About this book
* The present work is designed to provide a practical introduction to aqueous equilibrium phenomena for both students and research workers in chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, and interdisciplin ary environmental fields. The pedagogical strategy I have adopted makes heavy use of detailed examples of problem solving from real cases arising both in laboratory research and in the study of systems occurring in nature. The procedure starts with mathematically complete equations that will provide valid solutions of equilibrium problems, instead of the traditional approach through approximate concentrations and idealized, infinite-dilution assumptions. There is repeated emphasis on the use of corrected, conditional equilibrium constants and on the checking of numerical results by substitution in complete equations and/or against graphs of species distributions. Graphical methods of calculation and display are used extensively because of their value in clarifying equilibria and in leading one quickly to valid numerical approximations. The coverage of solution equilibrium phenomena is not, however, exhaustively comprehensive. Rather, I have chosen to offer funda mental and rigorous examinations of homogeneous step-equilibria and their interactions with solubility and redox equilibria. Many examples are worked out in detail to demonstrate the use of equi librium calculations and diagrams in various fields of investigation.
Ampholyte Cobalt Mangan Oxidation Phosphat Substitution Titration calcium diagram electrochemistry interaction metals nature research structure