords

Home Range Mention Rate Childhood Outdoors Graphic Simulation Range Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abercrombie, M. L. J. The anatomy of judgement. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. Aiello, J. F., Gordon, B. & Farrell, T. J. Description of children’s outdoor activities in a suburban residential area: Preliminary findings. In R. C. Moore (Ed.), Childhood city man cuviroument interactions. Vol. 12. D. Carson (general ed.). Milwaukee: EDRA, 1974. Pp. 187–195.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. & Tindall, M. The concept of home range: New data for the study of territorial behavior. In W. J. Mitchell (Ed.), Environmental design: Research and practice. Proceedings of the EDRA3/AR8 Conference. Los Angeles: University of California, 1972. Pp. 1–1–1–1–1–7.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews, H. F. Home range and urban knowledge of school-age children. Environment and Behavior, 1973, 5(1), 73–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Auslander, N., Juhasz, J. & Carrusco, F. F. Chicano children and their outdoor environments (summary report), unpublished manuscript. Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, 1977.Google Scholar
  6. Appleyard, D. & Lintell, M. Environmental quality of the city street. American Institute of Planners Journal, 1972, 38(2), 84–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baltimore Departments of Planning, and Housing and Urban Development. Community renewal program interim report. Baltimore, May 1972. P. 149.Google Scholar
  8. Bangs, H. P. J., & Mahler, S. Uses of local parks. American Institute of Planners Journal, 1970, 36(3), 330–334.Google Scholar
  9. Barbey, G. F. Anthropological analysis of the home concept: Some considerations based on the interpretation of children’s drawings. In R. C. Moore (Ed.), Childhood city, man-environment interactions. Vol. 12. D. Carson (general ed.). Milwaukee: EDRA, 1974. Pp. 143–149.Google Scholar
  10. Barker, R. G., & Wright, H. F. Midwest and its children. White Plains, New York: Row, Peterson and Company, 1955.Google Scholar
  11. Barker, R. G. & Wright, H. F. One boy’s day. New York: Archon Books, Harper and Row, 1966.Google Scholar
  12. Bartlett, F. Remembering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1932.Google Scholar
  13. Bengtsson, A. Adventure playgrounds. New York: Praeger, 1972.Google Scholar
  14. Boulding, K. The image: Knowledge in life and society. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1956.Google Scholar
  15. Brower, S., Gray, L. Stough, R. Doll-play as a tool for urban designers. Department of Planning, Baltimore, Md., April 1977.Google Scholar
  16. Brower, S. N., & Williamson, P. Outdoor recreation as a function of the urban housing environment. Environment and Behavior, 1974, 6 (3), 295–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Byrom, J. B. Shared open space in Scottish private enterprise housing. The Architectural Research Unit, Dept. of Architecture, University of Edinburgh, 55 George Square, Edinburgh 8. Report A43:R2. July 1972.Google Scholar
  18. Coates, G. & Bussard, E. Patterns of children’s spatial behavior in a moderate-density housing development. In R. C. Moore (Ed.), Childhood city, man-environment interactions. Vol. 12. D. Carson (general ed.). Milwaukee: EDRA, 1974. Pp. 131–141.Google Scholar
  19. Coates, G. & Sanofi, H. Behavior mapping: The ecology of child behavior in a planned residential setting. In W. J. Mitchell (Ed.), Environmental design: Research and practice. Proceedings of the EDRA3/AR8 Conference. Los Angeles: University of California, 1972. Pp. 13–2-1–13-2–11.Google Scholar
  20. Cobb, E. The ecology of imagination in childhood. In P. Shepard & D. McKinley (Eds.), The subversive science. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969 Pp. 122–132.Google Scholar
  21. Coles, R. Children of crisis. New York: Dell, 1964.Google Scholar
  22. Cooper, C. C. Adventure playgrounds. Landscape Architecture, 1970, 62(1), 18–91.Google Scholar
  23. Cooper, C. C. Easter Hill Village: Some social implications of design. New York: The Free Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  24. Cooper Marcus, C. Children’s play behavior in a low-rise, inner-city housing development. In R. C. Moore (Ed.), Childhood city, man-environment interactions. Vol. 12. D. Carson (general ed.). Milwaukee: EDRA, 1974. Pp. 197–211.Google Scholar
  25. Cooper Marcus, C. & Moore, R. C. Children and their environments: A review of research 1955–1975. Journal of Architectural Education, 1976, 29(4), 22–25. (Also published as Reprint #132, Institute for Urban and Regional Development, University of California, Berkeley.)Google Scholar
  26. Department of Environment (DoE). Children at play. London: Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, Design Bulletin 27, 1973.Google Scholar
  27. Downs, R. & Stea, D. Image and environment: Cognitive mapping and spatial behavior, Chicago: Aldine, 1973.Google Scholar
  28. Dresel, P. Open space in new urban areas. Open space in housing areas. National Swedish Institute for Building Research, 1972 (Box 1403, S-111 84, Stockholm).Google Scholar
  29. Durlak, J. Duncan, B. Emby, G. Suburban children and public transportation in metropolitan Toronto. Urban Studies Program, York University, Downsview, Ontario. Report prepared for Ministry of State for Urban Affairs, January 1976.Google Scholar
  30. Gould, P. & White, R. Mental Maps, Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gray, L., & Brower, S. Activities of children in an urban neighborhood. Department of Planning, Baltimore, Md., April 1977, (unpublished manuscript).Google Scholar
  32. Hart, R. Children’s experience of place: A developmental study. New York: Irvington Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  33. Hayward, D. G., Rothenberg, M., & Beasley, R. R. Children’s play and urban playground environments: A comparison of traditional, contemporary and adventure playground types. Environment and Behavior, 1974, 6(2), 131–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Himmelweit, H. T., Oppenheim, A. N., & Vince, P. Television and the child. London: Nuffield Foundation, 1958.Google Scholar
  35. Hole, V. Children’s play on housing estates. National Building Studies Research Paper 39. London: Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1966.Google Scholar
  36. Hole, V., & Miller, A. Children’s play on housing estates. Architect’s Journal, 1966, 143(25), 1529–1536.Google Scholar
  37. Holt, J. Escape from childhood: The needs and rights of children. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1975.Google Scholar
  38. Ladd, F. Black youths view their environment: Neighborhood maps. Environment and Behavior, 1970, 2(2), 74–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ladd, F. Black youths view their environments: Some views of housing. American Institute of Planners Journal, 1972, 38(2), 108–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee, T. Urban neighborhood as a socio-spatial scheme. Human Relations, 1968, no. 21, 241–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. LeVine, J., & Taylor, J. W. Manipulability and meaning in public space. Cambridge, Mass. Harvard Graduate School of Design, May 1974 (unpublished Master’s thesis).Google Scholar
  42. Lukashok, A., & Lynch, K. Some childhood memories of the city. American Institute of Planners Journal, 1956, 22(3), 142–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lynch, K. The image of the city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  44. Lynch, K. (Ed.). Growing up in cities: Studies of the spatial environment of adolescence in Cracow, Melbourne, Mexico City, Salta, Toluca and Warsawa. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  45. Mark, L. S. Modeling through toy play: A methodology for eliciting topographical representations in children. In W. J. Mitchell (Ed.), Environmental design: Research and practice. Proceedings of the EDRA3/AR8 Conference. Los Angeles: University of California. 1972. Pp. 1–3-1–1-3–9.Google Scholar
  46. Martensson, B. Observations of outdoor activities in some housing areas, Open space in housing areas, National Swedish Institute for Building Research, 1972 (Box 1403, S-111 84, Stockholm).Google Scholar
  47. Mason, G., Forrester, A., & Hermann, R. Berkeley park use study: A working report to guide the acquisition and development of New Parklands. Berkeley: Department of Parks and Recreation, 1975. (Available from Design Section, Civic Center Building, 2180 Milvia Street, Berkeley, Calif. 94704, price $1.00.)Google Scholar
  48. Maurer, R., & Baxter, J. C. Images of the neighborhood and city among Black-, Anglo- and Mexican-American children. Environment and Behavior, 1972, 4(4), 351–388.Google Scholar
  49. Mead, M. Neighborhoods and human needs. Ekistics, 1966, 21(123), 124–126.Google Scholar
  50. Moore, G. T., & Golledge, R. G. Environmental knowing. Stroudsburg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, 1976.Google Scholar
  51. Moore, R. C. Patterns of activity in time and space: The ecology of a neighborhood playground. In D. Canter and T. Lee (Eds.), Psychology and the built environment, London: Architectural Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  52. Moore, R. C. The place of adventure play in urban planning for leisure. Adventure playgrounds and children’s creativity. Report of the Sixth International Conference of the International Playground Association, Milan, Italy, Sept. 1975. (Available from I.P.A., 12 Cherry Tree Drive, Sheffield, England, S11 9AE.)Google Scholar
  53. Moore, R. C. The environmental design of children—nature relations: Some strands of applicative theory. In Children, Nature and the Urban Environment: Proceedings of a Symposium-Fair. Northeast Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, Pa. Report #NE-30, 1977.Google Scholar
  54. Moore, R. C. Meanings and measures of children/environment quality: Some findings from Washington Environmental Yard. In W. E. Rogers & W. H. Ittèlson (Eds.), New directions in environmental design research EDRA 9. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Design Research Association, 1978 (L’Enfant Plaza Station, P.O. Box 23129, Washington, D.C. 20024).Google Scholar
  55. Moore, R. C., & Wochiler, A. An assessment of a redeveloped school yard based on drawings made by child-users. In R. C. Moore (Ed.), Childhood city, man-environment interactions. Vol. 12. D. Carson (general ed.). Milwaukee: EDRA, 1974. Pp. 107–119.Google Scholar
  56. Nicholson, S. The theory of loose parts. Landscape Architecture, 1971. 62 (1), 30–34.Google Scholar
  57. Payne, R. J., & Jones, D. R. W. Children’s urban landscapes in Huntington Hills, Calgary. In P. Suedfeld & J. A. Russel (Eds.), EDRA 7: The behavioral basis of design, Book 2. Stroudsberg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, 1977.Google Scholar
  58. Pearce, J. C. Magical child; Rediscovering nature’s plan for our children. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1977.Google Scholar
  59. Perls, F., Hefferline, R. F., & Goodman, P. Gestalt therapy. New York: Dell, 1965 (first published, 1951).Google Scholar
  60. Pollowy, A. M. The urban nest. Stroudsburg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, 1977.Google Scholar
  61. Rivlin, L., Rothenberg, M., Justa, F., Wallis, A., & Wheeler, F. G., Jr. Children’s conceptions of open classrooms through use of scaled models. In R. C. Moore (Ed.), Childhood city, man-environment interactions. Vol. 12 D. Carson (general ed.). Milwaukee: EDRA, 1974. Pp. 151–160.Google Scholar
  62. Saegert, S. & Hart, R. The development of sex differences in the environmental competence in girls and boys. In P. Stevens Jr. (Ed.), Studies in the anthropology of play: Papers in memory of B. Allan Tindall, Cornwall, N.Y.: Leisure Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  63. Sanoff, H. & Dickerson, J. Mapping children’s behavior in a residential setting. Journal of Architectural Education, 1971, 25(4), 98–103.Google Scholar
  64. Southworth, M. An urban service for children based on analysis of Cambridge boys’ conception and use of the city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 1970 (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation).Google Scholar
  65. Spivak, M. Archtypal place. In W. Preiser (Ed.), EDRA 4. Vol. 1. Stroudsburg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, 1973. Pp. 33–46.Google Scholar
  66. Tuan, Y.-F. Topophilia: A study of environmental perception, attitudes, and values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1974.Google Scholar
  67. Wade, G. R. A study of free-play patterns of elementary school age children in playground equipment areas. Department of Physical Education, Pennsylvania State University, Dec. 1968 (unpublished Master’s thesis).Google Scholar
  68. Wade, M. G. Method and analysis in the study of children’s play behavior, Quest, 1977, Vol. XXVI.Google Scholar
  69. Wright, H. F. Psychological development in Midwest. Child Development, 1956, 27(2), 266–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Young, D. G. A particular kind of world: A search for relationships of quality between children and their environments. Berkeley: University of California, Dec. 1975 (unpublished Master’s thesis).Google Scholar
  71. Zerner, C. Tin pods, asphalt streams, Gotham’s rodeo arena: The street hearth of play. Portland, Ore.: The University of Oregon, Dec. 1974 (unpublished Master’s thesis).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robin Moore
    • 1
  • Donald Young
    • 2
  1. 1.The People Environment GroupSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.BerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations