Livable Cities: Concepts and Role in Improving Health
The purpose of the International Making Cities Livable (IMCL) movement, founded in 1985, is to enhance the wellbeing of all inhabitants, strengthen community, improve social and physical health, and increase civic engagement by sustainably reshaping the built environment of our cities, suburbs, towns and villages.
Facilitate community social life
Facilitate contact with nature
Facilitate independent mobility
Freate a hospitable built environment
A major barrier preventing us achieving these goals is over-reliance on the economic model of city making. There are two competing value systems at work. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) model sees the city as an economic engine, and its function is to fuel growth and increase wealth. The second is based on Quality of Life. In this model, the function of the city is the “care and culture” (Mumford 1961) of human being and of the earth. IMCL promotes the Quality of Life model for shaping cities through the Principles of True Urbanism.
- Active Living by Design. (n.d.). About ALBD. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://activelivingbydesign.org/about/.
- Andersen, M. (2013). America’s 10 best protected bike lanes of 2013. People for bikes. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.peopleforbikes.org/blog/entry/the-10-best-protected-bike-lanes-of-2013.
- Benson, P. (2006). All kids are our kids (Vol. 1, p. 104). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Bienkowski, B. (2015). More money means more trees in US cities. The Epoch Times. April 24. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from https://m.theepochtimes.com/more-money-means-more-trees-in-us-cities_1332965.html
- Bristol. (2015). European green capital. In it for good. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from http://bristolgreencapital.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/bristol-2015_annual-review.pdf.
- Buber, M. (1967). A believing humanism (p. 95). New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
- Cooke, L. (2016). Paris allows anyone to plant an open garden. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from http://inhabitat.com/paris-allows-anyone-to-plant-an-urban-garden-anywhere/.
- Crowhurst Lennard, S., & Lennard, H. L. (1995). Livable cities observed. Carmel: Gondolier Press.Google Scholar
- Crowhurst Lennard, S., & Lennard, H. L. (2008). Genius of the European square. Carmel: Gondolier Press.Google Scholar
- Dannenberg, A., Frumkin, H., & Jackson, R. (Eds.). (2011). Making healthy places. Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
- De Graaf, J. (2014). The greatest modern presidential speech turns 50. Truthout. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.truth-out.org/opinion/item/23741-the-greatest-modern-presidential-speech-turns-50.
- De Vos, H. (2003). Geld en ‘de rest’: Over uitzwerming, teloorgang van gemeenschap en de noodzaak van gemeenschapsbeleid [Money and ‘the rest’: About sprawl, decline of community and the necessity of community policy]. Sociologische gids, 50(3), 285–311.Google Scholar
- Eco-Business. (2012). Singapore is top carbon culprit in Asia-Pacific. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.eco-business.com/news/singapore-is-top-carbon-culprit-in-asia-pacific/.
- Ethical Markets. (2017). Quality of life indicators in context. Retrieved June, 2017, from http://ethicalmarketsqualityoflife.com/current-issues/.
- Faber, T. (2001b). Views of nature and self discipline: Evidence from inner city children. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 22, 49–63.Google Scholar
- Fjortoft, I. (2004). Landscape as playscape: The effects of natural environments on children’s play and motor development. Children, Youth and Environments, 14(2), 21–44.Google Scholar
- Frumkin, H., Frank, L., & Jackson, R. (2004). Urban sprawl and public health: Designing, planning and building for healthy communities. Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
- Gehl, J. (2010). Cities for people. Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
- Gele, A., & Harsløf, I. (2010). Types of social capital resources and self-rated health among the Norwegian adult population. International Journal for Equity in Health. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848659/.
- Grahn, P., et al. (1997). Ute på Dagis (Out in the preschool). In Stad and land 145. Håssleholm: Nora Skåne Offset.Google Scholar
- Gross National Happiness. (n.d.). Center for Bhutan Studies and Gross National Happiness Research. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.grossnationalhappiness.com.
- International Making Cities Livable. (n.d.-a). Mission. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.livablecities.org/about/mission.
- International Making Cities Livable. (n.d.-b). Livable cities is gaining momentum. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.livablecities.org/articles/livable-cities-gaining-momentum.
- International Making Cities Livable. (n.d.-c). Neighborhood squares. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.livablecities.org/blog/neighborhood-squares.
- International Making Cities Livable. (n.d.-d). Principles for designing successful neighborhood squares. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.livablecities.org/blog/principles-designing-successful-neighborhood-squares.
- International Making Cities Livable. (n.d.-e). Cities are killing us. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.livablecities.org/articles/cities-are-killing-us.
- Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great american cities. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Kahn, P., & Kellert, S. (Eds.). (2002). Children and nature: Psychological, sociocultural, and evolutionary investigations. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Kellert, S., Heerwagen, J., & Mador, M. (Eds.). (2008). Biophilic design: The theory, science, and practice of bringing buildings to life. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..Google Scholar
- Kennedy, R. (1968). Speech at University of Kansas. transcript, March 18, 1968. AmericanProgress.org. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://images2.americanprogress.org/campus/email/RobertFKennedyUniversityofKansas.pdf.
- Kirkby, M. (1989). Nature as refuge in children’s environments. Children’s Environments Quarterly, 6(1), 7–12.Google Scholar
- Lawlor, E. (n.d.). Pedestrian pound. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from https://www.livingstreets.org.uk/media/1391/pedestrianpound_fullreport_web.pdf.
- Lennard, H. L., & Crowhurst Lennard, S. (2000). The forgotten child. Carmel: Gondolier Press.Google Scholar
- Lorenz, K. (1990). On life and living (pp. 37–38). New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
- Lovasi, G. S., et al. (2013, April). Urban tree canopy and asthma, wheeze, rhinitis, and allergic sensitization to tree pollen in a New York city birth cohort. Environmental Health Perspective, 121(4), 494–500.Google Scholar
- Lynch, K. (1997). Growing up in cities. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Marks, N. (n.d.). Happy planet index. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.happyplanetindex.org/about.
- Monheim, R. (Hrsg.). (1997). “Autofreie” Innenstädte - Gefahr oder Chance für den Handel? Arbeitsmaterialien zur Raumordnung und Raumplanung, H. 134, Bayreuth, Teile A und B.Google Scholar
- Mumford, L. (1961). The city in history. San Diego, New York, and London: Harcourt Brace & Company.Google Scholar
- Nieuwenhuijsen, M, et al. (2017a). Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment (PHENOTYPE). eReport #91, #91 Healthy Communities for All Ages. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from http://www.livablecities.org/documentationsets/91-healthy-communities-all-ages.
- Pope F. (2015). Laudato Si: Encyclical letter of the Holy Father: On care for our common home. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/encyclicals/documents/papa-francesco_20150524_enciclica-laudato-si.html, p. 15.
- Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone. The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
- Russell, A. (2010) Free range kids: Independence and the urban child. PLAN7122 Planning Project. University of New South Wales. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from https://cityfutures.be.unsw.edu.au/documents/139/Russell_thesis.pdf.
- Schulz, W. (1994). Criteria for urban aesthetics. Making Cities Livable Newsletter., 4(1-2), 9–12.Google Scholar
- Smart Cities Dive. (2014). Ten reasons why high-rises kill livability. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.smartcitiesdive.com/ex/sustainablecitiescollective/7-reasons-why-high-rises-kill-livability/561536/.
- Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2011). Social health inequalities in Swedish children and adolescents. Stockholm: Strömberg. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/pagefiles/12698/A2011-11-Social-health-inequalities-in-swedish-children-and-adolescents.pdf.Google Scholar
- Szasz, O. (2013). Renewing oncological hyperthermia—Oncothermia. Open Journal of Biophysics, 3(4.) Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://file.scirp.org/Html/6-1850078_38154.htm.
- Topp, H. (1985). Ten simple rules of balanced urban transportation planning. International Making Cities Livable. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.livablecities.org/blog/ten-simple-rules-balanced-urban-transportation-planning-hartmut-topp.
- US DHHS (US Department of Health and Human Services). (2008). Physical activity guidelines for Americans. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.health.gov/PAGuidelines/pdf/paguide.pdf.
- Whyte, W. H. (1980). The social life of small urban spaces. New York: Project for Public Spaces.Google Scholar
- Wikipedia. (n.d.-a). Hikikomori. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hikikomori.
- Wikipedia. (n.d.-b ) Genuine progress indicator. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genuine_progress_indicator.
- Wikipedia. (n.d.-c) Canadian index of wellbeing. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Index_of_Wellbeing.
- Wikipedia. (n.d.-d) Living planet index. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Living_Planet_Index.
- World Health Organization (WHO). (n.d.) Road safety – Speed. Retrieved June 4, 2017, from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/road_traffic/world_report/speed_en.pdf.