Polyprotic Acid—Base Equilibria: Relations and Diagrams

  • William B. Guenther


In this chapter we show the general forms of multistep equilibria and their similarity for polyprotic acid—base and for polyligand metal ion—ligand equilibria. We consider only mononuclear cases, meaning that one central species accepts protons or ligands, as the case may be. Rarer polynuclear examples are H2F2 and Ag2I+.


Citric Acid Ionic Strength Material Balance Acidity Constant Invariant Shape 
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Selected Reading

  1. Butler, James N., Ionic Equilibria, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1964, Chapter 7.Google Scholar
  2. de Levie, R., Ratio diagrams, J. Chem. Ed. 47, 187 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Freiser, Henry and Q. Fernando, Ionic Equilibrium in Analytical Chemistry. Wiley, New York, 1963, Chapters 4–7.Google Scholar
  4. Guenther, W. B., Quantitative Chemistry, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1968, Chapters 5 and 8.Google Scholar
  5. Ricci, John E., Hydrogen Ion Concentration, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1952.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • William B. Guenther
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryThe University of the SouthSewaneeUSA

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