Phytoalexins and the Specificity of Plant-Parasite Interaction

  • Joseph Kuć
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 10)


Phytoalexins are compounds which accumulate in plants following infection and various forms of stress. The term stress metabolites more accurately describes this diverse group of compounds since their accumulation after infection appears to be primarily a function of stress rather than of infection. Their relationship to stress, however, does not preclude their participation in mechanisms for disease resistance. Phytoalexins are produced by non-hosts as well as by resistant and susceptible cultivars of species. They accumulate in plants to concentrations that are inhibitory to the growth of infectious agents when tested in vitro. Phytoalexins have been characterized in the Leguminosae, Solanaceae, Malvaceae, Rosa-ceae, Convolvulaceae, Umbelliferae and Compositae. They have not been characterized in other families of major agronomic importance, e.g., Granrineae and Cucurbitacaceae. Since phytoalexins accumulate at and around sites of infection to levels inhibitory to the growth of infectious agents, their relationship to the containment of microbial development in plants cannot be ignored. Opinions differ as to the extent of their contribution in determining susceptibility or resistance.


Infectious Agent Phytophthora Infestans Green Bean Potato Tuber Tissue Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    BAILEY, J. (1974). The relationship between symptom expression and phytoalexin concentration in hypocotyls of Phaseolus vulgaris infected with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Physiol. Pl. Path.; 4, 477–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    BAILEY, J. and BURDEN, R. (1973). Biochemical changes and phytoalexin accumulation in Phaseolus vulgaris following cellular browning caused by tobacco necrosis virus. Physiol. Pl. Path., 3, 171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    BAILEY, J., BURDEN, R. and VINCENT, G. (1975). Capsidiol: An antifungal compound produced in Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana clevelandii following infection with tobacco necrosis virus. Phytochemistry, 14, 597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    BAILEY, J. and DEVERALL, B. (1971). Formation and activity of phaseollin in the interaction between bean hypocotyls (Phaseolus vulgaris) and physiological races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Physiol. Pl. Path., 1, 435–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    BIRNBAUM, G., STOESSL, A., GROVER, S. and STOTHERS, J. (1974). The complete stereostructure of capsidiol. X-ray analysis and C nuclear magnetic resonance of eremophilane derivatives having trans-vicinal methyl groups. Can. J. Chem., 52, 993–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    BURDEN, R., BAILEY, J. and VINCENT, G. (1974). Metabolism of phaseollin by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Phyto-chemistry, 13, 1789–1791.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    CHESTER, K. (1933). The problem of acquired physiological immunity in plants. Q. Rev. Biol., 8, 129–154, 275–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    CRUICKSHANK, I. (1963). Phytoalexins. A. Rev. Phytopath., 1, 351–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    CRUICKSHANK, I., BIGGS, D. and PERRIN, D. (1971). Phytoalexins as determinants of disease reaction in plants. J. Indian bot. Soc., 50A, 1–11.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    CRUICKSHANK, I., BIGGS, D., PERRIN, D. and WHITTLE, C. (1974). Phaseollin and phaseollidin relationships in infection droplets on endocarp of Phaseolus vulgaris. Physiol. Pl. Path., 4, 261–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    CRUICKSHANK, I. and PERRIN, D. (1963). Studies on phytoalexins. VI. Pisatin: the effect of some factors on its formation in Pisum sativum L., and the significance of pisatin in disease resistance. Aust. J. biol. Sci., 16, 111–128.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    CRUICKSHANK, I. and PERRIN, D. (1971). Studies on phytoalexins. XI. The induction, antimicrobial spectrum and chemical assay of phaseollin. Phytopath. Z., 70, 209–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    CURRIER, W. (1974). Characterization of the induction and suppression of terpenoid accumulation in the potato -Phytophthora infestans interaction. Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, 114 pp.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    ELLISTON, J. (1975). A histological and biochemical study of local and systemic protection of Phaseolus vulgaris against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum as elicited by fungi. Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, 271 pp.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    ELLISTON, J. and KUć, J. (1975). Metabolic control of the resistance of bean to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Kagaku to Scibutsu, 13, 522–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    ÉRSEK, T., BARNA, B. and KIRÁLY, Z. (1973). Hypersensitivity and the resistance of potato tuber tissues to Phytophthora infestans. Acta phytopath. Acad. Sci. hung., 8, 3–12.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    GOODMAN, R. (1967). The protection of apple stem tissue a-gainst Erwinia amylovora infection by avirulent strains and three other bacterial species. Phytopathology, 57, 22–24.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    HADWIGER, L. (1972). Increased levels of pisatin and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in Pisum sativum treated with antihistamine, antiviral, antimalarial/ transquil-izing or other drugs. Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun., 46, 71–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    HADWIGER, L. and SCHWOCHAW, M. (1971). Ultraviolet light-induced formation of pisatin. and phenylalanine ammonia lyase. Pl. Physiol., Lancaster, 47, 588–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    HEATH, M. and HIGGINS, V. (1973). In vitro and in vivo conversion of phaseollin and pisatin by an alfalfa pathogen Stemphylium botryosum. Physiol. Pl. Path., 3, 107–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    HIGGINS, V. and MILLAR, R. (1969). Degradation of alfalfa phytoalexin by Stemphylium botryosum. Phytopathology, 59, 1500–1506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    HIGGINS, V. and MILLAR, R. (1970). Degradation of alfalfa phytoalexin by Stemphylium loti and Colletotrichum phomo-ides. Phytopathology, 60, 269–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    HIGGINS, V. and SMITH, D. (1972). Separation and identification of two pterocarpenoid phytoalexins produced by red clover leaves. Phytopathology, 62, 235–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    INGHAM, J. (1972). Phytoalexins and other natural products as factors in plant disease resistance. Bot. Rev., 38, 343–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    KEEN, N. (1971). Hydroxyphaseollin production by soybeans resistant and susceptible to Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae. Physiol. Pl. Path., 1, 265–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    KEEN, N. (1975). Specific elicitors of plant phytoalexin production: determinants of race specificity in pathogens ? Science, N.Y., 187, 74–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    KOSUGE, T. (1969). The role of phenolics in host response to infection. A. Rev. Phytopath., 7, 195–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    KUć, J. (1966). Resistance of plants to infectious agents. A. Rev. Microbiol., 20, 337–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    KUć, J. (1972). Phytoalexins. A. Rev. Phytopath., 10, 207–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    KUć, J. (1973). Metabolites accumulating in potato tubers following infection and stress. Teratology, 8, 333–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    KUć, J. (1975). Phytoalexins, plants and human health. Adv. Chem. (In press).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    KUć, J., SHOCKLEY, G. and KEARNEY, K. (1975). Protection of cucumber against Colletotrichum lagenarium by Colletotrichum lagenorium. Physiol. Pl. Path. (In press).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    MCINTYRE, J., KUC, J. and WILLIAMS, E. (1973). Protection of pear against fireblight by bacteria and bacterial sonicates. Phytopathology, 63, 872–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    MCINTYRE, J., KUC, J. and WILLIAMS, E. (1975). Protection of bartlett pear against fireblight with deoxyribonucleic acid from virulent and avirulent Erwinia amylovora. Physiol. Pl. Path. (In press).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    METLITSKY, L., OZERETSKOVSKAYA, O., VULFSON, N. and CHALOVA, L. (1971). Lubimin in potato resistance. Mikol. i Fitopatol., 5, 439–443.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    PUEPPKE, S. and VAN ETTEN, H. (1974). Pisatin accumulation and lesion development in peas infected with Aphanomyces euteiches, Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi or Rhizoctonia solani. Phytopathology, 64, 1433–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    RAHE, J. (1973). Occurrence and levels of the phytoalexin phaseollin in relation to delimitation at sites of infection of Phaseolus vulgaris by Colletotrichum lindemuthia-num. Can. J. Bot., 51, 2423–2430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    RAHE, J., KUC, J., CHUANG, C. and WILLIAMS, E. (1969). Correlation of phenolic metabolism with histological changes in Phaseolus vulgaris inoculated with fungi. Beth. J. Pl. Path., 75, 58–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    REILLY, J. and KLARMAN, W. (1972). The soybean phytoalexin, hydroxyphaseollin, induced by fungicides. Phytopathology, 62, 1113–1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    SATO, N., KITAZAWA, K. and TOMIYAMA, K. (1971). The role of rishit in in localizing the invading hyphae of Phytoph-thora infestons in infection sites at the cut surfaces of potato tubers. Physiol. Pl. Path., 1, 289–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    SATO, N. and TOMIYAMA, K. (1969). Localized accumulation of rishitin in the potato tuber tissue infected by an incompatible race of Phytophthora infestons. Ann. phyto-path. Soc. Japan, 35, 202–207.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    SATO, N., TOMIYAMA, K., KATSUI, N. and MASAMUNE, T. (1968). Isolation of rishitin from tomato plants. Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 34, 344–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    SMITH, D., VAN ETTEN, H. and BATEMAN, D.F. (1975). Accumulation of phytoalexins in Phaseolus vulgaris hypocotyls following infection by Rhizoctonia solani. Physiol. Pl. Path., 5, 51–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    STOESSL, A. (1970). Antifungal compounds produced by higher plants. Recent Adv. Phytochem., 3, 143–180.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    STOESSL, A., STOTHERS, J. and WARD, E.W.B. (1974). Lubimin: A phytoalexin of several solanaceae. Structure revision and biogenetic relationships. J. chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 709–710.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    STOESSL, A., UNWIN, C. and WARD, E.W.B. (1973). Postinfectional fungus inhibitors from plants: fungal oxidation of cap-sidiol in pepper fruit. Phytopathology, 63, 1225–1231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    TOMIYAMA, K., SAKUMA, T., ISHIZAKA, N., SATO, N., KATSUI, N., TAKASUGI, M. and MASAMUNE, T. (1968). A new antifungal substance isolated from resistant potato tuber tissue infected by pathogens. Phytopathology., 58, 115–116.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    VAN ETTEN, H. and SMITH, D. (1975). Accumulation of antifungal isoflavonoids and 1a-hydroxyphaseollone, a phaseollin metabolite, in bean tissue infected with Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli. Physiol. Pl. Path., 5, 225–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    VARNS, J. and KUć, J. (1971). Suppression of rishitin and phytuberin accumulation and hypersensitive response in potato by compatible races of Phytophthora infestons. Phytopathology, 61, 178–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    VARNS, J. and KUć, J. (1972). Suppression of the resistance response as an active mechanism for susceptibility in the potato — Phytophthora infestons interaction. In: Phytotoxins in Plant Diseases. (WOOD, R.K.S., BALLIO, A., and GRANITI, A. Eds.), 465–468. Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    VARNS, J., KUć, J. and WILLIAMS, E. (1971). Terpenoid accumulation as a biochemical response of the potato tuber to Phytophthora infestons. Phytopathology, 61, 174–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    WARD, E.W.B., UNWIN, C.H. and STOESSL, A. (1973). Postinfectional inhibitors from plants. VII. Tolerance of capsidiol by fungal pathogens of pepper fruit. Can. J. Bot., 51, 2327–2332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    WRATHER, J., KUć, J. and WILLIAMS, E. (1973). Protection of apple and pear fruit tissue against fireblight with nonpathogenic bacteria. Phytopathology, 63, 1075–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Kuć
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations