World Health Organization. [cited 2019 Mar 10]. Available from: https://www.who.int/topics/malnutrition/en/.
Pena M, Bacallao J. Malnutrition and poverty. Annu Rev Nutr. 2002;22:241–53. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.22.120701.141104.
Farhadi S, Ovchinnikov RS. The relationship between nutrition and infectious diseases: a review. Biomed Biotechnol Res J. 2018;2:168–72. https://doi.org/10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_69_18.
World Health Organization. [cited 2019 Mar 10]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malnutrition.
Nutrition country profiles: Bangladesh. [cited 2019 Mar 10]. Available from: http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/nutrition/bgd_en.stm.
Hossain A, Islam S, Munira S, Farzana S, Sarker S, Ahmed R, et al. Infant and child mortality status of Bangladesh: a study on demographic and health survey. Asian J Soc Sci Stud. 2018;3(10):43–53 https://doi.org/10.20849/ajsss.v3i1.330.
Bangladesh demographic and health survey (BDHS), 2007. Dhaka: National Institute of Population Research and Training; 2007. p. 346. [cited 2017 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/BDHS2007_Final.pdf.
Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2011. Dhaka: NIPORT, Mitra and Associates, and ICF International; 2013. [cited 2017 Oct 24]. Available from: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/fr265/fr265.pdf.
de Onis M, Dewey KG, Borghi E, Onyango AW, Blössner M, Daelmans B, et al. The World Health Organization's global target for reducing childhood stunting by 2025: rationale and proposed actions. Matern Child Nutr. 2013;9(2):6–26.
Global target 2025. [cited 2017 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.who.int/nutrition/global-target-2025/en/.
Alom J, Quddus MA, Islam MA. Nutritional status of under-five children in Bangladesh: a multilevel analysis. J Biosoc Sci. 2012;44(05):525–35.
McGregor GS, Cheung YB, Cueto S, Glewwe P, Richter L, Strupp B. Development potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet. 2007;369(9555):60–70.
Faruque ASG, Ahmed AMS, Ahmed T, Islam MM, Hossain MI, Roy SK, et al. Nutrition: basis for healthy children and mothers in Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2008;26(3):325–39.
Hasan MT, Soares MRJ, Williams GM, Mamun AA. Forecasting the progress towards the target of millennium development goal 1C in children under 5 years of age in Bangladesh. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(10):1728–36. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980014003279.
Ahmed CN, Hossain T, Mandal MI, Mothabbir BN, Rahman G, Islam M, et al. Community-based management of acute malnutrition in Bangladesh: feasibility and constraints. Food Nutr Bull. 2014;35:277–85.
Bairagi R, Chowdhury MK. Socioeconomic and anthropometric status and mortality of young children in rural Bangladesh. Int J Epidemiol. 1994;23:1179–84 https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/23.6.1179.
Das S, Gulshan J. Different forms of malnutrition among under five children in Bangladesh: a cross sectional study on prevalence and determinants. BMC Nutrition. 2017;3:1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-016-0122-2.
Das S, Hossain MZ. Levels and determinants of child undernutrition in Bangladesh. Pak J Nutr. 2008;24:301–23.
Das S, Hossain MZ, Islam MA. Predictors of child chronic malnutrition in Bangladesh. Proc Pak Acad Sci. 2008;45:137–55.
Das S, Rahman RM. Application of ordinal logistic regression analysis in determining risk factors of child malnutrition in Bangladesh. Nutr J. 2011;10(1):124. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-10-124.
Fakir AMS, Khan MWR. Determinants of malnutrition among urban slum children in Bangladesh. Health Econ Rev. 2015;5:22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13561-015-0059-1.
Hasan MT, Magalhaes RJS, Williams GM, Mamun AA. The role of maternal education in the 15-year trajectory of malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in Bangladesh. Matern Child Nutr. 2016;12(4):929–39. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12178.
Hong R, Banta JE, Betancourt JA. Relationship between household wealth inequality and chronic childhood under-nutrition in Bangladesh. Int J Equity Health. 2006;5:15. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-5-15.
Islam A, Biswas T. Chronic Stunting among under 5 children in Bangladesh a Situation Analysis. Adv Pediatr Res. 2015;2:18 https://doi.org/10.12715/apr.2015.2.18.
Islam MS, Jothi JS, Islam M, Huq AKO. Nutritional status of rural and urban under-five children in Tangail District, Bangladesh. Int J Innov Appl Stud. 2014;8(2):841–8.
Jesmin A, Yamamoto SS, Malik AA, Haque A. Prevalence and determinants of chronic malnutrition among preschool children: A cross-sectional study in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2001;29:494–509.
Khan REA, Raza MA. Nutritional status of children in Bangladesh: measuring composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) and its determinants. Pakistan J Commerce Soc Sci. 2014;8(1):11–23.
Mohsena M, Goto R, Taylor CGNM. Socioeconomic and demographic variation in nutritional status of under-five Bangladeshi children and trend over the twelve-year period 1996–2007. J Biosoc Sci. 2017;49(2):222–38. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021932016000328.
Mondal D, Minak J, Alam M, Liu Y, Dai J, Korpe P, et al. Contribution of enteric infection, altered intestinal barrier function, and maternal malnutrition to infant malnutrition in Bangladesh. Infect Dis Soc Am. 2011;54(2):185–92.
Mostafa KS. Socio-economic determinants of severe and moderate stunting among under-five children of rural Bangladesh. Malays J Nutr. 2011;17(1):105–18.
Muaz SSA, Hasan MR, Shamim SA, Dev A, Kamar S. Nutritional status of 1-5 years children of the tea Workers in Sylhet Division. Bangladesh J Child Health. 2010;34(1):11–6.
Rahman A, Biswas SC. Nutritional status of Under-5 children in Bangladesh. S Asian J Popul Health. 2009;2(1):1–11.
Rahman A, Chowdhury S, Hossain D. Acute malnutrition in Bangladeshi children: levels and determinants. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2009;21(3):294–302.
Rayhan MI, Khan MSH. Factors causing malnutrition among under five children in Bangladesh. Pak J Nutr. 2006;5(6):558–62.
Srinivasan CS, Zanello G, Shankar B. Rural-urban disparities in child nutrition in Bangladesh and Nepal. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:581. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-581.
Talukder A. Factors associated with malnutrition among under-five children: illustration using Bangladesh demographic and health survey, 2014 data. Children. 2017;4:88. https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100088.
Rahman MS, Howlader T, Masud MS, Rahman ML. Association of Low-Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother’s Education, Socio-Economic Status, and Birth Interval Matter? PloS One. 2016;11(6):e0157814. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157814.
Ahmed T, Mahfuz M, Ireen S, Ahmed AMS, Rahman S, Islam MM, et al. Nutrition of children and women in Bangladesh: trends and directions for the future. J Health Popul Nutr. 2012;30(1):1–11.
Rahman MM, Saima U, Goni MA. Impact of maternal household decision-making autonomy on child nutritional status in Bangladesh. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2015;27(5):509–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539514568710.
Rabbi AMF, Karmaker SC. Determinants of child malnutrition in Bangladesh – a multivariate approach. Asian J Med Sci. 2014;6(2):85–90.
Goldstein H. Multilevel Statistical Models. 2nd ed. London: Edward Arnold; 1995.
Snijders TAB, Bosker RJ. Multilevel analysis - an introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. Thousand Oaks: CA SAGE Publications; 1999.
Akombi BJ, Agho KE, Hall JJ, Merom D, Burt TA, Renzaho AMN. Stunting and severe stunting among children under-5 years in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis. BMC Pediatr. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-016-0770-z.
Alemu ZA, Ahemed AA, Yalew AW, Birhanu BS, Zaitchik BF. Individual and community level factors with a significant role in determining child height-for-age Z score in east Gojjam zone, Amhara regional state, Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis. Archives of Public Health. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13690-017-0193-9.
Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2014. Dhaka: NIPORT, Mitra and Associates, and ICF International; 2016. [cited 2017 Oct 24]. Available from: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR311/FR311.pdf.
National Institute of Population Research and Training - NIPORT/Bangladesh, Mitra and Associates/Bangladesh, and ICF International. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2014. Dhaka: NIPORT, Mitra and Associates, and ICF International; 2016. [cited 2016 Apr 8]. Available from: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR311/FR311.pdf.
Meshram II, Arlappa N, Balakrishna N, Mallikharjuna Rao K, Laxmaiah A, Brahmam GN. Trends in the prevalence of under-nutrition, nutrient and food intake and predictors of under-nutrition among under five year tribal children in India. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2012;21(4):568–76.
Sah N. Determinants of child malnutrition in Nepal: a case analysis from Dhanusha, central Terai of Nepal. J Nepal Health Res Counc. 2004;2(2):50–5.
Sapkota VP, Gurung CK. Prevalence and predictors of underweight, stunting and wasting in under-five children. J Nepal Health Res Counc. 2009;7(15):120–6.
Ruwali D. Nutritional status of children under five years of age and factors associated in Padampur VDC, Chitwan. Health Prospect. 2011;10:14–8. https://doi.org/10.3126/hprospect.v10i0.5639.
Zhai F-Y, Wang H-J, Chang S-Y, Fu D, Ge K, Popkin BM. The current status, trend, and influencing factors to malnutrition of infants and children in China. J Community Nutr. 2004;6(2):78–85.
Casa JA, Dachs N, Bambas A. Health disparities in Latin America and the Caribbean: The role of social and economic determinants. Washington DC: Pan American Health Organization; 2001. p. 22–49.
Khalid N, Aslam Z, Kausar F, Irshad H, Anwer P. Maternal malnutrition and its kick on child growth: an alarming trim for Pakistan. J Food Nutr Popul Health. 2017;1(3):24.
Islam MM, Alam M, Tariquzzaman M, Kabir MA, Pervin R, Begum M, Khan MMH. Predictors of the number of under-five malnourished children in Bangladesh: application of the generalized poisson regression model. BMC Public Health, 2013; 13(11). Doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-11.
Hien NN, Kam S. Nutritional status and the characteristics related to malnutrition in children under five years of age in Nghean, Vietnam. J Prev Med Publ Health. 2008;41(4):232–40.
Frost MB, Forste R, Haas DW. Maternal education and child nutritional status in Bolivia: finding the links. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60(2):395–407.
Babatunde RO, Olagunju FI. Prevalence and determinants of malnutrition among under-five children of farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria. J Agric Sci. 2011;3(3):173–81.
Sarkar D, Haldar SK. Socioeconomic Determinants of Child Malnutrition in India: Evidence from NFHS-III. 2014. [cited 2017 Oct 24]. Available from: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2420293 or https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2420293.