Congenitally Athymic (Nude) Mice and Their Application to the Study of Immunity and Aging

  • John W. Jutila
Part of the Comprehensive Immunology book series (COMIMUN, volume 1)


Numerous studies in several mammalian species, including man, mice, rats, and hamsters have established a strong relationship between the aging process and a decline in the functional capacity of the immune system (Walford, 1969). The socalled immunologic theory of aging predicts that genetic and induced defects in the immune apparatus may seriously compromise the general health of man or animals by failing to thwart infections and neoplasia on the one hand, and, on the other, by responding to self-antigens to produce destructive autoimmune disorders.


Nude Mouse Harderian Gland Thymus Gland Polyoma Virus Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aden, D. P., Reed, N. D., and Jutila, J. W., 1972, Reconstitution of the in vitro immune response of congenitally thymusless (nude) mice, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 140:548–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aden, D. P., and Reed, N. D., 1973, In vitro immune response to lipopolysaccharide: Thymus-derived cells not required, Immunol. Comm. 2:335–340.Google Scholar
  3. Allison, A. C., Denman, A. M., and Barnes, R. D., 1971, Cooperating and controlling of thymus derived lymphocytes in relation to autoimmunity, Lancet ii:135–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison, A. C., Monga, J. N., and Hammond, V., 1974, Increased susceptibility to virus oncogenesis of congenitally thymus deprived nude mice, Nature 252:746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bach, J. F., Dardenne, M., and Bach, M. A., 1973, Detection of a circulating thymic hormone using T-rosette forming cells, in: Proceedings of the Seventh Leucocyte Culture Conference (F. Daguillard, ed.), pp. 271–287, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Bankhurst, A. D., and Warner, N. L., 1972, Surface immunoglobulins on the thoracic duct lymphocytes of the congenitally athymic (nude) mouse, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 50:661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bloemmen, J., and Eyssen, H., 1973, Immunoglobulin levels of sera of genetiacally thymusless (nude) mice, Eur. J. Immunol. 3:117–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burnet, F. M., 1970, Immunological Surveillance, Pergamon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  9. Cordier, A. C., and Heremans, J. F., 1975, Nude mouse embryo: Ectodermal nature of the primordial thymic defect, Scand. J. Immunol. 4:193–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crewther, P., and Warner, N. L., 1972, Serum immunoglobulins and antibodies in congenitally athymic (nude) mice. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 50:625–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Flanagan, S. P., 1966, “Nude,” a new hairless gene with pleiotropic effects in the mouse, Genet. Res. (Camb.) 8:295–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jacobsen, R. H., and Reed, N. D., 1974, The immune response of congenitally athymic (nude) mice to the intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus braciliensis, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 147:667–670.Google Scholar
  13. Jutila, J. W., 1973, Etiology of the wasting diseases, in: Bacterial Lipopoly saccharides (E. Kass and S. Wolff, eds.), pp. 91–95, University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  14. Jutila, J. W., Reed, N. D., and Isaac, D., 1975, Studies on the immune response of congenitally athymic (nude) mice, in: Immunodeficiency in Man and Animals, Birth defects: original article series, Vol XI, pp. 522–527, Sinauer Assoc. Inc., Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  15. Kelly, M. G., Smith, N. H., Wodinsky, I., and Rall, D. P., 1957, Strain differences in local hemorrhagic response (Shwartzman-like reaction) of mice to a single intradermal injection of bacterial polysaccharides, J. Exp. Med. 105:653–663.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kindred, B., 1971a, Immunological unresponsiveness of genetically thymusless (nude) mice, Eur. J. Immunol. 1:59–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kindred, B., 1971b, Antibody response in genetically thymusless nude mice injected with normal thymus cells, J. Immunol. 107:1291–1295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kouttab, N., and Jutila, J. W., 1973, The role of the thymus in the leukemic process, Mont. Acad. Sci. 33:56–66.Google Scholar
  19. Lake, J., and Reed, N. D., 1975, Immunological responsiveness of congenitally athymic mice to polyvinylpyrrolidone, Bact. Proc. (abstract).Google Scholar
  20. Lowenberg, B., Nieuwerkerk, H. T. M., and Kekkum, D. W., 1972, Effect of thymus extracts on in vitro graft-versus-host activity of nude mouse spleen cells, TNO-REP 72, p. 105.Google Scholar
  21. Manning, J. K., Reed, N. D., and Jutila, J. W., 1972, Antibody response to Escherichia coli lipopolysac-charide and Type III pneumococcal polysaccharide by congenitally thymusless (nude) mice, J. Immunol. 108:1470–1473.Google Scholar
  22. Manning, D. D., and Jutila, J. W., 1972, Immunosuppression of mice injected with heterologous antiimmunoglobulin heavy chain antisera, J. Exp. Med. 135:1316–1333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Manning, D. D., Reed, N. D., and Schafffer, C., 1973, Maintenance of skin xenografts of widely divergent phylogenetic origin on congenitally athymic (nude) mice, J. Exp. Med. 138:488–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Manning, D. D., and Jutila, J. W., 1974, Immunosuppression of congenitally athymic (nude) mice with heterologous anti-immunoglobulin heavy-chain antisera, Cell. Immunol. 14:453–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Michael, J. G., and Bernstein, T. L., 1973, Thymus dependence of reaginic antibody formation in mice, J. Immunol. 111:1600–1601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Miller, J. F. A. P., 1961, Immunological function of the thymus, Lancet 2:748:749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Morse, H. C., Steinberg, A. D., Schur, P. H., and Reed, N. D., 1974, Spontaneous “autoimmune disease” in nude mice, J. Immunol. 113:688–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Outzen, H. C., Custer, R. P., Eaton, G. J., and Prehn, R. T., 1975, Spontaneous and induced Tumor incidence in germfree “nude” mice, J. Reticulo Soc. 17:1–9.Google Scholar
  29. Pantelouris, E. M., 1968, Absence of thymus in a mouse mutant, Nature 217:370–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pantelouris, E. M., and Hair, J., 1970, Thymus dysgenesis in nude (nu/nu) mice, J. Embryol. Exp. Morph. 24:615–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Pantelouris, E. M., 1971, Observation on the immunobiology of “nude” mice Immunology 20:247–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Parrott, D. M. V., 1962, Strain variation in mortality and runt disease in mice thymectomized at birth, Transpl. Bull. 29:102–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Penn, I., Halgrimson, C. G., and Starzl, T. E., 1971, De novo malignant tumors in organ transplant recipients, Transplant Proc. 3:773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E., 1972, Alterations of adrenal cortex and thyroid in mice with congenital absence of the thymus, Nature New Biol. 238:282–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Prehn, R. T., 1972, The immune reaction as a stimulator of tumor growth. Science 176:170–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pritchard, H., and Micklem, H. S., 1972, Immune responses in congenitally thymusless mice I. Absence of response to oxazolone, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 10:151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Pritchard, H., Riddaway, J., and Micklem, H. S., 1973, Immune responses in congenitally thymusless mice II-Quantitative studies of serum immunoglobulins, the antibody response to sheep erythrocytes and the effect of thymus allografting, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 13:125–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Raff, M. C., and Wortis, H., 1970, Thymus dependence of O-bearing cells in the peripheral lymphoid tissues of mice, Immunology 18:931–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Reed, N. D., and Jutila, J. W., 1972, Immune response of congenitally thymusless mice to heterologous erythrocytes, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 139:1234–1237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Reed, N. D., Manning, J. K., Baker, P. J., and Ulrich, J. T., 1974, Analysis of thymus-independent immune responses using nude mice, in: Proc. First International Workshop on Nude Mice (J. Rygaard and C. Poulsen, eds.), Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  41. Rygaard, J., 1969, Immunobiology of the mouse mutant “nude.” Preliminary investigations, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 77:761–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rygaard, J., 1973, Thymus and Self, F.A.D.L., Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  43. Rygaard, J., and Poulsen, C.O., 1969, Heterotransplantation of a human malignant tumor to “nude” mice, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 77:758–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Salvin, S., Peterson, R. B., and Good, R. A., 1965, The role of the thymus in resistance to infection and endotoxin toxicity, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 65:1004–1022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Stutman, O., 1974, Tumor development after 3-methylcholanthrene in immunologically deficient athymic-nude mice, Science 183:534–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stutman, O., 1975, Tumor development after polyoma infection in athymic nude mice, J. Immunol. 114:1213–1217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Wagner, H., 1972, The correlation between the proliferative and the cytotoxic responses of mouse lymphocytes to allogeneic cells in vitro, J. Immunol. 109:630–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Walford, R. L., 1969, The Immunologic Theory of Aging, Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  49. Walford, R. L., 1974, Immunologic theory of aging: Current status, Fed. Proc. 33:2020–2027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Wortis, H., 1971, Immunological responses of “nude” mice, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 8:305–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Wortis, H., 1974, Immunological studies of nude mice, Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology, Vol. 3, pp. 243–263, Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wortis, H. H., 1975, Pleiotropic effects of the nude mutation, in: Immunodeficiency in Man and Animals, Birth defect: original article series, Vol. XI, pp. 528–530, Sinauer Assoc, Inc., Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  53. Yunis, E. J., Fernandes, G., Teague, P. E., and Good, R. A., 1971, in: Tolerance, Immunity, and Molecular Aging (S. Sigel and R. Good, eds.), Charles Thomas, Springfield.Google Scholar
  54. Yunis, E. J., Fernandes, G., and Greenberg, L. J., 1975, Immune deficiency, autoimmunity and aging, in: Immunodeficiency in Man and Animals, Birth defects: original article series, Vol. XI, pp. 185–192, Sinauer Assoc., Inc., Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • John W. Jutila
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA

Personalised recommendations