Neurobiology of Pediatric Anxiety Disorders

  • Amanda E. Guyer
  • Carrie L. Masten
  • Daniel S. Pine
Chapter
Part of the Current Clinical Psychiatry book series (CCPSY)

Abstract

Anxiety during childhood and adolescence is a highly prevalent problem that contributes to long-term dysfunction in adulthood. This chapter highlights research on the neurobiology of pediatric anxiety disorders aimed at understanding how anxiety takes hold in the brain and the mechanisms that fuel its developmental course. We present an overview of anatomical and functional brain-based differences in children and adolescents with and without anxiety disorders. With regard to work focused on brain function in pediatric anxiety, we discuss four key psychological processes that are highly relevant to clinical characteristics in anxiety: attention orienting, threat learning, social–emotional information processing, and reward processing. We also review recent work that delineates connections between and within neural regions that appear to be distinctly modulated by anxiety both in response to specific tasks and while at rest. We close the chapter with a summary of emerging work on neurobiological response to treatments for anxiety in children and adolescents, followed by conclusions and future directions for this course of work.

Keywords

Anxiety Adolescence Childhood Neuroimaging Brain structure Brain function Neural connectivity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Support for this work was provided by the National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program and National Institutes of Health Career Development Award K99/R900 MH080076 to A.E.G. The authors wish to thank Jennifer Buser and Sarah Ruiz for assistance with literature reviews and table and figure creation.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda E. Guyer
    • 1
  • Carrie L. Masten
    • 2
  • Daniel S. Pine
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Human Ecology and Center for Mind and BrainUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and Human DevelopmentPeabody College, Vanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.Section on Development and Affective NeuroscienceNational Institute of Mental HealthBethesdaUSA

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