Methylmercury Neurotoxicity: A Synopsis of In Vitro Effects
Following severe episodes of human poisoning, a large number of studies in experimental animals have confirmed that methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent developmental neurotoxicant. Furthermore, extensive research in vivo and in vitro has delineated the possible mechanisms underlying MeHg neurotoxicity. This chapter summarizes major findings on the effects of MeHg at the cellular level in both neuronal and glial cells in vitro. Given the multitude of information available, only major pathways of toxicity are discussed, with a focus on the ability of MeHg to cause apoptotic cell death, by mechanisms involving the perturbation of calcium homeostasis and the induction of oxidative stress.
KeywordsGlial Cell Cerebellar Granule Cerebellar Granule Cell Cerebellar Granule Neuron MeHg Exposure
Work by the authors has been supported over the years by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, the European Commission, and the Italian Ministry for Research (MIUR).
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