Semantic network analysis by city
Based on the frequency of appearance, the top 100 keywords, including “designers,” “brands,” “influencers,” “fashion items,” “designs,” “materials,” and “themes,” were extracted, classified, and visualized through the Clauset–Newman–Moore (CNM) algorithm. The macroscopic properties of each network are indicated in Table 2.
2019 F/W Paris fashion week
A network analysis of Twitter for the 2019 F/W Paris Fashion Week reveals that “Chanel (814),” “Tommy Hilfiger (681),” “Saint Laurent (375),” “Zendaya Coleman (360),” “Dior (328),” “Gigi Hadid (253),” “Balmain (224),” “street fashion (217),” “Miu Miu (207),” and “Off-White (203)” were the most frequently mentioned keywords (Table 3). Using the CNM algorithm, the data was classified into the following groups: item groups, social networking sites (SNS) and influencers, brand and designer groups, design formats, and brand groups (Fig. 2). The item group included keywords such as “double denim,” “sweat shirt,” “lace bra,” “teddy bear coat,” “fur coat,” “lace skirt,” “leather jacket,” “micro bag,” “boyfriend blazer,” “trench coat,” “bucket hat,” and “boiler suit,” which were connected to the brand and the designer that launched the item. The terms related to SNS and influencers such as “Facebook,” “Instagram,” “Twitter,” and “celebrity” were categorized into the same group. Additionally, among the influencers, models “Gigi Hadid,” “Bella Hadid,” and the celebrities affiliated with YG and SM town were mentioned with the term “K-Pop.”
Words pertaining to fashion bloggers, such as “fave style,” “fashion blogger,” and “mix and match,” also emerged as keywords even though these terms are not directly related to the fashion week. These keywords emerged because of the fashion bloggers’ repeated reference to the fashion trends and styles presented in the fashion week, which reflects the people’s attention toward the apparel worn in the fashion week. In particular, for terms such as “photograph” or “fashion blogger,” the connection and the eigenvector centers showed higher values than “brands,” “designers,” “celebrities,” and certain fashion items. An eigenvector centrality represents the degree of influential keywords possessed by a node. Therefore, we infer that external factors such as fashion bloggers and their social media activities are influential in the fashion week.
Based on connection-centricity, “Off-White,” “Chanel,” and “Chloe” are the most influential brands. Among fashion items, “micro bag,” “leather jacket,” and “black dress” received the most attention. Important themes and styles associated with the collections presented by the brands are “art deco,” “glam rock,” “sustainable,” and “feminine.” Furthermore, “Parisian” and “Haute Couture” emerged as unique keywords related to the Paris Fashion Week. Unlike the results from Milan, London, and New York, the top keywords mentioned in Paris Fashion Week in Paris were mostly related to fashion brands rather than influencers. Consistent with the claim presented by Joo (2016), the trends from the Paris Fashion Week indicates that Paris is a traditional fashion city that possesses artistic, multicultural, technical, and industrial distinctions based on the French culture.
2019 F/W Milan fashion week
A network analysis of the 2019 F/W Milan Fashion Week showed that “Gucci (277),” “Versace (275),” “Moschino (225),” “Prada (171),” “street fashion (135),” “Giorgio Armani (121),” “Gigi Hadid (116),” “Karl Lagerfeld (115),” “OOTD (outfit of the day; 108),” and “Max Mara (90)” were the most frequently-appearing keywords (Table 3). A classification using the CNM algorithm revealed six groups and three major clusters (Fig. 3). Frequently cited words showed similar degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centralities. The clusters with the most nodes contained references to SNS/fashion bloggers, fashion design sensibilities and elements, and major brands. Interestingly, keywords such as “real-time,” “Facebook,” and “Instagram” all showed connectivity, proving that SNS enabled a rapid proliferation of video and postings about the fashion week.
Compared to the tweets from other three cities, tweets from the Milan Fashion Week featured more references to the materials and patterns used in the clothes produced, such as “quilt,” “mesh,” “metal,” “sequin,” “velvet,” “leather,” “floral,” and “stripes.” Furthermore, words related to diverse fashion items frequently recurred. According to Joo (2016), the Milan Fashion Week tends to feature collections that combine both New York's practicality and Paris’ creativity. Therefore, the frequently-mentioned keywords are in line with the practical and the creative aspects of the New York and the Paris collections, respectively. In addition, faux (artificial) fur showed connectivity with the animal protection organization People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, which was also associated with “animal print.” The results indicate that ethical fashion is becoming a hot topic among fashion brands and designers in Milan.
Three groups contained references to fashion brands and fashion items. Fashion items that were mentioned include “gown dress,” “silk scarf,” “jumpsuit,” “mini dress,” “wide pants,” and “leather jacket,” and related trends such as “grunge,” “retro,” “vintage,” and “glam” also appeared. The emergence of distribution channels such as “online stores” and “pop stores” indicated public interest in popular items presented in the collection. Words not directly related to the collections, such as “Bohemian Rhapsody,” “Queen,” “Spider Man,” “Disney,” “Black Panther,” and “Netflix” appeared in relation to the Oscars Awards due to the celebrities and models who attended the fashion week.
Based on connection-centricity, Versace, Gucci, and Prada are the most influential brands in the Milan Fashion Week, and “mini dress,” “leather jacket,” and “fur coat” were the fashion items that attracted the most attention. These fashion items were closely related to the theme and the sentiment of the respective brands that presented the items. The term “Duomo cathedral” appeared both as the place where the collection was displayed, and as a keyword reflecting the characteristics of the city.
2019 F/W New York fashion week
A network analysis of the 2019 F/W New York Fashion Week reveals that “OOTD” (878), “street fashion” (838), “Michael Kors” (701), “sustainable” (532), “stripe dress” (514), “fashion blogger” (508), “Ralph Lauren” (433), “Marc Jacobs” (356), “Instagram” (346), and “faux fur” (337) were the most frequently cited words (Table 3). These keywords were then classified into two groups based on the number of nodes using the CNM algorithm (Fig. 4). SNS and celebrities appeared in the same group, whereas other keywords related to design features, items, and brands were spread across different groups.
Olivia Palermo, Kendal Jenner, Gigi Hadid, Barry Manilow, Paris Hilton, and Yoona, and were some of the prominent celebrities/models that appeared in the same group, who were also related to words such as “red carpet” and the “Grammy award.” While fashion bloggers were considerably influential at the Milan Fashion Week, celebrities and models who appeared in the New York Fashion Week were actively mentioned on Twitter with words related to the Grammy Awards. Social media-related keywords appeared in the same group as the celebrities, and “Soho” appeared as a keyword that reflected regional characteristics.
The New York Fashion Week is the largest fashion week. It features popular trends and primarily focuses on practicality rather than innovation, differentiating it from the Paris Fashion Week, which focuses on art and design; Milan, which presents work based on the textile industry; and London, which features innovative designs (Joo, 2016). Nevertheless, despite being known for its traditional and commercial designs, the New York Fashion Week featured the highest number of ethical fashion-related keywords among the four cities: “sustainable,” “faux fur,” “climate change,” and “recycled fabric.” This phenomenon suggests that fashion trends in New York have shifted their focus from practical to ethical fashion.
Based on connection-centeredness, fashion brands such as “Michael Kors,” “Tom Ford,” and “Ralph Lauren” are the most influential brands, and “stripe dresses,” “faux coats,” and “leather jackets” were the most popular fashion items. The New York Fashion Week was also associated with style themes such as “chic,” “glam,” and “experimental,” which showed the overall sentiment of the New York collection. Furthermore, among the four fashion weeks, the clothing collections in New York had the most diverse range of colors despite being held in the F/W season, words associated with light and saturated colors, such as “bright color,” “bright yellow,” “fuzzy pink,” “mint green,” and “neon color” frequently appeared. “Simple silhouette” and “wrapped silhouette” were the most commonly cited silhouettes. White shirts and check patterns were the most common in terms of their betweenness centrality, making them the most used designs feature in the New York F/W collection.
2019 F/W London fashion week
Table 3 shows the keywords from a network analysis of Twitter for the 2019 F/W London Fashion Week in the order of their frequencies. The data were classified into three groups using the CNM algorithm. The SNS/influencer group and the design element group were differentiated in distinct groups whereas keywords pertaining to brands, ethical fashion, and celebrities were distributed among three groups (Fig. 5).
“Instagram,” “YouTube,” “fashion-gram,” “influencer,” “fashion blogger,” and “fashionista” co-occurred in the same group, and terms related to outerwear, such as “leather jacket,” “motorcycle jacket,” “warm jacket,” “winter jacket,” and “blazer” recurred in the item/design group. Design elements such as “motorcycle jacket,” “warm jacket,” “winter jacket,” and “blazer” also co-occurred.
Well-known figures who are not associated with the fashion industry also appeared: soccer player “David Beckham” was mentioned on Twitter as the husband of designer Victoria Beckham, and the British royal household members such as “Queen Elizabeth” and “William Spencer” also appeared. Political keywords such as “Brexit” were also mentioned, as some designers criticized Brexit through their collections. For instance, Vivienne Westwood used her designs to disparage global climate change, Brexit, and fast fashion.
Most keywords that appeared in London Fashion Week are related to the British fashion brands and designers. The degree centrality revealed “Victoria Beckham,” “Burberry,” “Ports 1961,” and “Vivienne Westwood” as the most influential keywords. Terms such as “chic,” “glam,” and “classic” were frequently referenced, and the term “old school” also appeared. Frequently used words also showed high results in degree, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvector centralities.
On Twitter, the London Fashion Week was associated with two keywords with opposing concepts. Keywords related to ethical fashion such as “sustainable,” “environment,” “ecolabel,” “recycled,” “secondhand,” and “positive fashion” also coexisted with animal-based materials such as “leopard,” “snake skin,” “fur,” and clothes with “animal prints.” In particular, the words “positive fashion” and “sustainable” had high betweenness centralities relative to their frequencies, indicating that brands, designers, and items are often referenced in relation to one another.
Topic modeling in 2019 F/W fashion week
To construct a model with sufficient number of topics, we increased the number of topics from two to 50 in increments of 10, and thereafter created a model that increased in increments of one in the interval two to 20. Finally, three topics were selected for each city. Based on articles from Marie Claire (https://www.marieclaire.com) and Vogue’s websites (https://www.vogue.com/fashion-shows) that have free access to information about fashion shows, we conducted a sentiment analysis to investigate the degree to which the results matched the topics. The results showed similar design inspirations, collection themes, and brands for the same topic. The topics related to people such as the Beckham couple or the Hadid sisters primarily focused on the relationship between people.
F/W Paris fashion week
For the 2019 Paris F/W collection, the following brands had the highest probability of distribution in Topic 1: “Balmain,” “Valentino,” “Off-White.” “Stella McCartney,” “Alexander McQueen.” In Topic 2, “Tommy Now,” “Miu Miu,” “Dior,” “Givenchy,” and “Hermes” appeared, and “Chanel,” “Saint Laurent,” “Chloe,” “Celine,” and “Loewe” had the highest probability of distribution in Topic 3 (Fig. 6).
Topic 1 brands had well-tailored jackets, angled shoulder lines, and funky ambiences as their prominent features, and were characterized as “tailored street style.” Balmain featured a well-tailored uniform jacket, crisp ruffled dress, masculine shoes, and leather pants similar to those worn by pop stars in the 1980s. Valentino presented a funky-style floral print, neon color silk dress, and clothes exhibiting a street mood, while Off-White featured optical patterns, metallic trench coats, jersey dresses with asymmetrical hemlines, and primary color leather coats that centered around street wear and checkerboard prints.
Brand collections under Topic 2 mainly featured clothes athleisure style as exemplified by the brand Tommy Now, which depicted a sporty mood based on supermodels from the 1980s and 1990s and disco queens from the 1970s. Miu Miu exhibited a millennial sentiment expressed through long capes, mini dresses with ruffle decorations, chunky boots, and big bags. Dior combined a tailored jacket having a masculine silhouette with a big skirt, a new look silhouette dress, a sporty jumper, kitten heels, a bucket hat, and cropped suit pants. Brands under topic four exhibited clothes with classic and feminine moods. For instance, Chanel, the most exemplary brand in Topic 3, featured a tweed houndstooth check suit, a candy-colored sweater with a classic Chanel logo, and a feather-detail cocktail dress. The large shoulder line, straight silhouette, and polka-dot tights made the tuxedoes architectural and feminine.
F/W Milan fashion week
For the 2019 Milan F/W collection, “Giorgio Armani,” “Roberto Carvalli,” “Gucci,” “Dolce Gabbana,” and “Alberta Ferretti,” had the highest probability of distribution for Topic 1, whereas Topic 2 comprised of brands such as “Versace,” “Moschino,” “Bottega Veneta,” and models “Gigi Hadid,” “Bella Hadid,” and “Candice Swanepoel” (Fig. 7).
Topic 1 was named “tailored” because the most representative brand in Topic 1, Giorgio Armani, featured clothing with dark and calm colors, complex tailoring, and luxurious materials such as silk, velvet, and leather. Other major brands in Topic 1 also presented clothing that aligned with this theme. For instance, Roberto Carvalli also had elegantly tailored coats, classic neckline dresses, boots that delicately covered people’s legs, and geometric patterns and design. Gucci also displayed colorful genderless designs based on complex tailoring.
Topic 2 was labelled “Retro” the brands featured under this topic expressed a vintage sentiment popular during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Moschino staged kitsch gold jewelry matched with voluminous retro hair prevalent in the 1970s, along with various monetary patterns, cartoon characters, and humorous baby bear prints. Versace exhibited a grunge look from the 1990s consisting of old-fashioned cut-off detail, messy hair, retro-style bustiers; gorgeous colors like gold, yellow, blue, pink and orange, and utilized silky materials, delicate laces, classic patterns, glam, luxury moods, slip dresses and jackets.
Brands under Topic 3 developed genderless designs featuring masculine and linear silhouettes, and was therefore labelled “Genderless.” Gucci appeared in all the topics due to its elaborate tailoring (Topic 1) retro mood (Topic 2), and genderless silhouettes (Topic 3). Prada harmoniously combined romantic details such as flowers, lace, and ribbons with a military mood with masculine pants, and a goth mood. Missoni expressed a genderless design through classic and geometric patterns and large neck decorations. Max Mara utilized beige, camel, and navy-focused color palettes, a maximal coat, multiple-layered jackets, and a professional-looking suit.
F/W New York fashion week
Based on the data collected from the New York Fashion Week, brands such as “Marc Jacobs,” “Prabal Gurung,” “Tom Ford,” and “Tory Burch” were placed under Topic 1. Topic 2 was mostly comprised of words regarding social media influencers, such as “fashion blogger,” “photography,” “OOTD,” “front-row,” “fashionista,” “social media,” and “celebrity,” rather than brand names, excluding “Ralph Lauren.” Topic 3 featured brands such as “Michael Kors,” “Coach 1941,” “Jeremy Scott,” and “Longchamp” (Fig. 8).
Topic 1 was labelled “Classic and romantic” because it was characterized by various design details, fashion items, and classic and romantic moods. Marc Jacobs’ collection had rich silhouettes, a classic cape and coat, a couture dress decorated with artificial feathers and flowers, and a feather dress. Prabal Gurung presented a look that displayed an oriental style, contrasting color matches reminiscent of Yves Saint Laurent and Christian Lacroix, ethnic jacquard fabrics, bold fringes, and oriental embroidery. Tom Ford expressed sensuality through a pale blue shirt, purple satin pants, silk jersey, and a finale dress paired with a bold chain. Tory Burch presented classic, tailored coats and trousers, masculine silhouettes, floral patterns, and ruffles, along with pleated romantic blouses and skirts.
Ralph Lauren, which appeared under Topic 2, presented an elegant and dramatic look that displayed a military mood, a sailor look, and embodied American luxury through a color palette consisting of black, gold and white. However, Topic 2 mostly comprised of keywords such as “fashion blogger,” “photography,” “OOTD,” “front-row,” “fashionista,” “social media,” and “celebrity.” Therefore, Topic 2 was labelled “influencer.”
The common characteristics of the brands shown in Topic 3 were a street mood with a 1970s and 1980s vibe, and leather jackets. Topic 3 was therefore named “Vintage and Retro.” Michael Kors portrayed designs popular during the 1970s through a floral dress that featured a shearing fur stole, fringes, beads, a slip dress with feathers, a check pants suit, Boeing glasses, and a newsboy cap. In contrast, Coach 1941, displayed a bohemian mood with a psychedelic quilted pattern, a floral and a marbling pattern reminiscent of geological layers, classic tartan checks, and Bermuda pants. Jeremy Scott utilized black and white colors, exaggerated accessories such as a gigantic ribbon, an A-line tulle, a rider jacket, and a hoodie to convey a 1970s and 1980s sentiment. Furthermore, Longchamp expressed a similar sentiment through its rock-style leather clothing, animal prints, ethnic patterns, signature logo patterns, and a miniature-sized white Le Pliage bag.
F/W London fashion week
The data from the 2019 London Fashion Week indicated that brands such as “Victoria Beckham,” “Simone Rocha,” “J.W. Anderson,” “Peter Pilotto,” “Roksanda,” and “Christopher Kane” were most associated with Topic 1. Topic 2 included keywords such as “Burberry,” “Vivienne Westwood,” “Alexa Chung,” “Ports 1961,” “Ashish,” and “Mary Katrantzou,” and Topic 3 featured the words “Richard Malone,” “sustainable,” and “recycled.” The brands that appeared in Topic 1 expressed a modern and feminine businesswoman, or displayed a romantic look frequently associated with young girls. Therefore, Topic 1 was named “Businesswoman and Romantic.” Victoria Beckham presented a businesswoman look through refined beauty, checkered pencil skirts, flare pants, and silk shirts. Furthermore, her look featured smooth and feminine colors such as lilac, turquoise blue and red. A cape-shaped manic silhouette coat with a pointed long collar and a wide banding at the waist portrayed a modern and feminine sensibility. Simone Rocha harmoniously combined an abstract and a bizarre sentiment conveyed through swirly patterns and rich balloon silhouette dresses with cobwebs with an opposing sense of romanticism. J.W. Anderson presented a voluminous dress in colorful chiffon, a flat patterned jacket, and oversized choker chains and belts (Fig. 9).
In Topic 2, brands exhibited a combination of various themes and asymmetrical silhouettes. Therefore, Topic 2 was named “Heterogeneous and Unbalanced.” Burberry, a brand that had the highest probability of being included in Topic 2, presented two distinct concepts. In the boys and girls section, it presented a street look with sportswear, lingerie dresses, and track pants, whereas in the Gentleman and Lady section, it included formal and classic items such as trench coats and tailored jackets to express the coexistence of classical and punk styles. Vivienne Westwood unveiled its signature wool coats with signature check patterns, painted-print leggings and jackets, and satin dresses, along with messages criticizing Brexit, global climate change, and fast fashion. Alexa Chung featured silhouettes that were popular during the 1940s through ruffles and glossy materials such as velvet and leather with floral patterns. In Topic 3, Richard Malone was the only fashion house that was included, and the topic was named “Sustainability” because it appeared with words such as “sustainable” and “recycled.” Accordingly, Richard Malone’s collection used organic cotton and recyclable materials that were sustainable and experimental (Table 4).
Sentiment analysis in 2019 F/W fashion week by brands
To perform a sentiment analysis of the Big 4 Fashion Weeks, we first extracted the nouns from the tweets crawled from Twitter, through stemming and listed them by word frequency. Thereafter, we categorized the three of the most frequently-mentioned brands for each city (shown in Table 1) as follows: Paris Fashion Week—Chanel (814), Dior (328), and Balmain (224); Milan Fashion Week—Gucci (277), Versace (275), and Prada (171); New York Fashion Week—Michael Kors (701), Ralph Lauren (433) and Marc Jacobs (356); and London Fashion Week—Burberry (298), Victoria Beckham (295), and Vivienne Westwood (120) (Table 5).
The positive tweets pertaining to brand names extracted referenced brands such as Chanel (293), Dior (154), and Balmain (91) related to the Paris Fashion Week; Gucci (111), Versace (99) and Prada (73) appeared in tweets related to the Milan Fashion Week; Michael Kors (455), Ralph Lauren (190), and Marc Jacobs (138) appeared in tweets related to the New York Fashion Week; and Burberry (116), Victoria Beckham (148) and Vivienne Westwood (37) related to the London Fashion Week.
The results of the analysis indicate how these brands induced positive reactions from Twitter users (Table 6). The positiveness of a brand’s tweet’s was calculated through the percentage of positive tweets among the total number of tweets, calculated using Eq. 5. The resulting number is a quantitative representation of the sentimental evaluation of the brand. The top-ranked brands mentioned also had different positive rates depending on the people’s reactions. The most popular item calculated was the “Monogram handbag” from Michael Kors’ New York Fashion Week collection.