Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN)

  • Jeremy L. Friese
  • Kenneth J. Warrington
  • Dylan V. Miller
  • Steven R. Ytterberg
  • Chad J. Fleming
  • Anthony W. Stanson
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


PAN is a necrotizing vasculitis affecting small and medium sized arteries in most locations in the body. It is the most common type of necrotizing vasculitis encountered at angiography and noninvasive imaging studies. Imaging findings are predominantly occlusive in nature, manifested by luminal irregularities, stenoses and occlusions, and are found in more than 90% of patients. Aneurysms, micro and macro in size, including areas of ectasia, are found in at least 60% of patients and are the most specific finding of PAN, but they may be found in other diseases such as Wegener’s granulomatosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, bacterial endocarditis and necrotizing vasculitis of drug abuse. For some patients, traditional arteriography is more effective as a diagnostic modality because it detects smaller arterial abnormalities than other imaging modalities. However, CTA and MRA have better ability to detect organ infarction and have adequate imaging capacity to identify most patients with aneurysms, especially if rupture occurs. Ultrasound may be helpful if the aneurysms are large enough to evaluate with color Doppler or if rupture has resulted in a hematoma within or adjacent to an abdominal organ. Following treatment, noninvasive imaging modalities are usually preferred to repeat angiography.


Arterial Lesion Necrotizing Vasculitis Occlusive Lesion Organ Ischemia Renal Artery Branch 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy L. Friese
    • 1
  • Kenneth J. Warrington
    • 2
  • Dylan V. Miller
    • 3
  • Steven R. Ytterberg
    • 2
  • Chad J. Fleming
    • 1
  • Anthony W. Stanson
    • 4
  1. 1.Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Vascular Interventional RadiologyMayo Clinic College of MedicineRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Division of RheumatologyMayo Clinic College of MedicineRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Intermountain Central Laboratory—EM LaboratoryMurrayUSA
  4. 4.Emeritus of RadiologyMayo Clinic College of MedicineRochesterUSA

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