Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 50–57 | Cite as

Lower Extremity Injuries in Runners

Advances in Prediction
  • Caroline A. Macera
Injury Clinic

Summary

Recreational and competitive running is practised by many individuals to improve cardiorespiratory function and general well-being. The major negative aspect of running is the high rat of injuries to the lower extremities. Several well-designed population-based studies have found no major differences in injury rates between men and women; no increasing effect of age on injuries; a declining injury rate with more years of running experience; no substantial effect of weight or height; an uncertain effect of psychological factors; and a strong effect of previous injury on future injuries. Among the modifiable risk factors studied, weekly distance is the strongest predictor of future injuries. Other training characteristics (speed, frequency, surface, timing) have little or no effect on future injuries after accounting for distance run. More studies are needed to address the effects of appropriate stretching practices and abrupt change in training patterns. For recreational runners who have sustained injuries, especially within the past year, a reduction in running to below 32km per week is recommended. For those about to begin a running programme, moderation is the best advice. For competitive runners, great care should be taken to ensure that prior injuries are sufficiently healed before attempting any racing event, particularly a marathon.

Keywords

Injury Rate Marathon Runner Previous Injury Lower Extremity Injury Training Distance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blair SN, Kohl HW, Goodyear NN. Rates and risks for running and exercise injuries: studies in three populations. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 58 (3): 221–228, 1987Google Scholar
  2. Blair SN, Kohl HW, Paffenbarger RS, Clark DG, Cooper KH, et al. Physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of healthy men and women. Journal of the American Medical Association 262: 2395–2401, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bovens AM, Janssen GME, Vermeer HGW, Hoeberigs JH, Janssen MPE, et al. Occurrence of running injuries in adults following a supervised training program. International Journal of Sports Medicine 10: S186–S190, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clarkson-Smith L, Hartley AA. Relationships between physical exercise and cognitive abilities in older adults. Psychology and Aging 4 (2): 183–189, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clough PJ, Shepherd J, Maughan RJ. Marathon finishers and prerace drop-outs. British Journal of Sports Medicine 23 (2): 97–101, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Drinkwater B, Bruemner B, Chestnut CH. Menstrual historyas a determinant of current bone density in young athletes. Journal of the American medical Association 263: 545–548, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Drinkwater BL, Nilson K, Ott S, Chestnut CH. Bone mineral density after resumption of menses in amenorrheic athletes. Journal of the American Medical Association 256: 380–382, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dyck PJ, Classen SM, Stevens JC, O’Brien PC. Assessment of nerve damage in the feet of long-distance runners. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 62: 568–572, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fields KB, Delaney M, Hinkle JS. A prospective study of type A behaviour and running injuries. Journal of Family Practice 30: 425–429, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fletcher KP, Eadie D. Prerace drop-out from the Glasgow Marathon. British Journal of Sports Medicine 20 (2): 74–76, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heath GW, Kendrick JS. Outrunning the risks: a behavioural risk profile of runners. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 5 (6): 347–352, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Holmich P, Christensen SW, Darre E, Jahnsen F, Hartvig T. Non-elite marathon runners: health training and injuries. British Journal of Sports Medicine 23 (3): 177–178, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Holmich P, Darre E, Jahnsen F, Hartvig-Jensen T. The elite marathon runner: problems during and after competition. British Journal of Sports Medicine 22 (1): 19–21, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jacobs SJ, Berson BL. Injuries to runners: a study of entrants to a 10 000 meter race. American Journal of Sports Medicine 14 (2): 151–155, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. James SL, Bates BT, Osternig LR. Injuries to runners. American Journal of Sports Medicine 6 (2): 40–50, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Johansson C. Injuries in elite orienteers. American Journal of Sports Medicine 14 (5): 410–415, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jones BH. Overuse injuries of the lower extremities associated with marching, jogging and running: a review. Military Medicine 148 (10): 783–787, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kelley MJ. Psychological risk factors and sports injuries. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 30: 202–221, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Konradsen L, Hansen E-MB, Sondergaard L. Long distance running and osteoarthrosis. American Journal of Sports Medicine 18 (4): 379–381, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Koplan JP, Powell KE, Sikes RK, Shirley RW, Campbell CC. An epidemiologic study of benefits and risks of running. Journal of the American Medical Association 248: 3118–3121, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kowal DM. Nature and causes of injuries in women resulting from an endurance training program. American Journal of Sports Medicine 8: 265–268, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kretsch A, Grogan R, Duras P, Allen F, Sumner J, et al. 1980 Melbourne marathon study. Medical Journal of Australia 141: 809–814, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Lane NE, Bloch DA, Jones JJ, Marshall WH, Wood PD, et al. Long-distance running, bone density, and osteoarthritis. Journal of the American Medical Association 255 (9): 1147–1151, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lane NE, Bloch DA, Wood PD, Fries JF. Aging, long-distance running, and the development of musculoskeletal disability: a controlled study. American Journal of Medicine 82: 772–780, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Larson EB, Bruce RA. Health benefits of exercise in an aging society. Archives of Internal Medicine 147: 353–356, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lloyd T, Triantafyllou SJ, Baker ER, Houts PS, Whiteside JA, et al. Women athletes with menstrual irregularity have increased musculoskeletal injuries. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 18: 374–379, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lysholm J, Wiklander J. Injuries in runners. American Journal of Sports Medicine 15 (2): 168–171, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Macera CA, Jackson KL, Hagenmaier GW, Kronenfeld JJ, Kohl HW, et al. Age, physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and incidence of orthopedic problems. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 60 (3): 225–233, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Macera CA, Pate RR, Powell KE, Jackson KL, Kendrick JS, et al. Predicting lower extremity injuries among habitual runners. Archives of Internal Medicine 149: 2565–2568, 1989bPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marti B. Benefits and risks of running among women: an pidemiologic study. International Journal of Sports Medicine 9 (2): 92–98, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marti B, Knobloch M, Tschopp A, Jucker A, Howald H. Is excessive running predictive of degenerative hip disease? British Medical Journal 299: 91–93, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marti B, Vader JP, Minder CE, Abelin T. On the epidemiology of running injuries: the 1984 Bern Grand-Prix study. American Journal of Sports Medicine 16 (3): 285–294, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Maughan RJ, Miller JDB. Incidence of training-related injuries among marathon runners. British Journal of Sports Medicine 17(3): 162–165, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Montgomery LC, Nelson FRT, Norton JP, Deuster PA. Orthopedic history and examination in the etiology of overuse injuries. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21 (3): 237–243, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nicholl JP, Williams BT. Injuries sustained by runners during a popular marathon. British Journal of Sports Medicine 17 (1): 10–15, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Panush RS, Schmidt C, Caldwell JR, Edwards NL, Longley S, et al. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease? Journal of the American Medical Association 255: 1152–1154, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pollock ML, Gettman LR, Milesis CA, Bah MD, Durstine L, et al. Effects of frequency and duration of training on attrition and incidence of injury. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 9(1): 31–36, 1977Google Scholar
  38. Powell KE, Kohl HW, Caspersen CJ, Blair SN. An epidemiological perspective on the causes of running injuries. The physician and Sportsmedicine 14 (6): 100–114, 1986Google Scholar
  39. Powell KE, Thompson PD, Caspersen CJ, Kendrick JS. Physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Annual Review of Public Health 8: 253–287, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Protzman RR, Griffis CG. Stress fractures in men and women undergoing military training. Journal of Bone Surgery 59A: 825, 1977Google Scholar
  41. Puranen J, Ala-Ketola L, Peltokallio P, Saarela J. Running and primary osteoarthritis of the hip. British Medical Journal 2: 424–425, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Samet JM, Chick TW, Howard CA. Running-related morbidity: a community survey. Annals of Sports Medicine 1 (1): 30–34, 1982Google Scholar
  43. Walter SD, Hart LE, Mcintosh JM, Sutton JR. The Ontario cohort study of running-related injuries. Archives of Internal Medicine 149: 2561–2564, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Walter SD, Sutton JR, Mcintosh JM, Connolly C. The aetiology of sport injuries: a review of methodologies. Sports Medicine 2: 47–58, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caroline A. Macera
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public HealthUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations