Molecular Phylogenetics of the Callitrichidae with an Emphasis on the Marmosets and Callimico

Chapter
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)

Abstract

In the last two decades analyses of DNA sequence data have significantly increased our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among callitrichid primates. The current taxonomic synthesis includes seven genera within the family Callitrichidae: Saguinus, Leontopithecus, Callimico, Mico, Cebuella, Callibella and Callithrix. The relationships among genera are relatively well defined by molecular data and can be described as follows: (Saguinus (Leontopithecus (Callimico (Callithrix (Callibella (Cebuella/Mico)))))). Nonetheless, relationships among Leontopithecus, Callimico, and Saguinus are less clear and show different patterns depending on the data utilized to infer these relationships; this could reflect the relatively rapid divergence of these lineages. The sister relationship of Callimico to the marmosets (Callithrix, Callibella, Cebuella, and Mico) is highly supported by molecular and cytogenetic studies. Within this clade (Callimico/marmosets), only a few studies have focused on determining relationships at the intrageneric level, with only two genera analyzed to date. These studies have produced uncertain results concerning the taxonomic distinctiveness of the putative species and their phylogenetic relationships. In this chapter I review, synthesize, and analyze the molecular evidence that has been used to elucidate the taxonomy within the Callitrichidae.

Resumen

Los análisis de datos de secuencias de ADN han aumentado significativamente nuestra comprensión de las relaciones filogenéticas entre los primates calitrícidos en las últimas dos décadas. La síntesis taxonómica actual incluye siete géneros dentro de la familia Callitrichidae: Saguinus, Leontopithecus, Callimico, Mico, Cebuella, Callibella y Callithrix. Las relaciones entre los distintos géneros se han definido relativamente bien a través del uso de marcadores moleculares y pueden ser descritas de la siguiente manera: (Saguinus (Leontopithecus (Callimico (Callithrix (Callibella (Cebuella/Mico)))))). Sin embargo, las relaciones entre Leontopithecus, Callimico y Saguinus son menos claras y muestran distintos patrones dependiendo de los datos ultilizados para inferir dichas relaciones; esto puede ser el reflejo de una divergencia relativamente rápida entre estos linajes. La relación de taxa hermanos entre los callimicos y las marmosetas (Callithrix, Callibella, Cebuella, y Mico) está fuertemente apoyada por estudios moleculares y citogenéticos. Dentro de este clade (Callimico/marmosetas), sólo unos pocos estudios se han enfocado en determinar las relaciones a nivel intragenérico, con solamente dos géneros analizados hasta la fecha. Estos estudios han proporcionado resultados inciertos en relación a la distinción taxonómica de las supuestas especies y sus relaciones filogenéticas. En el presente trabajo se revisa, sintetiza y analiza la evidencia molecular que ha sido utilizada para elucidar la taxonomía de los calitrícidos.

Resumo

Análises de dados de sequências de ADN aumentaram significativamente nosso conhecimento das relações filogenéticas entre os primatas calitriquídeos nas últimas duas décadas. A síntese taxonômica atual inclui sete gêneros dentro da família Callitrichidae: Saguinus, Leontopithecus, Callimico, Mico, Cebuella, Callibella e Callithrix. As relações entre os gêneros são relativamente bem definidas por dados moleculares e podem ser descritas como: (Saguinus (Leontopithecus (Callimico (Callithrix (Callibella (Cebuella/Mico)))))). No entanto, as relações entre Leontopithecus, Callimico e Saguinus são menos claras e mostram padrões diferentes dependendo dos dados utilizados para inferir o parentesco; isto pode refletir a divergência relativamente rápida destas linhagens. O relacionamento de Callimico como grupo-irmão dos sagüis (Callithrix, Callibella, Cebuella, e Mico) tem um suporte alto em estudos citogenéticos e moleculares. Dentro deste clado (Callimico/sagüis), poucos estudos têm focado na determinação das relações de parentesco no nível intra-genérico, com somente dois gêneros analisados até o momento. Estes estudos têm produzido resultados relevantes sobre a diferenciação taxonômica de supostas espécies e seu relacionamento filogenético. Neste capítulo eu faço uma revisão, síntese, e análise da evidência molecular que têm sido usada para elucidar a taxonômia dentro de Callitrichidae.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Museum of ZoologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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