This review covers general information regarding the green synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Owing to their antibacterial properties, silver nanoparticles are widely used in many areas, especially biomedical applications. In green synthesis practices, the chemical reducing agents are eliminated, and biological entities are utilized to convert silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Among the various biological entities, natural plant extracts have emerged as green reducing agents, providing eco-friendly routes for the preparation of silver nanomaterials. The most obvious merits of green synthesis are the increased biocompatibility of the resulting silver nanoparticles and the ease with which the reaction can be carried out. This review summarizes some of the plant extracts that are used to produce antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Additionally, background information regarding the green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles is provided. Finally, the toxicological aspects of silver nanoparticles are briefly mentioned.
Thorley, A.J. and Tetley, T.D. (2013) New perspectives in nanomedicine. Pharmacol. Ther., 140, 176–185.
Aruguete, D.M., Kim, B., Hochella, M.F. Jr., Ma, Y., Cheng, Y., Hoegh, A., Liu, J. and Pruden, A. (2013) Antimicrobial nanotechnology: its potential for the effective management of microbial drug resistance and implications for research needs in microbial nanotoxicology. Environ. Sci. Processes Impacts, 15, 93–102.
Pelgrift, R.Y. and Friedman, A.J. (2013) Nanotechnology as a therapeutic tool to combat microbial resistance. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev., 65, 1803–1815.
Seil, J.T. and Webster, T.J. (2012) Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature. Int. J. Nanomed., 7, 2767–2781.
Loomba, L. and Scarabelli, T. (2013) Metallic nanoparticles and their medicinal potential. Part I: gold and silver colloids. Ther. Delivery, 4, 859–873.
dos Santos, C.A., Seckler, M.M., Ingle, A.P., Gupta, I., Galdiero, S., Galdiero, M., Gade, A. and Rai, M. (2014) Silver nanoparticles: therapeutical uses, toxicity, and safety issues. J. Pharm. Sci., 103, 1931–1944.
Nath, D. and Banerjee, P. (2013) Green nanotechnology - a new hope for medical biology. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 36, 997–1014.
Akhtar, M.S., Panwar, J. and Yun, Y.S. (2013) Biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles by plant extracts. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 1, 591–602.
Baker, S., Rakshith, D., Kavitha, K.S., Santosh, P., Kavitha, H.U., Rao, Y. and Satish, S. (2013) Plants: emerging as nanofactories towards facile route in synthesis of nanoparticles. Bioimpacts, 3, 111–117.
Rai, M. and Yadav, A. (2013) Plants as potential synthesiser of precious metal nanoparticles: progress and prospects. IET Nanobiotechnol., 7, 117–124.
Mittal, A.K., Chisti, Y. and Banerjee, U.C. (2013) Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts. Biotechnol. Adv., 31, 346–356.
Borase, H.P., Salunke, B.K., Salunkhe, R.B., Patil, C.D., Hallsworth, J.E., Kim, B.S. and Patil, S.V. (2014) Plant extract: a promising biomatrix for ecofriendly, controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 173, 1–29.
Park, Y., Hong, Y.N., Weyers, A., Kim, Y.S. and Linhardt, R.J. (2011) Polysaccharides and phytochemicals: a natural reservoir for the green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. IET Nanobiotechnol., 5, 69–78.
Roy, N., Gaur, A., Jain, A., Bhattacharya, S. and Rani, V. (2013) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: an approach to overcome toxicity. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 36, 807–812.
Quester, K., Avalos-Borja, M. and Castro-Longoria, E. (2013) Biosynthesis and microscopic study of metallic nanoparticles. Micron, 54–55, 1–27.
Kharissova, O.V., Dias, H.V., Kharisov, B.I., Pérez, B.O. and Pérez, V.M. (2013) The greener synthesis of nanoparticles. Trends Biotechnol., 31, 240–248.
Poulose, S., Panda, T., Nair, P.P. and Theodore, T. (2014) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 14, 2038–2049.
Sharma, V.K., Yngard, R.A. and Lin, Y. (2009) Silver nanoparticles: green synthesis and their antimicrobial activities. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 145, 83–96.
Ghaseminezhad, S.M., Hamedi, S. and Shojaosadati, S.A. (2012) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by a novel method: comparative study of their properties. Carbohydr. Polym., 89, 467–472.
Schröfel, A., Kratošová, G., Safašrík, I., Safašríková, M., Raška, I. and Shor, L.M. (2014) Applications of biosynthe-sized metallic nanoparticles - A review. Acta Biomater., 10, 4023–4042.
Majdalawieh, A., Kanan, M.C., El-Kadri, O. and Kanan, S.M. (2014) Recent advances in gold and silver nanoparticles: synthesis and applications. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 14, 4757–4780.
Im, A.R., Han, L., Kim, E.R., Kim, J., Kim, Y.S. and Park, Y. (2012) Enhanced antibacterial activities of leonuri herba extracts containing silver nanoparticles. Phytother. Res., 26, 1249–1255.
Park, Y., Noh, H.J., Han, L., Kim, H.S., Kim, Y.J., Choi, J.S., Kim, C.K., Kim, Y.S. and Cho, S. (2012) Artemisia capillaris extracts as a green factory for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activities. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 12, 7087–7095.
Jun, S.H., Cha, S.H., Kim, J., Cho, S. and Park, Y. (2015) Crystalline silver nanoparticles by using Polygala tenuifolia root extract as a green reducing agents. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., in press.
Jun, S.H., Cha, S.H., Kim, J.H., Yoon, M., Cho, S. and Park, Y. (2015) Silver nanoparticles synthesized using Caesalpinia sappan extract as potential novel nanoantibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., in press.
Noh, H.J., Kim, H.S., Jun, S.H., Kang, Y.H., Cho, S. and Park, Y. (2013) Biogenic silver nanoparticles with chlorogenic acid as a bioreducing agent. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 13, 5787–5793.
Im, A.R., Kim, J.Y., Kim, H.S., Cho, S., Park, Y. and Kim, Y.S. (2013) Wound healing and antibacterial activities of chondroitin sulfate- and acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology, 24, 395102.
Noh, H.J., Im, A.R., Kim, H.S., Sohng, J.K., Kim, C.K., Kim, Y.S., Cho, S. and Park, Y. (2012) Antibacterial activity and increased freeze-drying stability of sialyllactose-reduced silver nanoparticles using sucrose and trehalose. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 12, 3884–3895.
Han, L., Kim, Y.S., Cho, S. and Park, Y. (2013) Invertebrate water extracts as biocompatible reducing agents for the green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. Nat. Prod. Commun., 8, 1149–1152.
Chernousova, S. and Epple, M. (2013) Silver as antibacterial agent: ion, nanoparticle, and metal. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 52, 1636–1653.
Rai, M.K., Deshmukh, S.D., Ingle, A.P. and Gade, A.K. (2012) Silver nanoparticles: the powerful nanoweapon against multidrug-resistant bacteria. J. Appl. Microbiol., 112, 841–852.
Pal, S., Tak, Y.K. and Song, J.M. (2007) Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 73, 1712–1720.
Carmona-Ribeiro, A.M. and de Melo Carrasco, L.D. (2013) Cationic antimicrobial polymers and their assemblies. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 14, 9906–9946.
Sui, Z.M., Chen, X., Wang, L.Y., Xu, L.M., Zhuang, W.C., Chai, Y.C. and Yang, C.J. (2006) Capping effect of CTAB on positively charged Ag nanoparticles. Phys. E (Amsterdam Neth.), 33, 308–314.
Schluesener, J.K. and Schluesener, H.J. (2013) Nanosilver: application and novel aspects of toxicology. Arch. Toxicol., 87, 569–576.
Krishnaraj, C., Jagan, E.G., Rajasekar, S., Selvakumar, P., Kalaichelvan, P.T. and Mohan, N. (2010) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces, 76, 50–56.
Saxena, A., Tripathi, R.M. and Singh, R.P. (2010) Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using onion (Allium cepa) extract and their antibacterial activity. Dig. J. Nanomater. Biostruct., 5, 427–432.
Singh, A., Jain, D., Upadhyay, M.K., Khandelwal, N. and Verma, H.N. (2010) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Agremone mexicana leaf extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities. Dig. J. Nanomater. Biostruct., 5, 483–489.
Thirumurugan, A., Tomy, N.A., Jai ganesh, R. and Gobikrishnan, S. (2010) Biological reduction of silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extracts and its effect on increased antimicrobial activity against clinically isolated organism. Der Pharma Chemica, 2, 279–284.
Tripathi, A., Chandrasekaran, N., Raichur, A.M. and Mukherjee, A. (2009) Antibacterial applications of silver nanoparticles synthesized by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol., 5, 93–98.
Savithramma, N., Linga Rao, M. and Suvarnalatha Devi, P. (2011) Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using stem barks of Boswellia ovalifoliolata Bal. and Henry and Shorea tumbuggaia Roxb. J. Biol. Sci., 11, 39–45.
Vaseeharan, B., Ramasamy, P. and Chen, J.C. (2010) Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNps) synthesized by tea leaf extracts against pathogenic Vibrio harveyi and its protective efficacy on juvenile Feneropenaeus indicus. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 50, 352–356.
Jain, D., Daima, H.K., Kachhwaha, S. and Kothari, S.L. (2009) Synthesis of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles using papaya fruit extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities. Dig. J. Nanomater. Biostruct., 4, 723–727.
Mukunthan, K.S., Elumalai, E.K., Patel, T.N. and Murty, V.R. (2011) Catharanthus roseus: a natural source for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 1, 270–274.
He, Y., Du, Z., Lv, H., Jia, Q., Tang, Z., Zheng, X., Zhang, K. and Zhao, F. (2013) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract and their application in clinical ultrasound gel. Int. J. Nanomed., 8, 1809–1815.
Sathishkumar, M., Sneha, K., Won, S.W., Cho, C.W., Kim, S. and Yun, Y.S. (2009) Cinnamon zeylanicum bark extract and powder mediated green synthesis of nano-crystalline silver particles and its bactericidal activity. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces, 73, 332–338.
Satyavani, K., Ramanathan, T. and Gurudeeban, S. (2011) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using stem derived callus extract of bitter apple (Citrullus colocynthis). Dig. J. Nanomater. Biostruct., 6, 1019–1024.
Kaviya, S., Santhanalakshmi, J., Viswanathan, B., Muthumary, J. and Srinivasan, K. (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Citrus sinensis peel extract and its antibacterial activity. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 79, 594–598.
Kora, A.J., Sashidhar, R.B. and Arunachalam, J. (2010) Gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): A template for the green synthesis and stabilization of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial application. Carbohydr. Polym., 82, 670–679.
Vanaja, M. and Annadurai, G. (2013) Coleus aromaticus leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its bactericidal activity. Appl. Nanosci., 3, 217–223.
Naraginti, S. and Sivakumar, A. (2014) Eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles with enhanced bactericidal activity and study of silver catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 128, 357–362.
Sathishkumar, M., Sneha, K. and Yun, Y.S. (2010) Immobilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Curcuma longa tuber powder and extract on cotton cloth for bactericidal activity. Bioresour. Technol., 101, 7958–7965.
Ahmad, N., Sharma, S., Singh, V.N., Shamsi, S.F., Fatma, A. and Mehta, B.R. (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Desmodium triflorum: A novel approach towards weed utilization. Biotechnol. Res. Int., 2011, 454090.
Nagajyothi, P.C. and Lee, K.D. (2011) Synthesis of plantmediated silver nanoparticles using Dioscorea batatas rhizome extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities. J. Nanomater., 2011, 573429.
Ghosh, S., Patil, S., Ahire, M., Kitture, R., Kale, S., Pardesi, K., Cameotra, S.S., Bellare, J., Dhavale, D.D., Jabgunde, A. and Chopade, B.A. (2012) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Dioscorea bulbifera tuber extract and evaluation of its synergistic potential in combination with antimicrobial agents. Int. J. Nanomed., 7, 483–496.
Ravindra, S., Murali Mohan, Y., Narayana Reddy, N. and Mohana Raju, K. (2010) Fabrication of antibacterial cotton fibres loaded with silver nanoparticles via “green approach”. Colloids Surf. A, 367, 31–40.
Elumalai, E.K., Prasad, T.N.V.K.V., Hemachandran, J., Viviyan Therasa, S., Thirumalai, T. and David, E. (2010) Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Euphorbia hirta and their antibacterial activities. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 2, 549–554.
Mano Priya, M., Karunai Selvi, B. and John Paul, J.A. (2011) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta and Nerium indicum. Dig. J. Nanomater. Biostruct., 6, 869–877.
Valodkar, M., Nagar, P.S., Jadeja, R.N., Thounaojam, M.C., Devkar, R.V. and Thakore, S. (2011) Euphorbiaceae latex induced green synthesis of non-cytotoxic metallic nanoparticle solutions: A rational approach to antimicrobial applications. Colloids Surf. A, 384, 337–344.
Saxena, A., Tripathi, R.M., Zafar, F. and Singh, P. (2012) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous solution of Ficus benghalensis leaf extract and characterization of their antibacterial activity. Mater. Lett., 67, 91–94.
Srivastava, A.A., Kulkarni, A.P., Harpale, P.M. and Zunjarrao, R.S. (2011) Plant mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a bryophyte: Fissidens minutus and its antimicrobial activity. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol., 3, 8342–8347.
Veerasamy, R., Xin, T.Z., Gunasagaran, S., Xiang, T.F.W., Yang, E.F.C., Jeyakumar, N. and Dhanaraj, S.A. (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using mangosteen leaf extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities. J. Saudi Chem. Soc., 15, 113–120.
Rajesh, R.W., Jaya, L.R., Niranjan, K.S., Vijay, M.D. and Sahebrao, K.B. (2009) Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticle using Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.). Curr. Nanosci., 5, 117–122.
Vinod Kumar, V., Anbarasan, S., Christena, L.R., SaiSubramanian, N. and Philip Anthony, S. (2014) Bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles for selective colorimetric sensing of toxic metal ions and antimicrobial studies. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 129, 35–42.
Yang, N. and Li, W.H. (2013) Mango peel extract mediated novel route for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antibacterial application of silver nanoparticles loaded onto non-woven fabrics. Ind. Crops Prod., 48, 81–88.
MubarakAli, D., Thajuddin, N., Jeganathan, K. and Gunasekaran, M. (2011) Plant extract mediated synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity against clinically isolated pathogens. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces, 85, 360–365.
Kiran Kumar, H.A., Mandal, B.K., Mohan Kumar, K., Maddinedi, S., Sai Kumar, T., Madhiyazhagan, P. and Ghosh, A.R. (2014) Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Mimusops elengi seed extract mediated isotropic silver nanoparticles. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 130, 13–18.
Prasad, T.N. and Elumalai, E.K. (2011) Biofabrication of Ag nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and their antimicrobial activity. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 1, 439–442.
Bankar, A., Joshi, B., Kumar, A.R. and Zinjarde, S. (2010) Banana peel extract mediated novel route for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Colloids Surf. A, 368, 58–63.
Prasad, K.S., Pathak, D., Patel, A., Dalwadi, P., Prasad, R., Patel, P. and Selvaraj, K. (2011) Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nicotiana tobaccum leaf extract and study of their antibacterial effect. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10, 8122–8130.
Patil, R.S., Kokate, M.R. and Kolekar, S.S. (2012) Bioinspired synthesis of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles using Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 91, 234–238.
Gade, A., Gaikwad, S., Tiwari, V., Yadav, A., Ingle, A. and Rai, M. (2010) Biofabrication of silver nanoparticles by Opuntia ficus-indica: In vitro antibacterial activity and study of the mechanism involved in the synthesis. Curr. Nanosci., 6, 370–375.
Nabikhan, A., Kandasamy, K., Raj, A. and Alikunhi, N.M. (2010) Synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by callus and leaf extracts from saltmarsh plant, Sesuvium portulacastrum L. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces, 79, 488–493.
Linga Rao, M. and Savithramma, N. (2011) Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Svensonia Hyderabadensis leaf extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial efficacy. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 3, 1117–1121.
Gopinath, V., MubarakAli, D., Priyadarshini, S., Priyadharsshini, N.M., Thajuddin, N. and Velusamy, P. (2012) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Tribulus terrestris and its antimicrobial activity: a novel biological approach. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces, 96, 69–74.
Zargar, M., Hamid, A.A., Bakar, F.A., Shamsudin, M.N., Shameli, K., Jahanshiri, F. and Farahani, F. (2011) Green synthesis and antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles using Vitex negundo L. Molecules, 16, 6667–6676.
About this article
Cite this article
Park, Y. A New Paradigm Shift for the Green Synthesis of Antibacterial Silver Nanoparticles Utilizing Plant Extracts. Toxicol Res. 30, 169–178 (2014). https://doi.org/10.5487/TR.2014.30.3.169