Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) accumulation is a constitutional disorder resulting from metabolic syndrome. Although surgical and non-surgical methods for reducing SAT exist, patients remain non-compliant because of potential adverse effects and cost. In this study, we developed a new minimally-invasive approach to achieve SAT reduction, using a microneedle (MN) patch prepared from gelatin, which is capable of regulating fat metabolism. Four gelatin types were used: three derived from fish (SA-FG, GT-FG 220, and GT-FG 250), and one from swine (SM-PG 280). We applied gelatin-based MN patches five times over 4 weeks to rats with high-fat diet (HD)-induced obesity, and determined the resulting amount of SAT. We also investigated the histological features and determined the expression levels of fat metabolism-associated genes in SAT using hematoxylin and eosin staining and western blotting, respectively. SAT decreased following treatment with all four gelatin MN patches. Smaller adipocytes were observed in the regions treated with SA-FG, GT-FG 250, and SM-PG 280 MNs, demonstrating a decline in fat accumulation. The expression levels of fat metabolism-associated genes in the MN-treated SAT revealed that GT-FG 220 regulates fatty acid synthase (FASN) protein levels. These findings suggest that gelatin MN patches aid in decreasing the quantity of unwanted SAT by altering lipid metabolism and fat deposition.
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An, SM., Kim, M.J., Seong, KY. et al. Intracutaneous Delivery of Gelatins Reduces Fat Accumulation in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue. Toxicol Res. 35, 395–402 (2019). https://doi.org/10.5487/TR.2019.35.4.395