Sports Medicine

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 160–188 | Cite as

Exercise and Brain Neurotransmission

  • Romain Meeusen
  • Kenny De Meirleir
Review Article


Physical exercise influences the central dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. A number of studies have examined brain noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and dopamine with exercise. Although there are great discrepancies in experimental protocols, the results indicate that there is evidence in favour of changes in synthesis and metabolism of monoamines during exercise.

There is a possibility that the interactions between brain neurotransmitters and their specific receptors could play a role in the onset of fatigue during prolonged exercise. The data on the effects of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation and ‘central fatigue’ seem to be conflicting, although recent studies suggest that BCAA supplementation has no influence on endurance performance.

There are numerous levels at which central neurotransmitters can affect motor behaviour; from sensory perception, and sensory-motor integration, to motor effector mechanisms. However, the crucial point is whether or not the changes in neurotransmitter levels trigger or reflect changes in monoamine release. Until recently most studies were done on homogenised tissue, which gives no indication of the dynamic release of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space of living organisms.

Recently, new techniques such as microdialysis and voltammetry were introduced to measure in vivo release of neurotransmitters. Microdialysis can collect virtually any substance from the brain of a freely moving animal with a limited amount of tissue trauma. This method allows measurement of local neurotransmitter release during on-going behavioural changes such as exercise.

The results of the first studies using these methods indicate that the release of most neurotransmitters is influenced by exercise. Although the few studies that have been published to date show some discrepancies, we feel that these recently developed and more sophisticated in vivo methods will improve our insight into the relationship between the monoamine and other transmitters during exercise. Continued quantitative and qualitative research needs to be conducted so that a further understanding of the effects of exercise on brain neurotransmission can be gained.


Dopamine Branch Chain Amino Acid Prolonged Exercise mCPP Brain Serotonin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Fentem P. Benefits of exercise in health and disease. BMJ 1994; 308: 1291–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Freed C, Yamamoto B. Regional brain dopamine metabolism: a marker for the speed, direction and posture of moving animals. Science 1985; 229: 62–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wilckens T, Schweiger U, Pirke K. Activation of 5-HT1c-receptors suppresses excessive wheel running induced by semistarvation in the rat. Psychopharmacol 1992; 109: 77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gil M, Marti J, Armario A. Inhibition of catecholamine synthesis depresses behaviour of rats in the holeboard and forced swim tests: influence of previous chronic stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1992; 43: 597–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hassler R, Striatal control of locomotion, intentional actions and of integrating and perceptive activity. J Neurol Sci 1978; 36: 187–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jacobs B, Fornal C. 5-HT and motor control: a hypothesis. Trends Neurosci 1993; 16(9): 346–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jacobs B. Serotonin and behaviour: emphasis on motor control. J Clin Psychol 1991; 52: 12 Suppl.: 17–23Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marsden C. The mysterious motor function of the basal ganglia. The Robert Wartenberg Lecture. Neurology 1982; 32: 514–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bailey S, Davis J, Ahlborn E. Neuroendocrine and substrate responses to altered brain 5-HT activity during prolonged exercise to fatigue. J Appl Physiol 1993; 74(6): 3006–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Newsholme E, Acworth I, Blomstrand E. Amino acids, brain neurotransmitters and a functional link between muiscle and brain that is important in sustained exercise. In: Benzi G editor. Advances in myochemistry. London: John Libby Eurotext, 1987: 127–38Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blomstrand E, Celsing F, Newsholme E. Changes in plasma levels of aromatic and branched chain amino acids during sustained exercise in man and their possible role in fatigue. Acta Physiol Scand 1988; 133: 115–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Acworth I, Nicolass J, Morgan B, et al. Effect of sustained exercise on concentrations of plasma aromatic and branched chain amino acids and brain amines. Biochem Biophys Res Commmun 1986; 137(1): 149–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dunn A, Dishmann R. Exercise and the neurobiology of depression. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1991; 19: 41–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Herregodts P. Neurochemical studies of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Brussels: VUB Press, 1991Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chaouloff F. Physical exercise and brain monoamines: a review. Acta Physiol Scand 1989; 137: 1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barchas J, Freedman D. Brain amines: response to physiological stress. Biochem Pharmacol 1963; 12: 1232–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gordon R, Spector A, Sjoerdsma A, et al. Increased synthesis of norepinephrine and epinephrine in the intact rat during exercise and exposure to cold. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1966; 153: 440–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moore K, Larivière E. Effects of stress and d-amphetamine on rat brain catecholamines. Biochem Pharmacol 1964; 13: 1098–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moore K. Development of tolerance to the behavioural depressant effect of alpha-methyltyrosine. J Pharm Pharmacol 1968; 20: 805–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Speciale S, Miller J, McMillen B, et al. Activation of specific central dopamine pathways: locomotion and footshock. Brain Res Bull 1986; 16: 33–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bliss E, Aillion J. Relationship of stress and activity on brain dopamine and homovanillic acid. Life Sci 1971; 10: 1161–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bertolucci-D’Angio M, Serrano A, Scatton B. Differential effects of forced locomotion, tail pinch, immobilisation and methyl-beta-carboline carboxylate on extracellular DOPAC levels in the rat striatum, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex: an in vivo voltammetric study. J Neurochem 1990; 55: 1208–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Elam M, Svensson T, Thoren P. Brain monoamine metabolism is altered in rats following spontaneous long-distance running. Acta Physiol Scand 1987; 130: 313–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hoffmann P, Elam M, Thoren P, et al. Effects of long lasting voluntary running on the cerebral levels of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Life Sci 1994; 54(13): 855–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    De Castro J, Duncan G. Operantly conditioned running: effects on brain catecholamine concentrations and receptor densities in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1985; 23: 495–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dey S, Singh R, Dey P. Exercise training: significance of regional alterations in serotonin metabolism of rat brain in relation to antidepressant effect of exercise. Physiol Behav 1992; 52: 1095–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dey S. Physical exercise as a novel antidepressant agent: possible role of serotonin receptor subtypes. Physiol Behav 1994; 55(2): 323–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cicardo V, Carbone S, De Rondina D, et al. Stress by forced swimming in the rat, effects of misanserin and moclobemide on GABAergic and monoaminergic systems in the brain. Comp Biochem Physiol C 1986; 83(1): 133–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sheldon M, Sorcher S, Smith C. A comparison of the effects of morfine and forced running upon the incorporation of 14C-tyrosine into 14C-catecholamines in mouse brain, heart and spleen. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1975; 193: 564–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brown B, Van Huss W. Exercise and rat brain catecholamines. J Appl Physiol 1973; 34(5): 664–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brown B, Payne T, Kim C, et al. Chronic response of rat brain norepinephrine and serotonin levels to endurance training. J Appl Physiol 1979; 46(1): 19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Östman I, Nybäck H. Adaptive changes in central and peripheral noradrenergic neurons in rats following chronic exercise. Neurosci 1976; 1:41–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stone E. Accumulation and metabolism of norepinephrine in rat hypothalamus after exhaustive stress. J Neurochem 1973; 21: 589–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Heyes M, Garnett E, Coates G. Central dopaminergic activity influences rats ability to run. Life Sci 1985; 36: 671–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Heyes M, Garnett E, Coates G. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic activity is increased during exhaustive exercise stress in rats. Life Sci 1988; 42: 1537–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rea M, Hellhammer D. Activity wheel stress changes in brain norepinephrine turnover and the occurrence of gastric lesions. Psychother Psychosom 1984; 42: 218–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sudo A. Time course of the changes of catecholamine levels in rat brain during swimming stress. Brain Res 1983; 276: 372–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lukaszyk A, Buckzo W, Wisniewski K. The effect of strenuous exercise on the reactivity of the central dopaminergic system in the rat. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm 1983; 35: 29–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Blomstrand E, Perret D, Parry-Billings M, et al. Effect of sustained exercise on plasma amino acid concentrations and on serotonin metabolism in six different brain regions in the rat. Acta Physiol Scand 1989; 136: 473–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Broocks A, Liu J, Pirki K. Semi-starvation induced hyperactivity compensates for decreased norepinephrine and dopamine turnover in the mediobasal hypothalamus of the rat. J Neural Transm 1990; 79: 113–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brown B, Piper E, Riggs C, et al. Acute and chronic effects of aerobic and anaerobic training upon brain neurotransmitters and cytochrome oxydase activity in muscle [abstract]. Intern J Sports Med 1992; 13:92–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chaouloff F, Laude D, Guezennec Y, et al. Motor activity increases tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and homovanillic acid in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of the conscious rat. J Neurochem 1986; 46: 1313–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chaouloff F, Laude D, Meringo D. et al. Amphetamine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine affect the exercise induced imbalance between the availability of tryptophan and synthesis of serotonin in the brain of the rat. Neuropharmacol 1987; 26(8): 1099–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bailey S, Davis J, Ahlborn E. Effect of increased brain serotonergic activity on endurance performance in the rat. Acta Physiol Scand 1992; 145: 75–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gilliam P, Spirduso W, Martin T, et al. The effects of exercise training on (3H)-spiperone binding in rat striatum. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1984; 20: 863–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    MacRea P, Spirduso W, Cartee G, et al. Endurance training effects on striatal D2 dopamine-receptor binding and striatal dopamine metabolite levels [letter]. Neurosci 1987; 79: 138–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Boldry R, Willins D, Wallace L, et al. The role of endogenous dopamine in the hypermobility response to intra-accumbens AMPA. Brain Res 1991; 559: 100–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    O’Connor W, Morari M, Fuxe K, et al. Dopamine and NMDA receptor regulation of striatal GABA output neurons. In: Louilot A, Durkin T, Spampinato U, et al. editors. Monitoring molecules in neuroscience. Gradignan: Publi Typ 1994; 289–90Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chaouloff F, Elghozi J, Guezennec Y, et al. Effects of conditioned running on plasma, liver and brain tryptophan and on brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 1985; 86: 33–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chaouloff F, Kennett G, Serrurrier B, et al. Amino acid analysis demonstrates that increased plasma free tryptophan causes the increase of brain tryptophan during exercise in the rat. J Neurochem 1986; 46: 1647–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chaouloff F, Laude D, Elghozi J. Brain serotonin response to exercise in the rat: the influence of training duration. Biog Amines 1987; 4: 99–106Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chaouloff F, Laude D, Elghozi J. Physical exercise: evidence for differential consequences of tryptophan on 5-HT synthesis and metabolism in central serotonergic cell bodies and terminals. J Neural Transm [Gen Sect] 1989; 78: 121–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Romanowski W, Grabiec S. The role of serotonin in the mechanism of central fatigue. Acta Physiol Pol 1974; 25: 127–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bailey S, Davis J, Ahlborn E. Serotonergic agonists and antagonists affect endurance performance in the rat. Intern J Sports Med 1993; 14(6): 330–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Meeusen R, Sarre S, Michotte Y, et al. The effects of exercise on neurotransmission in rat striatum, a microdialysis study. In: Louilot A, Durkin T, Spampinato U, et al., editors. Monitoring molecules in neuroscience. Gradignan: Publi Typ 1994; 181–2Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wilson W, Marsden C. The effect of running on brain serotonin. In: Louilot A, Durkin T, Spampinato U, et al., editors. Monitoring molecules in neuroscience. Gradignan: Publi Typ 1994; 223–4Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kurosawa M, Okada K, Sato A, et al. Extracellular release of acetylcholine, noradrenaline and serotonin increases in the cerebral cortex during walking in conscious rats. Neurosci Lett 1993; 161: 73–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dishman R. Biological psychology, exercise, and stress. Quest 1994; 46: 28–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hellhammer D, Hingtgen J, Wade S, et al. Serotonergic changes in specific areas of rat brain associated with activity — stress gastric lesions. Psychosom Med 1983; 45: 115–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Imperato A, Angelucci L, Casolini P, et al. Repeated stressful experiences differently affect limbic dopamine release during and following stress. Brain Res 1992; 577: 194–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ferré S, Cortes R, Artigas F. Dopaminergic regulation of the serotonergic raphe-striatal pathway: microdialysis studies in freely moving rats. J Neurosci 1994; 14(8): 4839–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ohta K, Fukuuchi Y, Shimazu K, et al. Presynaptic glutamate receptors facilitate release of norepinephrine and 5-HT as well as dopamine in the normal and ischemic striatum. J Autonom Nerv Sys 1994; 49: S195–S202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zocchi A, Pert A. Alterations in striatal acetylcholine overflow by cocaine, morphine, and MK-801: relationship to locomotor output. Psychopharmacol 1994; 115: 297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chaouloff F. Physiolopharmacological interactions between stress hormones and central serotonergic systems. Brain Res Rev 1993; 18: 1–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wurtman R, Lewis M. Exercise, plasma composition and neurotransmission. In: Brouns F, editor. Advances in nutrition and top sport. Med Sport Sci. Basel: Karger, 1991; 32:94–109Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fernstrom J. Role of precursor availability in control of monoamine biosynthesis in brain. Physiol Rev 1983; 63(2): 484–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Fernstrom J, Wurtman R. Brain serotonin content: physiological dependence on plasma tryptophan levels. Science 1971; 173: 149–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fernstrom J, Wurtman R. Brain serotonin content: physiological regulation by plasma neutral amino acids. Science 1972; 178: 414–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sharp T, Bramwell S, Grahame-Smith D. Effect of acute administration of L-tryptophan in the release of 5-HT in rat hippocampus in relation to serotonergic neuronal activity: an in vivo microdialysis study. Life Sci 1992; 50: 1215–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hernandez L, Parada M, Baptista T, et al. Hypothalamic serotonin in treatments for feeding disorders and depression as studied by brain microdialysis. J Clin Psych 1991; 52(12 Suppl.): 32–40Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kreider RB, Miriel V, Bertun E. Amino acid supplementation and exercise performance, Sports Med 1993; 16(3): 190–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Blomstrand E, Hassmen P, Ekblom B, et al. Administration of branched chain amino acids during sustained exercise — effects on performance and on plasma concentration of some amino acids. Eur J Appl Physiol 1991; 63: 83–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Blomstrand E, Hassmen P, Newsholme E. Effect of branched chain amino acid supplementation on mental performance. Acta Physiol Scand 1991; 143: 225–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Segura R, Ventura J. Effect of L-Tryptophan supplementation on exercise performance. Int J Sports Med 1988; 9: 301–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Stensrund T, Holm H, Stromme S. L-Tryptophan supplementation does not improve running performance. Int J Sports Med 1992; 13(6): 481–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Davis M, Bailey S, Woods J, et al. Effects of carbohydrate feedings on plasma free tryptophan and branched chain amino acids during prolonged cycling. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992; 65: 513–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Galiano F, Davis J, Bailey M, et al., Physiological, endocrine and performance effects of adding branched chain amino acids to a 6% carbohydrate electrolyte beverage during prolonged cycling [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991; 23: S14Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Verger P, Aymard P, Cynobert L, et al. Effects of administration of branched chain amino acids versus glucose during acute exercise in the rat. Physiol Behav 1994; 55(3): 523–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Madsen K, Christensen D. Administration of glucose, glucose plus branched chain amino acids or placebo during sustained exercise and their effects on a 100 km bike performance [abstract]. Ninth International Conference Biochemistry of Exercise: 1994 July 21–26: Aberdeen, Scotland, 35Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    MacLean D, Graham T, Saltin B. Branched chain amino acid supplementation attenuates net protein degradation during exercise [abstract]. Ninth International Conference Biochemistry of Exercise: 1994: July 21–26: Aberdeen, Scotland, 51Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Van Hall G, Raaymakers J, Saris W, et al. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise — failure to affect performance. J Physiol. In press.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lambert M, Velloza P, Wilson G, et al. The effect of carbohydrate and branched chain amino acid supplementation on cycling performance and mental fatigue [abstract]. Ninth International Conference Biochemistry of Exercise: 1994 July 21–26: Aberdeen, Scotland,: 53Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Martin-Du Pan R, Mauron C, Glaeser B, et al. Effect of various oral glucose doses on plasma neutral amino acid levels. Metabolism 1982; 31(9): 937–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chance W, Balasubramaniam A, Thomas I, et al. Amylin increases transport of tyrosine and tryptophan into the brain. Brain Res 1992; 593: 20–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kwok R, Juorio A. Facilitating effect of insulin on brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism. Neuroendocrinol 1987; 45: 267–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Shimizu H, Bray G. Effects of insulin on hypothalamic monoamine metabolism. Brain Res 1990; 510: 251–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    MacKenzie R, Trulson M. Does insulin act directly on the brain to increase tryptophan levels? J Neurochem 1978; 30: 1205–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Coggan A, Coyle E. Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged exercise: effects on metabolism and performance. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1991; 19: 1–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chaouloff F, About the effects of L-tryptophan on exercise performance: lacunae and pitfalls [letter]. Int J Sports Med 1989; 10: 383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wilson W, Maughan R. Evidence for a possible role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the genesis of fatigue in man: administration of paroxetine, a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, reduces the capacity to perform prolonged exercise. Exper Physiol 1992; (77): 921–4Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Davis M, Bailey S, Jackson D. et al. Effects of a serotonin agonist during prolonged exercise to fatigue in humans [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993; 25(5): S78Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    De Meirleir K, Studies on cardiovascular drugs and (neuro)humoral substances in dynamic exercise [PhD thesis]. Brussels: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1985Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    De Meirleir K, Gerlo F, Hollmann W, et al. Cardiovascular effects of pergolide mesylate during dynamic exercise. Proceedings of the British Pharmacology Society 1986; 633PGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hillegaart V, Wadenberg M, Ahlenius S. Effects of 8-OH-DPAT on motor activity in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1989; 32: 797–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wallis D. 5-HT receptors involved in initiation or modulation of motor patterns: opportunities for drug development. Trends Neurosci 1994; 15: 288–92Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jacobs B, Eubanks E. A comparison of the locomotor effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan administered via two systemic routes. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1974; (2): 137–9Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kennett G, Curzon G. Evidence that mCPP may have behavioural effects mediated by central 5-HT1c receptors. Br J Pharmacol 1988; 94: 137–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lucki I, Ward H, Frazer R. Effect of l-(m-chlorophenyl) piperazine and 1-(trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine on locomotor activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1989; 249: 155–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gerald M. Effect of (+)-amphetamine on the treadmill endurance performance of rats. Neuropharmacol 1978; 17: 703–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ahlenius S, Hillegaart V. Involvement of extrapyramidal motor mechanisms in the suppression of locomotor activity by antipsychotic drugs: a comparison between the effects produced by pre- and post-synaptic inhibition of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1986; 24: 1409–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Chaouloff F. Serotonin1c,2 receptors and endurance performance [letter]. Int J Sports Med 1994; (15): 339Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bailey S, Davis J. Response to letter to the editor by F. Chaouloff [letter]. Int J Sports Med 1994; (15): 340–1Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Westerink B, Justice J. Microdialysis compared with other in vivo release models. In: Robinson T, Justice J, editors. Microdialysis in the neurosciences. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1991; 23–46Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ungerstedt U. Introduction to intracerebral microdialysis. In: Robinson T, Justice J, editors. Microdialysis in the neurosciences. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1991: 3–22Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ungerstedt U, Hallström A. In vivo microdialysis, a new approach to the analysis of neurotransmitters in the brain. Life Sci 1987; 41: 861–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Benveniste H, Hüttemeier C. Microdialysis — theory and application. Prog Neurobiol 1990; 35: 195–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kissinger P, Hart J, Adams R. Voltammetry in brain tissue: a new neurophysiological measurement. Brain Res 1973; 55: 209–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Cenci A, Kalen P, Mandel R, et al. Regional differences in the regulation of dopamine and noradrenaline release in medial frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen: a microdialysis study in the rat. Brain Res 1992; 581: 217–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Imperato A, Honore T, Jensen L. Dopamine release in the nucleus caudatus and the nucleus accumbens is under glutamatergic control through non-NMDA receptors: a study in freely moving rats. Brain Res 1990; 530: 223–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Meeusen R, Sarre S, De Meirleir K, et al. Microdialysis as a method to measure central catecholamines during exercise [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26(5): S23Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Pagliari R, Peyrin L, Milano S. Effect of submaximal physical exercise in norepinephrine release in the rat frontal cortex: a study with microdialysis. In: Louilot A, Durkin T, Spampinato U, et al., editors. Monitoring molecules in neuroscience. Gradignan: Publi Typ 1994; 342–3Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hattori S, Li Q, Matsui N, et al. Treadmill running combined with microdialysis can evaluate motor deficit and improvement following dopaminergic grafts in 6-OHDAlesioned rats. Res Neurol Neurosci 1993; 6: 65–72Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sabol K, Richard J, Freed C. In vivo dialysis measurements of dopamine and DOPAC in rats trained to turn on a circular treadmill. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1990; 36: 21–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Meeusen R, Smolders I, Sarre S, et al. The effects of exercise on extracellular glutamate (GLU) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat striatum, a microdialysis study [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27(5): S215Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gerin C, Legrand A, Privat A. Study of 5-HT release with chronically implanted microdialysis probe in the ventral horn of the spinal cord of unrestrained rats during exercise on a treadmill. J Neurosci Methods 1994; 52: 129–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Guadalupe T, Perez-Rodrigez I, Gonzalez-Mora J. Involvement of nucleus accumbens dopamine in motor activity: a voltammetric study. In: Louilot A, Durkin T, Spampinato U, et al., editors. Monitoring molecules in neuroscience. Gradignan: Publi Typ 1994; 179–80Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Chaouloff F. Influence of physical exercise on 5-HT1A receptor- and anxiety-related behaviours. Neurosci Lett 1994; 176: 226–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Romain Meeusen
    • 1
  • Kenny De Meirleir
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept Human Physiology and SportsmedicineVrije Universiteit BrusselBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations