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Ethnomedicine study on traditional medicinal plants in the Wuliang Mountains of Jingdong, Yunnan, China

  • Lunlun Gao
  • Neng Wei
  • Guoping Yang
  • Zhenxian Zhang
  • Guizhou Liu
  • Chuantao CaiEmail author
Open Access
Research
  • 328 Downloads

Abstract

Background

The Wuliang Mountains of the Jingdong region is a settlement area of the Yi community located in south-western Yunnan Province in China. Due to its unique geographical location, this area harbours abundant medicinal plant resources. The medicinal plants used by the local people have a long history and play an important role in their daily life. During the long-term mixed lifestyle, the knowledge of traditional medicinal plants in different communities has been assimilated to some extent. Therefore, this paper is based on ethnobotanical investigations to document traditional medicinal plants used by local people and discuss the differences between the Yi and Han communities in the study area.

Methods

Data on traditional medicinal plants were collected from September 2016 to August 2017 in the Yi autonomous county of Jingdong. Seven townships and 16 villages were selected for the field investigations. Information was obtained through key informant interviews. A total of 44 key informants were interviewed, and all of them were herbalists or herbal sellers.

Results

In this study, a total of 302 traditional medicinal plant species belonging to 117 families and 252 genera were investigated and documented, most of which were obtained from herbalists. Although family Asteraceae was the most prevalent, with 27 species, the most commonly utilized species were members of family Papaveraceae, Dactylicapnos scandens (D. Don) Hutch., which is used as an antipyretic drug. Herbs comprised half of the total number of species, and the whole plant is the most frequently utilized plant part. The plants were used to treat more than 93 human diseases, with antipyretic drugs being the most common form of herbal medicine. The traditional medicinal plants used in the study area possess a high ratio of being documented in the literature. According to the analysis, the Chinese Pharmacopoeia recorded 76 species and the Resources of Traditional Chinese Medicine recorded 233 species of traditional medicinal plants. By evaluating the endangered status of the traditional medicinal plants in the study area, we found good conservation status of the cited medicinal plants. Regarding the similarity between the communities, there were significant differences between the Yi and Han communities, as indicated by the Jaccard similarity index (0.232).

Conclusions

Medicinal plants are the embodiment of wisdom from our ancestors and play a significant role in treating various human disorders. As one of the birthplaces of Yi medicine, the study area possesses a high species diversity of traditional medicinal plants used by local people. With the rapid development of modern medicine, however, the inheritance of this valuable culture is facing enormous threats even though its potential value has not yet been fully explored. Therefore, some effective protection measures should be taken, and some modern techniques should be implemented to prove the safety and improve the scientific acceptance of the traditional medicinal plants.

Keywords

Ethnomedicine Traditional knowledge Medicinal plants Wuliang Mountains region 

Introduction

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 65–80% of the world’s population in developing countries essentially depends on plants for their primary health care [1]. China has kept the tradition of using herbs to treat diseases since ancient times, and this was the principal method for the treatment of disease before the popularization of modern medicine. For the remote minority, in particular, traditional medicinal plants hold a significant position in their daily livelihood. The value hidden behind them deserves to be explored. However, the sustainable utilization of traditional medicinal plants is threatened by the rapid development of the social economy in China. Although knowledge regarding traditional medicinal plants has been documented in some regions [2, 3, 4], more research is needed to document the knowledge about traditional medicinal plant usages, and urgent conservation measures should be implemented as well [5].

The Yi community is one of the oldest communities in China and lives in the Hengduan region, which has been rich in medicinal plants for a long time. This community created a unique traditional system of medicine with its own theory as it struggled with diseases. Because of the blockage of the traditional knowledge inheritance within the Yi community, such knowledge has only spread within the same clade, family or region, resulting in unbalanced development in different areas [6]. Compared with the adjacent Chuxiong and Shuangbai districts, which have both been systematically studied [7], however, the traditional medicinal plants of the Yi community in Jingdong are still under-researched.

In contrast to other clades, the Yi community in the Wuliang Mountains have no particular wordage. For this reason, the study of the traditional medicinal plants in this region is necessary and urgent [8]. In this survey, the ethnomedicine approach of the key informant interview is used to assess the utilization of traditional medicinal plants by local people.

Study area and data collection

Study area

The Wuliang Mountains are situated in the southwest of Yunnan Province and are located at 23°57′–24°44′ N latitude and 100°22′–101°04′ E longitude (Fig. 1). As an extension of the Hengduan mountain range, the Wuliang Mountains stretch for 89 km from north to south, with an average altitude above 2000 m. The northwestern side of Wuliang Mountains lies in the alternating transition zone between the eastern Asiatic and Paleotropical flora regions, and the southeastern part lies in the alternating transition zone between the China-Japan plant subregion and the China-Himalayan plant subregion. The Wuliang Mountains belong to the western monsoon climate zone, which is characterized by a distinctive south Asian monsoon with obvious wet and dry seasons, harbour plants that exhibit continuous blooming and have the climatic characteristics of plateaus at low latitudes [9]. These unique geographical and climatic conditions result in rich plant diversity in this area. As mentioned by Peng [10], there are more than 300 types of medicinal plants with significant research value.
Fig. 1

Map of the study area showing the location of villages

The Yi autonomous county of Jingdong has a total population of 35.55 million. The Han ethnic group comprises 18.35 million (50.21%), while the Yi comprises 15.46 million (42.36%) of the total population [11]. The Yi community in Jingdong is distributed on both sides of the Wuliang Mountains. As a clade of the Yi ethnic group, the Yi autonomous county of Jingdong is one of the settlements and birthplaces of Yi community medicine [10], with a lifestyle of mixed habitation for a long time. The mutual effects of the two ethnicities have resulted in the fusion of culture and utilization of medicinal plants.

Data collection

Ethnobotanical data were collected from September 2016 to August 2017 in the Yi autonomous county of Jingdong, southwest Yunnan. Seven townships and 16 villages distributed on the two sides of the Wuliang Mountains were selected for the field investigations (Additional file 1). Information was collected via key informant interviews. A total of 44 informants were interviewed in the study area, with all the informants being local inhabitants with a profession of herbalist or seller of herbs and who embrace lots of medicinal knowledge. Their gender, age, nationality, education level and occupation were recorded. Ethnobotanical investigations were carried out to collect data on the medicinal plants used to treat human ailments, including their Latin name, Chinese name, local name, family name, life form, plant parts used, preparation method and medicinal effect. All plants were identified according to the Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae [12]. Voucher specimens of the plants cited by informants were collected and deposited at the Herbarium of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (HITBC).

Results and discussion

Profile of informants

The constituent information regarding age, gender, nationality, education and occupation of informants is shown in Table 1. Most of the informants were males, and they played a significant role in the activities of collecting and using traditional medicinal plants. Females only had some knowledge about postpartum diseases.
Table 1

The background information of informants in this study

Gender

 

 Male

36 (81.82%)

 Female

8 (18.18%)

Age

 

 20~29

3 (6.82%)

 30~39

2 (4.55%)

 40~49

19 (43.18%)

 50~59

8 (18.18%)

 60~69

9 (20.45%)

 70~79

3 (6.82%)

Nation

 

 Yi nationality

31 (70.45%)

 Han nationality

13 (29.55%)

Education level

 

 Primary school

20 (45.45%)

 Secondary school

20 (45.45%)

 College/university

4 (9.09%)

Profession

 

 Herbalist

12 (27.27%)

 Non-herbalist

32 (72.73%)

All of the informants were split into six age groups, with an average of 49.64 years old. The 40–49-year-old group comprised 43.18%. The Yi population accounted for 70.45%. The educational level of the informants centred on primary and middle school. In our study, 5 out of 12 herbalists who participated in the interview changed their profession, and the 7 herbalists left were still engaged in this profession. In addition, only 2 herbalists had successors, since no young people were willing to engage in this hard and difficult work. According to our investigation, the main reason for this observation is the fact that the low income as an herbalist makes it difficult to make a living. The trend of this phenomenon poses a significant threat to the inheritance of this traditional culture.

Traditional medicinal plant diversity in the study

This study recorded 302 medicinal plant species belonging to 252 genera and 117 families that were used to treat more than 93 ailments (Table 2). The traditional medicinal plants showed high diversity in terms of the composition of species at the family and genus level, with the single-species family and the single-species genus having an absolute advantage in number. Among these medicinal plants, the most species-rich family was Asteraceae, represented by 27 species, followed by family Fabaceae, with 14 species, which is similar to Li [3]. The main reason for this result is likely the abundance of species in these two families. Furthermore, the richest plant genera were Cinnamomum, Aconitum, Artemisia and Polygonum, each represented by 4 species. The most commonly utilized species is Dactylicapnos scandens (D. Don) Hutch., which belongs to Papaveraceae and is used as an antipyretic drug.
Table 2

The inventory of medicinal plants traditionally used by local people

Vernacular name

Family name

Latin name

Habit

Part used

Medicinal use

Voucher number

Dakonghua

Malvaceae

Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxb.) Hochr.

Shrub

Root

Unknown swollen

GLL0162

Sheyao

Compositae

Achillea millefolium Linn.

Shrub

Root, leaf, whole plant

Snake venom, common cold, meningitis

GLL00113

Tuniuxi

Amaranthaceae

Achyranthes aspera Linn.

Herb

Whole plant

Bone-setting

GLL0262

Tongchuicao

Compositae

Acmella calva (DC.) R.K.Jansen

Herb

Whole plant

Traumatic injury

GLL00123

Jinwu

Ranunculaceae

Aconitum austroyunnanense W.T. Wang

Herb

Whole plant, Root

Cold drugs, traumatic injury

GLL0127

Xueshangyizhihao

Ranunculaceae

Aconitum brachypodum Diels

Herb

Root

Traumatic injury, rheumatism

GLL0129

Caowu

Ranunculaceae

Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.

Herb

Root

Bone-setting, traumatic injury, digestive, general aching, common cold, hyperosteogeny, rheumatism

GLL0126

Daduwu

Ranunculaceae

Aconitum scaposum Franch.var.hupehanum Rapaics

Herb

Root

Traumatic injury

GLL0128

Changpu

Acoraceae

Acorus calamus

Herb

Root

Digestive

GLL055

Shichangpu

Araceae

Acorus gramineus Sol. ex Aiton

Herb

Whole plant

Digestive

GLL0082

Zhuzongcao

Adiantaceae

Adiantum bonatianum Brause

Herb

Whole plant

Cystitis, diuretic

GLL098

Suoluo

Hippocastanaceae

Aesculus chinensis Bunge

Tree

Root, stem

Gastroenteritis

GLL082

Honghualuobo

Ericaceae

Agapetes hosseana Diels

Shrub

Root

Traumatic injury

GLL0184

Shujidan

Ericaceae

Agapetes mannii Hemsl.

Shrub

Root

Traumatic injury, rheumatism palpitation

GLL0182

Huoxiang

Labiatae

Agastache rugosa (Fisch. et Mey.) O. Kuntze

Herb

Whole plant

Relieving cough, pneumonia, ventilation, common cold, digestive

GLL0041

Jima

Agavaceae

Agave sisalana Perrine ex Engelm.

Herb

Root

Common cold (for child)

GLL075

Daheicao

Compositae

Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R. M. King et H. Rob.

Herb

Whole plant

Common cold, gastroenteritis

GLL00119

Xianhecao

Rosaceae

Agrimonia pilosa var. nepalensis (D. Don) Nakai

Herb

Whole plant, root

Haemostasis, flooding, gastroenteritis, dysentery

GLL0021

Yexiahua

Compositae

Ainsliaea pertyoides Franch.

Herb

Whole plant

Traumatic injury, gynecologic diseases

GLL00116

Shenyancao

Compositae

Ainsliaea spicata Vaniot

Herb

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, nephritis

GLL00115

Mutong

Lardizabalaceae

Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Decne.

Woody climber

Stem, leaf

Hyperlipidemia, hypertension

GLL079

Handonggua

Betulaceae

Alnus nepalensis

Tree

Bark, leaf

Gastroenteritis

GLL067

Dayedengtai

Apocynaceae

Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br.

Tree

Leaf

Relieving cough, trachitis

GLL0152

Moyu

Araceae

Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch

Herb

Root

Digestive, obesity

GLL0088

Yeputao

Vitaceae

Ampelopsis glandulosa (Wall.) Momiy.

Woody climber

Whole plant

Blood phobia

GLL0242

Taoren

Rosaceae

Amygdalus davidiana (Carrière) de Vos ex Henry

Tree

Nutlet, bark, leaf

Traumatic injury, rheumatism gastroenteritis, toothache

GLL0028

Huzhangcao

Ranunculaceae

Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham.

Herb

Root

Hepatitis, gastroenteritis

GLL01210

Danggui

Umbelliferae

Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels

Herb

Root

Tonic, traumatic injury

GLL0117

Sanfensan

Solanaceae

Anisodus acutangulus C. Y. Wu et C. Chen ex C. Chen et C. L. Chen

Herb

Leaf, whole plant, root

Bone-setting, traumatic injury antiphlogosis, rheumatism

GLL0204

Baiyundougen

Fabaceae

Apios carnea (Wall.) Benth. ex Baker

Woody climber

Root

Digestive

GLL0037

Niubang

Compositae

Arctium lappa L.

Herb

Root

Nephritis

GLL00110

Baoziyanjinghua

Myrsinaceae

Ardisia crenata Sims

Shrub

Root, whole plant

Common cold antiphlogosis gastroenteritis

GLL0323

Zijinniu

Myrsinaceae

Ardisia japonica (Thunb.) Bl.

Shrub

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL0322

Binlang

Palmae

Areca catechu L.

Tree

Fruit

Digestive

GLL0431

Dahanyao

Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia cucurbitoides C.F. Liang

Herbaceous liane

Root

Digestive

GLL0442

Tumuxiang

Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia debilis Sieb. et Zucc.

Herbaceous liane

Root

Gastroenteritis. Relieving cough, gastroenteritis

GLL0441

Qingmuxiang

Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia transsecta (Chatterjee) C. Y. Wu ex S. M. Hwang

Woody climber

Root

Gastroenteritis

GLL0443

Aihao

Compositae

Artemisia argyi

Herb

Whole plant

Gynecologic diseases

GLL00126

Yinchenhao

Compositae

Artemisia capillaris Thunb.

Herb

Whole plant

Cholecystitis

GLL0016

Haozi

Compositae

Artemisia carvifolia Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.

Herb

Whole plant, root, leaf

Common cold, antiphlogosis, haemostasis, heat-clearing and detoxifying

Gynecologic diseases, gastroenteritis, haemostasis

GLL0014

Pingtouhao

Compositae

Artemisia japonica Thunb.

Herb

Whole plant, root, leaf

Common cold, hepatitis

GLL0015

Qiuhaitang

Begoniaceae

Begonia modestiflora Kurz.

Herb

Root

Nephritis

GLL085

Sankezhen

Berberidaceae

Berberis deinacantha Schneid.

Shrub

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, antiphlogosis, gastroenteritis, relieving cough

GLL0212

Sankezhenhuanglian

Berberidaceae

Berberis wuliangshanensis C.Y. Wu

Shrub

Root

Toothache

GLL0213

Chachacao

Compositae

Bidens pilosa Linn.

Herb

Whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, common cold, appendicitis, gastroenteritis, heat-clearing and detoxifying, laryngopharyngitis, diabetes mellitus

GLL0012

Xiaobaiji

Orchidaceae

Bletilla formosana (Hayata) Schltr.

Herb

Root

Relieving cough, tuberculosis

GLL0071

Baiji

Orchidaceae

Bletilla striata (Thunb. ex A. Murray) Rchb. f.

Herb

Stem

Pneumonia, tuberculosis, haemostasis

GLL0072

Bingpianye

Compositae

Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.

Herb

Juice

Rheumatism

GLL00120

Baihucao

Rutaceae

Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Rchb. ex Meisn.

Herb

Whole plant, root

Antiphl titis, exorcise evil spirits

GLL0134

Mumian

Malvaceae

Bombax ceiba L.

Tree

Bark

Bone-setting, traumatic injury

GLL0163

Dabusi

Crassulaceae

Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken

Herb

Leaf, whole plant

Bone-setting, Traumatic injury

GLL070

Huanghua

Buddlejaceae

Buddleja officinalis Maxim.

Shrub

Root

Replenishing qi

GLL117

Chaihu

Umbelliferae

Bupleurum hamiltonii Balakr.

Herb

Whole plant, leaf

Common cold

GLL0111

Baichaihu

Umbelliferae

Bupleurum marginatum Wall.ex DC.

Herb

Whole plant

Common cold

GLL0112

Wannianqing

Buxaceae

Buxus bodinieri Lévl.

Shrub

Whole plant

Gastroenteritis, traumatic injury, antiphlogosis

GLL0341

Sumu

Fabaceae

Caesalpinia sappan Linn.

Tree

Stem

Gynecologic diseases

GLL111

Hehuanhua

Mimosaceae

Calliandra haematocephala Hassk.

Shrub

Flower, leaf, bark

Tranquilizing effect

GLL0332

Dawanwanhua

Convolvulaceae

Calystegia hederacea Wall. ex Roxb.

Herb

Whole plant

Antiphlogosis

GLL104

Chaye

 

Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Ktze.

Tree

Leaf

Antiphlogosis

GLL088

Aiqi

Liliaceae

Campylandra wattii C. B. Clarke

Herb

Whole plant

Gastroenteritis

GLL0056

Douling

Liliaceae

Cardiocrinum giganteum (Wall.) Makino

Herbaceous liane

Stem

Relieving cough, trachitis, pneumonia, emphysema

GLL0051

Xiaohonggaoliang

Cyperaceae

Carex alta Boott

Herb

Root

Gynecologic diseases

GLL0461

Yegaolianggen

Cyperaceae

Carex baccans Nees

Herb

Root

Haemostasis

GLL0462

Goujiaoji

Vitaceae

Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) Domin

Woody climber

Whole plant

Digestive, common cold, Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL0241

Jiguanhua

Amaranthaceae

Celosia cristata Linn.

Herb

Whole plant, flower

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, gynecologic diseases

GLL0263

Yingtaopi

Rosaceae

Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.) G. Don

Tree

Bark

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL00212

Mugua

Rosaceae

Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne

Shrub

Fruit

Rheumatism, traumatic injury

GLL0022

Suanmugua

Rosaceae

Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai

Shrub

Fruit

Rheumatism

GLL0023

Yinfencao

Sinopteridaceae

Cheilanthes albomarginata C.B. Clarke

Herb

Whole plant

Gynecologic diseases

GLL113

Sikuaiwa

Chloranthaceae

Chloranthus holostegius (Hand.-Mazz.) Pei et Shan

Herb

Whole plant, root

Common cold

Laryngopharyngitis

GLL069

Tengzhong

Apocynaceae

Chonemorpha valvata

Woody climber

Stem, leaf

Rheumatism

GLL0154

Feijicao

Compositae

Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) R. M. King et H. Rob.

Herb

Whole plant

Gastroenteritis, heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL00124

Santiaojin

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet

Tree

Bark

Ventilation, bone-setting

GLL0273

Zhangmuzi

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Tree

Fruit

Common cold, heatstroke, ventilation

GLL0275

Rougui

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume

Tree

Bark

Ventilation, dispel coldness

GLL0272

Xiangzhang

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall.) Nees

Tree

Stem, fruit, root

Ventilation, refreshing, gastroenteritis

GLL0274

Yaluoqing

Meliaceae

Cipadessa baccifera (Roth.) Miq.

Tree

Leaf

Diabetes mellitus, gastroenteritis, catharsis

GLL0231

Jicigen

Compositae

Cirsium griseum H. Lév.

Herb

Root, leaf, whole plant

Gynecologic diseases, haemostasis, bone-setting

GLL00125

Foshougan

Rutaceae

Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle

Shrub

Fruit

Ventilation

GLL0131

Chenpi

Rutaceae

Citrus reticulata Blanco

Tree

Peel

Antiphlogosis

GLL0132

Xiaomutong

Ranunculaceae

Clematis armandii Franch.

Woody climber

Root

Diuretic, cystitis

GLL0125

Weilingxian

Ranunculaceae

Clematis chinensis Osbeck

Woody climber

Whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL0124

Santiagoanyin

Verbenaceae

Clerodendrum serratum var. amplexifolium Moldenke

Shrub

Bark, leaf

Bone-setting, traumatic injury

GLL0361

Huanglian

Ranunculaceae

Coptis chinensis Franch.

Herb

Whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, hepatitis

GLL0121

Jijiaohuanglian

Ranunculaceae

Coptis teeta Wall.

Herb

Whole plant, root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, traumatic injury

GLL0122

Shanzha

Rosaceae

Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge

Tree

Fruit

Digestive, hyperlipidemia

GLL0027

Naijiangcao

Compositae

Crepis phoenix Dunn

Herb

Whole plant

Common cold

GLL0013

Honghua

Iridaceae

Crocus sativus Linn.

Herb

Stamen

Traumatic injury, gynecologic diseases

GLL110

Gouxiangling

Fabaceae

Crotalaria albida Heyne ex Roth

Herbaceous liane

Whole plant, root

Gynecologic diseases

GLL0039

Huangguaye

Cucurbitaceae

Cucumis sativus Linn.

Herbaceous liane

Leaf

Antialcoholism

GLL0142

Baishu

Cupressaceae

Cupressus funebris Endl.

Shrub

Leaf

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, tranquilizing effect, antiphlogosis rheumatism, exorcise evil spirits

GLL052

Houzibeijian

Hypoxidaceae

Curculigo capitulata (Lour.) Kuntze

Herb

Root

Hyperosteogeny, tonifying kidney

GLL101

Huangjiang

Zingiberaceae

Curcuma longa Linn.

Herb

Root, stem

Hepatitis

GLL068

Wugenteng

Cuscutaceae

Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

Herbaceous liane

Whole plant

Ventilation, tonifying kidney

GLL099

Lushuicao

Commelinaceae

Cyanotis vaga (Lour.) Roem. et Schult.

Herb

Whole plant

Rheumatism

GLL0411

Xiaohonghao

Compositae

Cyathocline purpurea (Ham.O.Ktze) O. Kuntze.

Herb

Whole plant

Haemostasis

GLL00121

Niuxi

Amaranthaceae

Cyathula officinalis Kuan

Herb

Root

Lumbar muscle strain

GLL0261

Tieteng

Menispermacea

Cyclea wattii Diels

Woody climber

Stem

Gynecologic diseases

GLL0191

Hutoulan

Orchidaceae

Cymbidium hookerianum Rchb. f.

Herb

Root, stem

Traumatic injury

GLL0073

Tuoyaoyao

Asclepiadaceae

Cynanchum otophyllum Schneid.

Herbaceous liane

Root, stem

Lumbar muscle strain, tonifying kidney

GLL0171

Geshanxiao

Asclepiadaceae

Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim.) Hemsl.

Herbaceous liane

Root

Digestive

GLL0172

Huoliangchongye

Boraginaceae

Cynoglossum amabile Stapf & J.R. Drumm.

Herb

Leaf

Snake venom

GLL114

Wandouxi

Fumariaceae

Dactylicapnos scandens (D. Don) Hutch.

Herbaceous liane

Root, whole plant

Gastroenteritis, antiphlogosis, haemostasis, digestive, hypertension, traumatic injury

GLL115

Huangcao

Orchidaceae

Dendrobium moniliforme (L.)Sw.

Herb

Whole plant

Improve immunity

GLL0074

Diaolanhua

Orchidaceae

Dendrobium nobile Lindl.

Herb

Whole plant

Bone-setting

GLL0078

Shushen

Araliaceae

Dendropanax dentiger (Harms) Merr.

Shrub

Whole plant

Traumatic injury

GLL0104

Yeluodisong

Fabaceae

Desmodium griffithianum Benth.

Herb

Whole plant

Snake venom

GLL0036

Banjiuwo

Fabaceae

Desmodium triflorum (Linn.) DC.

Woody climber

Whole plant

Haemostasis

GLL0035

Yuxingcao

Compositae

Dichrocephala benthamii C. B. Clarke

Herb

Whole plant, leaf

Headache, gastroenteritis, digestive, unknown swollen

GLL00118

Shanyangtou

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour.

Herbaceous liane

Root

Gastroenteritis

GLL0471

Shanyao

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea hemsleyi Prain et Burkill

Herbaceous liane

Root

Tonifying kidney, replenishing Qi

GLL0472

Xuduan

Dipsacaceae

Dipsacus asperoides C.Y.Cheng et T.M.Ai

Herb

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, bone-setting, gastroenteritis

GLL057

Wanshouzhu

Liliaceae

Disporum cantoniense (Lour.) Merr.

Herb

Whole plant

Replenishing qi, hysteritis, cystitis

GLL0053

Yebaihe

Liliaceae

Diuranthera minor (C.H. Wright) C.H. Wright ex Hemsl.

Herb

Stem

Pneumonia

GLL0052

Heliandou

Caryophyllacea

Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Schult.

Herb

Whole plant

Antiphlogosis, gastroenteritis

GLL118

Duyingguo

Elaeocarpaceae

Elaeocarpus decipiens Hemsl.

Tree

Fruit

Cholelithiasis, heat-clearing and detoxifying, gastroenteritis. Phlegm, antiphlogosis

GLL059

Jindaolifeisan

Compositae

Elephantopus scaber L.

Herb

Root

Asthma

GLL0011

Ciwujia

Araliaceae

Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Maxim.

Shrub

Leaf, root, bark

Hypertension, traumatic injury, rheumatism, bone-setting, cerebral infarction, common cold. Hepatitis

GLL0105

Cisanjia

Araliaceae

Eleutherococcus trifoliatus (Linnaeus) S. Y. Hu

Tree

Stem

Rheumatism

GLL0107

Silenghao

Labiatae

Elsholtzia blanda Benth.

Herb

Whole plant

Common cold

GLL0046

Saobake

Labiatae

Elsholtzia rugulosa Hemsl.

Herb

Whole plant

Gastroenteritis, common cold

GLL0044

Suantengzi

Myrsinaceae

Embelia laeta (Linn.) Mez

Woody climber

Root

Gastroenteritis

GLL0321

Yinyanghuo

Berberidaceae

Epimedium brevicornu Maxim.

Herb

Whole plant, root, stem

Improve immunity, nephritis

GLL0214

Pashulong

Araceae

Epipremnum pinnatum (Linn.) Engl.

Herbaceous liane

Whole plant

Traumatic injury, bone-setting

GLL0083

Tongqicao

Equisetaceae

Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. subsp. debile (Roxb. ex Vauch.) Hauke

Herb

Whole plant, root

Ventilation, traumatic injury, cholelithiasis, heat-clearing and detoxifying, gastroenteritis

GLL081

Pipaye

Rosaceae

Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

Tree

Leaf

Relieving cough, common cold

GLL0024

Duzhong

Eucommiaceae

Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.

Tree

Bark

Traumatic injury, bone-setting nephritis, rheumatism

GLL060

Yipinhong

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia cyathophora Murr.

Herb

Whole plant

Traumatic injury

GLL0291

Candouqi

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia sessiliflora Roxb.

Herb

Whole plant

Traumatic injury, bone-setting

GLL0292

Xiaohuangsan

Rutaceae

Evodia lepta (Spreng.) Merr.

Tree

Leaf

Gastroenteritis

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL0136

Wuchuyi

Rutaceae

Evodia rutaecarpa (A. Juss.) Benth.

Shrub

Root, seed, whole plant

Antiphlogosis, gastroenteritis

GLL0135

Heshouwu

Polygonaceae

Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson

Herbaceous liane

Root

Digestive, enriching blood, gastroenteritis

GLL0094

Dibanteng

Moraceae

Ficus tikoua Bur.

Woody climber

Stem, root, whole plant, leaf

Common cold, antiphlogosis, ventilation, nephritis, gastroenteritis

GLL037

Jiayanpi

Fabaceae

Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merr.

Shrub

Root

Gastroenteritis

GLL0034

Lalateng

Rubiaceae

Galium aparine Linn.

Herbaceous liane

Whole plant

Bone-setting

GLL0066

Xiaohongshen

Rubiaceae

Galium elegans Wall. ex Roxb. var. elegans

Herbaceous liane

Root

Bone-setting

Gynecologic diseases

GLL0067

Lingzhi

Polyporaceae

Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst.

Herb

Whole plant

Improve immunity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ventilation, inducing diuresis

GLL061

Zhizi

Rubiaceae

Gardenia jasminoides Ellis

Shrub

Root

Headache

GLL0069

Tianma

Orchidaceae

Gastrodia elata Bl.

Herb

Root, stem

Cerebral haemorrhage

GLL0076

Ditanxiang

Ericaceae

Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall.

Shrub

Root, leaf

Gastroenteritis, heat-clearing and detoxifying, allergy, dermatosis, eczema

GLL0181

Gounaohua

Loganiaceae

Gelsemium elegans (Gardn. et Champ.) Benth.

Woody climber

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL077

Qinjiao

Gentianaceae

Gentiana macrophylla Pall.

Herb

Whole plant

Rheumatism

GLL0301

Longdancao

Gentianaceae

Gentiana rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl.

Herb

Whole plant, Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, antiphlogosis, hepatitis, gastroenteritis

Gynecologic diseases, cholagogic

GLL0302

Baitouweng

Compositae

Gerbera piloselloides (Linn. ) Cass.

Herb

Whole plant, root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, antiphlogosis, cervicitis

GLL00122

Shifengdan

Orchidaceae

Goodyera psocera HK.

Herb

Whole plant

Rheumatism, digestive

GLL0077

Yidaocao

Compositae

Gynura divaricata (Linn.) DC.

Herb

Leaf

Diabetes mellitus

GLL0017

Shuiganlan

Rubiaceae

Hedyotis diffusa Willd.

Woody climber

Whole plant, root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, antiphlogosis, improve immunity, gastroenteritis, digestive

GLL0062

Jiegudan

Rubiaceae

Hedyotis hedyotidea (DC.) Merr.

Herb

Leaf

Bone-setting, traumatic injury

GLL0061

Yeshanghua

Cornaceae

Helwingia himalaica Hook. f. et Thoms. ex C. B. Clarke

Shrub

Leaf, whole plant

Bone-setting, traumatic injury

GLL0382

Shanbaizhi

Umbelliferae

Heracleum barmanicum Kurz

Herb

Root

Hypertension

GLL0113

Baizhiye

Umbelliferae

Heracleum scabridum Franch.

Herb

Leaf

Haemostasis

GLL0118

Guiqingcao

Gramineae

Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.

Herb

Whole plant

Diabetes mellitus

GLL0223

Fusanghua

Malvaceae

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn.

Shrub

Flower

Gynecologic diseases

GLL0164

Daheifuzi

Araceae

Homalomena occulta (Lour.) Schott

Herb

Root, stem

Digestive, rheumatism

GLL0084

Yuxingcao

Saururaceae

Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

Herb

Whole plant, leaf

Gynecologic diseases, traumatic injury, expedites afterbirth, gastroenteritis,

Laryngopharyngitis

GLL086

Xiaoqingteng

Hernandiaceae

Illigera nervos Merr.

Woody climber

Stem

Snake venom

GLL074

Huangpicao

Gramineae

Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.

Herb

Root

Haemostasis, replenishing qi

GLL0222

Jiagushigun

Compositae

Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) DC.

Herb

Root

Common cold

GLL00127

Yitong

Flacourtiaceae

Itoa orientalis Hemsl.

Tree

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, snake venom

GLL058

Baitucao

Compositae

Ixeris polycephala Cass.

Herb

Whole plant

Antiphlogosis

GLL0018

yingchunhua

Oleaceae

Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl.

Shrub

Leaf

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL080

tongxuexiang

Schisandraceae

Kadsura heteroclita (Roxb.) Craib

Woody climber

Root, stem

Lumbar muscle strain, rheumatism

GLL0109

Ziwei

Lythraceae

Lagerstroemia indica Linn.

Tree

Bark

Dermatosis, urticaria

GLL083

Choulilngdan

Compositae

Laggera crispata (Vahl) Hepper & J.R.I.Wood

Herb

Leaf, whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, haemostasis, snake venom, gastroenteritis, laryngopharyngitis

GLL0019

Yema

Labiatae

Leonurus japonicus Houtt.

Herb

Whole plant

Gynecologic diseases

GLL0048

Gezaocao

Fabaceae

Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don

Shrub

Whole plant

Thrush

GLL0031

Mifengcao

Labiatae

Leucas ciliata Benth.

Herb

Whole plant

Rheumatism, stroke, heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL0045

Guichuixiao

Caprifoliaceae

Leycesteria formosa Wall.

Shrub

Whole plant

Ventilation

GLL0251

Chuanxiong

Umbelliferae

Ligusticum sinense Oliv.

Herb

Root

Gynecologic diseases, traumatic injury, rheumatism

GLL0114

Lapi

Lauraceae

Lindera tonkinensis Lecomte var. tonkinensis

Tree

Bark

Ventilation

GLL0271

Jinqiancao

Campanulaceae

Lobelia angulata Forst.

Herbaceous liane

Whole plant

Nephritis

GLL119

Dajiangjun

Campanulaceae

Lobelia clavata E. Wimm.

Herb

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL035

Jinyinhua

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim.

Herbaceous liane

Flower

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL0252

Dingxiang

Rubiaceae

Luculia pinceana Hook. var. pinceana

Shrub

Bark

Rheumatism

GLL00610

Jiaogua

Cucurbitaceae

Luffa acutangula (Linn.) Roxb.

Herbaceous liane

Whole plant

Snake venom

GLL0144

Gouqi

Solanaceae

Lycium chinense Mill.

Shrub

Fruit

Gynecologic diseases, antiphlogosis, cystitis, diuretic

GLL0201

Shenjincao

Lycopodiaceae

Lycopodium japonicum Thunb. ex Murray

Herb

Whole plant

Bone-setting, Lumbar Muscle strain, rheumatism

GLL094

Guoluhuang

Primulaceae

Lysimachia christiniae Hance

Herb

Whole plant

Cholecystitis, snake venom

GLL054

Aishen

Gesneriaceae

Lysionotus pauciflorus var. pauciflorus Maxim.

Herb

Whole plant

Bone-setting

GLL073

Dashuhuanglian

Berberidaceae

Mahonia duclouxiana Gagnep.

Shrub

Whole plant, root, stem

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, antiphlogosis, relieving cough

GLL0211

Dabaigai

Asclepiadaceae

Marsdenia griffithii Hook. f.

Woody climber

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, gastroenteritis, diabetes mellitus

GLL0174

Tongguangsan

Asclepiadaceae

Marsdenia tenacissima (Roxb.) Moon

Woody climber

Root

Digestive, antiphlogosis, rheumatism, laryngopharyngitis

GLL0175

Xiaohongteng

Urticaceae

Memorialis hirta (Bl.)Wedd.

Herbaceous liane

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, traumatic injury

GLL0311

Haixiucao

Mimosaceae

Mimosa pudica Linn.

Herb

Whole plant

Rheumatism

GLL0331

Fenguo

Nyctaginaceae

Mirabilis jalapa Linn.

Herb

Root, whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, antiphlogosis, toothache, snake venom, diabetes mellitus, mumps

GLL116

Sangpi

Moraceae

Morus alba L.

Shrub

Bark, fruit,

root, leaf, juice

Relieving cough, tonifying kidney, jaundice hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, laryngopharyngitis, common cold, heat-clearing and detoxifying, cholagogic, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tonifying kidney, rheumatism

GLL120

Daxueteng

Fabaceae

Mucuna macrobotrys Hance

Herb

Root, stem

Bone-setting, pneumonia, relieving cough

GLL0038

Aituotuo

Meliaceae

Munronia pinnata (Wall.) W. Theobald

Shrub

Root

Traumatic injury

GLL0233

Yangmei

Myricaceae

Myrica rubra (Lour.) Siebold et Zucc.

Tree

Bark

Gastroenteritis, analgesic

GLL106

Jingjie

Labiatae

Nepeta cataria Linn.

Herb

Whole plant

Haemostasis, common cold

GLL0042

Shuiqincai

Umbelliferae

Oenanthe javanica (Bl.) DC.

Herb

Whole plant

Hypertension

GLL0116

Babaozhenxindan

Liliaceae

Ophiopogon dracaenoides (Baker)HK.f.

Herb

Whole plant

Heart disease

GLL0057

Xianrenzhang

Cactaceae

Opuntia dillenii (Ker Gawl.) Haw.

Herb

Stem

Antiphlogosis, unknown swollen, exorcise evil spirits

GLL102

Haichuang

Bignoniaceae

Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Kurz

Tree

Fruit

Hepatitis

GLL0421

Chaotianguan

Melastomataceae

Osbeckia crinita Benth. ex C. B. Clarke

Shrub

Whole plant

Hepatitis

GLL107

Laowasuanyingcai

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis corniculata Linn.

Herb

Whole plant

Rheumatism, gynecologic diseases, nephritis, gastroenteritis,

Migraine, heat-clearing and detoxifying, traumatic injury, haemostasis

GLL0452

Honghuadiding

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis corymbosa DC.

Herb

Whole plant

Traumatic injury, heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL0451

Jishiteng

Rubiaceae

Paederia foetida Linn.

Herbaceous liane

Stem, leaf

Antiphlogosis

GLL0065

Mudanhua

Paeoniaceae

Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.

Shrub

Root

Heart disease, neurasthenia

GLL091

Sanqi

Araliaceae

Panax pseudo-ginseng Wall.

Herb

Root

Hypertension, traumatic injury, lumbar muscle strain

GLL0102

Yesanqi

Araliaceae

Panax zingiberensis C. Y. Wu et K. M. Feng

Herb

Root

Traumatic injury, bone-setting

GLL0103

Yingsu

Papaveraceae

Papaver somniferum Linn.

Herb

Nutshell, fruit

Gastroenteritis, antiphlogosis

GLL109

Chonglou

Liliaceae

Paris polyphylla Smith

Herb

Root

Traumatic injury haemostasis, unknown swollen, antiphlogosis, gastroenteritis

GLL0055

Sanxuedan

Piperaceae

Peperomia blanda (Jacq.) Kunth

Herb

Whole plant

Traumatic injury

GLL0281

Suzi

Labiatae

Perilla frutescens var. purpurascens (Hayata) H.W. Li

Herb

Whole plant

Relieving cough

GLL0049

Fengteng

Asclepiadaceae

Periploca calophylla (Woght) Falc.

Woody climber

Leaf, whole plant, Stem

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, antiphlogosis rheumatism

GLL0173

Ganlanguo

Euphorbiaceae

Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

Tree

Bark, fruit

Gastroenteritis, hyperlipidemia

GLL0293

Shanglu

Phytolaccaceae

Phytolacca americana Linn.

Herb

Whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, diuretic

GLL090

Dafangfeng

Umbelliferae

Pimpinella candolleana Wight et Arn.

Herb

Whole plant

Digestive, antiparastics

GLL0115

Banxia

Araceae

Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino

Herb

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL0081

Simaosong

Pinaceae

Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon

Tree

Branch, leaf,

root

Catharsis, traumatic injury, exorcise evil spirits

GLL096

Yezilan

Piperaceae

Piper boehmeriaefolium (Miq.) C. DC.

Shrub

Fruit, whole plant,

root, stem

Digestive, common cold, gastroenteritist, raumatic injury, bone-setting, rheumatism

GLL0284

Waiyezilan

Piperaceae

Piper boehmeriaefolium var. tonkinense C. DC.

Tree

Whole plant

Rheumatism

GLL0283

Yehujiao

Piperaceae

Piper nigrum Linn.

Tree

Root, bark, fruit

Antiphlogosis

GLL0282

Laihamacao

Plantaginaceae

Plantago minuta Pall.

Herb

Whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, common cold, antiphlogosis, cystitis, Prostatitis

GLL056

Baihuadan

Plumbaginaceae

Plumbago zeylanica Linn.

Herb

Root

Traumatic injury

GLL050

Jidanhua

Apocynaceae

Plumeria rubra Linn.

Shrub

Leaf

Lumbar muscle strain, traumatic injury

GLL0151

Jiduzishu

Polygalaceae

Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Shrub

Root

Gynecologic diseases, digestive

GLL0482

Hongbeilan

Polygalaceae

Polygala latouchei Franch.

Tree

Whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL0481

Suanjiangcao

Polygonaceae

Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Herb

Whole plant

Bone-setting, traumatic injury checking diarrhoea, haemostasis

GLL0091

Huzhang

Polygonaceae

Reynoutria japonica Houtt.

Herb

Whole plant

Traumatic injury

GLL0097

Gongyaolao

Polygonaceae

Polygonum paleaceum Wall. ex Hook. f.

Herb

Root

Lumbar muscle strain, nephritis, traumatic injury

GLL0092

Sanxuelan

Polygonaceae

Polygonum runcinatum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don var. sinense Hemsl.

Herb

Whole plant

Traumatic injury

GLL0093

Machixian

Portulacaceae

Portulaca oleracea Linn.

Herb

Whole plant

Traumatic injury, hypertension

GLL076

Dibinlang

Rosaceae

Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook.

Herb

Fruit

Digestive

GLL0029

Fanbaiye

Rosaceae

Potentilla lineata Trevir.

Herb

Whole plant, root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, gastroenteritis, digestive, dysentery

GLL00210

Xiakucao

Labiatae

Prunella vulgaris Linn.

Herb

Whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, antiphlogosis, hepatitis, hypertension

GLL0043

Fanshiliu

Myrtaceae

Psidium guajava Linn.

Tree

Leaf

Gastroenteritis

GLL097

Fengweicao

Pteridaceae

Pteris multifida Poir.

Herb

Whole plant

Dog bite

GLL062

Gegen

Fabaceae

Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen et S. M. Almeida ex Sanjappa et Predeep

Shrub

Root

Common cold, snake venom, antialcoholism

GLL00310

Shiliuhua

Punicaceae

Punica granatum Linn.

Tree

Flower, fruit, bark

Gynecologic diseases, cholelithiasis

GLL093

Mali

Fagaceae

Quercus acutissima Carruth.

Tree

Bark, root, leaf

Lumbar muscle strain, gastroenteritis

GLL072

Luobo

Cruciferae

Raphanus sativus Linn.

Herb

Root, stem

Common cold

GLL092

Luofumu

Apocynaceae

Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.

Shrub

Root, leaf

Hypertension

GLL0153

Guoshanlong

Araceae

Rhaphidophora lancifolia Schott

Herbaceous liane

Root

Bone-setting

GLL0085

Dahuang

Polygonaceae

Rheum officinale Baill.

Herb

Root

Catharsis, checking diarrhoea

GLL0096

Huixincao

Bryaceae

Rhodobryum roseum Limpr.

Herb

Whole plant

Heart disease

GLL112

Dujuanhua

Ericaceae

Rhododendron delavayi Franch.

Shrub

Flower

Gynecologic diseases

GLL0183

Yueji

Rosaceae

Rosa chinensis Jacq.

Shrub

Flower

Gynecologic diseases

GLL0026

Jinyingzi

Rosaceae

Rosa laevigata Michx.

Woody climber

Root, fruit

Gastroenteritis

GLL0025

Nianniancao

Rubiaceae

Rubia cordifolia L.

Herbaceous liane

Root

Haemostasis

GLL0068

Huangciguo

Rosaceae

Rubus ellipticus var. obcordatus (Franch.) Focke

Shrub

Root, leaf

Tonic, gastroenteritis

GLL00211

Tudahuang

Polygonaceae

Rumex dentatus Linn.

Herb

Whole plant

Gastroenteritis

GLL0095

Qingfengteng

Sabiaceae

Sabia yunnanensis Franch.

Woody climber

Stem, leaf

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL084

Liushupi

Salicaceae

Salix matsudana Koidz.

Tree

Bark

Stroke

GLL105

Xuepencao

Caprifoliaceae

Sambucus javanica Reinw. ex Blume

Shrub

Whole plant, leaf

Bone-setting, traumatic injury, rheumatism

GLL0253

Yeshanhua

Buxaceae

Sarcococca ruscifolia Stapf

Shrub

Root

Bone-setting

GLL0342

Qiyelian

Araliaceae

Schefflera arboricola Hayata

Shrub

Leaf

Traumatic injury

GLL0101

Xiaohongteng

Schisandraceae

Schisandra henryi C.B.Clarke

Woody climber

Root, fruit

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, heat-clearing and detoxifying, rheumatism

GLL0108

Zuandifeng

Saxifragaceae

Schizophragma integrifolium Oliv.

Woody climber

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, traumatic injury, rheumatism

GLL066

Huojieyao

Compositae

Scorzonera ikonnikovii Lipsch. et Krasch. ex Lipsch.

Herb

Whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL00117

Yizhijian

Labiatae

Scutellaria discolor Colebr.

Herb

Whole plant, Root

Antiphlogosis, relieving cough

GLL0047

Jiuliguang

Compositae

Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Herb

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, antiphlogosis

GLL00112

Xiaohuaishu

Fabaceae

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link

Tree

Flower

Haemostasis

GLL00311

Yehuasheng

Fabaceae

Senna tora (L.) Roxb.

Shrub

Whole plant

Snake venom

GLL0032

Baduyao

Malvaceae

Sida acuta Burm. f.

Shrub

Root

Traumatic injury, unknown swollen

GLL0161

Tufuling

Smilacaceae

Smilax glabra Roxb.

Shrub

Root

Gynecologic diseases

GLL049

Xiwanshu

Solanaceae

Solanum donianum Walp.

Tree

Root

Common cold

GLL0203

Kuliangcai

Solanaceae

Solanum nigrum Linn.

Herb

Whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, traumatic injury, haemostasis

GLL0202

Laoshuhuanggua

Cucurbitaceae

Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi

Herbaceous liane

Root

Diabetes mellitus, antiphlogosis, tonsillitis

GLL0143

Huaishu

Fabaceae

Sophora japonica Linn.

Shrub

Flower

Haemostasis

GLL0033

Huibaocao

Caryophyllacea

Stellaria vestita Kurz var. vestita

Herb

Whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, traumatic injury, haemostasis, bone-setting

GLL039

Jiuguniu

Stemonaceae

Stemona tuberosa Lour.

Herb

Root

Phlegm, replenishing qi

GLL051

Shanwugui

Menispermacea

Stephania delavayi Diels

Herbaceous liane

Root

Digestive, antiphlogosis, gastroenteritis, analgesic

GLL0193

Juhuaxin

Menispermacea

Stephania tetrandra S. Moore

Herbaceous liane

Root

Gastroenteritis

GLL0192

Banlangen

Acanthaceae

Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) J.B.Imlay

Herb

Root, leaf

Common cold, antiphlogosis, gastroenteritis

GLL071

Yudancao

Gentianaceae

Swertia bimaculata (Sieb.et Zucc.)Hook.f.et Thoms.

Herb

Whole plant

Hepatitis, cholecystitis

GLL0303

Xiaoheke

Symplocaceae

Symplocos paniculata (Thunb.) Miq.

Shrub

Whole plant

Common cold

GLL089

Huanghualam

Compositae

Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.

Herbaceous liane

Whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, antiphlogosis, analgesic, breast cancer

GLL00111

Sangjisheng

Loranthaceae

Taxillus sutchuenensis (Lecomte) Danser

Shrub

Whole plant

Tonifying kidney, rheumatism, antiphlogosis

GLL087

Hongduoshan

Taxaceae

Taxus wallichiana Zucc.

Tree

Bark

Antiparastics

GLL064

Zhulinbiao

Bignoniaceae

Tecoma capensis (Thunb.) Lindl.

Woody climber

Whole plant, stem

Lumbar muscle strain

GLL0422

Wuzhuajinlong

Vitaceae

Tetrastigma hypoglaucum Planch.

Woody climber

Whole plant

Traumatic injury

GLL0243

Huanglian

Ranunculaceae

Thalictrum foliolosum DC.

Herb

Whole plant

Gastroenteritis

GLL0123

Luoguodi

Cucurbitaceae

Thladiantha villosula Cogn.

Herbaceous liane

Root, stem, whole plant

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, gastroenteritis, antiphlogosis

GLL0141

Aijiao

Orchidaceae

Thunia alba (Lindl.) Rchb. f.

Herb

Root, stem, whole plant

Traumatic injury bone-setting

GLL0075

Jinxiandiaohulu

Menispermacea

Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep.

Herbaceous liane

Root

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, analgesic, unknown swollen, gastroenteritis

GLL0194

Xiangchun

Meliaceae

Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roem.

Tree

Root, bark

Heat-clearing and detoxifying, allergy

GLL0232

Laomianguashu

Cornaceae

Toricellia tiliifolia DC.

Tree

Leaf

Nephritis

GLL0381

Zongshu

Palmae

Trachycarpus fortunei (Hook.) H. Wendl.

Tree

Root

Traumatic injury

GLL0432

Zizhumei

Commelinaceae

Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R.Hunt

Herb

Whole plant

Antiphlogosis

GLL0412

Yiner

Tremellaceae

Tremella fuciformis

 

Whole plant

Tonic

GLL108

Citong

Araliaceae

Trevesia palmata (Roxb.) Vis.

Shrub

Root, bark

Bone-setting, traumatic injury

GLL0106

Leigongteng

Celastraceae

Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f.

Shrub

Stem, leaf

Liver cancer

GLL100

Jinsiling

Tropaeolaceae

Tropaeolum majus Linn.

Herb

Whole plant

Otitis

GLL063

Gaojiaoaiqi

Liliaceae

Tupistra aurantiaca Wall.ex Baker

Herb

Whole plant

Bone-setting, gastroenteritis

GLL0054

Baibuhuanyuan

Araceae

Typhonium blumei Nicolson et Sivadasan

Herb

Whole plant

Laryngopharyngitis, snake venom, heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL0086

Yutouqi

Araceae

Typhonium divaricatum (L.) Decne

Herb

Stem

Gastroenteritis

GLL0087

Jingou

Rubiaceae

Uncaria laevigata Wall. ex G. Don

Woody climber

Root, stem

Traumatic injury

GLL0064

Gouteng

Rubiaceae

Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil.

Woody climber

Root, stem

Heat-clearing and detoxifying

GLL0063

Xiqianma

Urticaceae

Urtica angustifolia Fisch. ex Hornem.

Herb

Whole plant

Rheumatism

GLL0312

Xiezicao

Urticaceae

Urtica fissa E. Pritz.

Herb

Whole plant

Rheumatism, urticaria

GLL0313

Matixiang

Valerianaceae

Valeriana jatamansi Jones

Herb

Whole plant

Gastroenteritis

GLL053

Xiaozongbao

Liliaceae

Veratrum mengtzeanum Loes. f.

Herb

Root, stem

Antiparastics

GLL0058

Mabiancao

Verbenaceae

Verbena officinalis Linn.

Herb

Root, whole plant

Common cold, heat-clearing and detoxifying, gastroenteritis

GLL0362

Dashufasan

Compositae

Vernonia parishii Hook. f.

Herb

Root

Common cold

GLL00114

Pangxiejiao

Viscaceae

Viscum articulatum Burm. f.

Herb

Whole plant

Antiphlogosis, cystitis

GLL065

Yantong

Scrophulariaceae

Wightia speciosissima (D.Don)Merr.

Tree

Bark

Bone-setting

GLL103

Yulan

Magnoliaceae

Yulania denudata (Desr.) D. L. Fu

Tree

Flower

Headache

GLL078

Huajiao

Rutaceae

Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.

Shrub

Bark, fruit, root

Toothache, antiphlogosis

GLL0133

Yumixu

Gramineae

Zea mays Linn.

Herb

Stamen

Hypertension, diuretic

GLL0221

Shuixianhua

Amaryllidaceae

Zephyranthes carinata Herb.

Herb

Root

Antiphlogosis

GLL095

The traditional medicinal plants used in the study area possess a high ratio of being documented in the literature. Of all 302 species, 76 were recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, which is an authoritative masterwork in China, and 233 species were recorded in Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources. The local medicine journal Plant Medicine of Yi and Simao Herbal Medicine recorded 34 and 99 species, respectively (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2

Document evidence of traditional medicinal plants in the study area

According to the analysis of the constitution of medicinal plants, the single-species family and the single-species genus had an absolute advantage in number (Tables 3 and 4), indicating that the medicinal plants in this region have high diversity in the composition of species at the family and genus level, which is similar to the survey of Shen [13].
Table 3

The statistics of traditional medicinal plants at the family level

Number of species within one family

Number of families

Ratio (%)

Number of species

Ratio (%)

1 species

69

58.97

69

22.85

2 to 5 species

36

30.77

107

35.43

6 to 9 species

7

5.98

56

18.54

Over 10 species

5

4.27

70

23.18

Table 4

The statistics of traditional medicinal plants at the genus level

Number of species

within one genus

Number of genera

Ratio (%)

Number of species

Ratio (%)

1 species

212

84.13

212

70.20

2 species

34

13.49

68

22.52

3 species

2

0.79

6

1.99

4 species

4

1.59

16

5.30

In Fig. 3, the life form analysis of traditional medicinal plants showed that herbaceous plants constituted the highest proportion, represented by 151 (50%) species, while there were 53 (17.55%) shrub species, 25 (8.28%) herbaceous lianas, 29 (9.60%) woody climbers and 44 (14.57%) tree species. This result is similar to the study of Lisu community in Nujiang, which is a minority community of China and lives in the Hengduan Mountains area as well [14, 15]. The main reason why herbs are the main medicinal plants is likely due to their diversity and convenience.
Fig. 3

Life forms of medicinal plants in the study area

Informants in the study area used different plant parts for the preparation of traditional drugs. Based on the data from informants, the majority of the traditional medicinal plant species were harvested as a whole plant (130), followed by the roots (127), leaves (37), stems (33), bark (24), fruits (22), flowers (10) and other parts (4) (Fig. 4). However, some studies suggest that this mode of utilization may lead to the depletion of traditional medicinal resources [16, 17].
Fig. 4

Parts of the plants used for medicinal purposes in the study area

Efficacy analysis of traditional medicinal plants was carried out based on Chinese Medicinal Materials [18]. The results showed that the medicinal plants were used for treating 93 human ailments in the study area. Antipyretics drugs occupy the highest proportion, followed by activating blood and eliminating stasis, diaphoretics and antirheumatics (Fig. 5). This result differed from the study of medicinal plants used by the Yi ethnic group in Chuxiong of Yunnan, showed that trauma was the most common disease. The particular geology and climate are ideal for unique Yi medicine effective in treating pyretic toxicity, rheumatism and other ailments [14].
Fig. 5

Statistic of therapeutic effects from the study area

Endangered category assessment

According to the Red List of Chinese Biodiversity (Higher Plant Volume) [19], the level of endangerment of the traditional medicinal plants in the study area was assessed. The ratio of endangered species of traditional medicinal plants in the Jingdong Yi community area (Fig. 6) was higher than that in the Wuliang Mountains National Nature Reserve but lower than that observed nationwide [20], which does not suggest that the harvest of traditional medicinal plants by local people to treat disease is the main reason for their decrease.
Fig. 6

Endangerment level of traditional medicinal plants in the study area

Comparison differences of medicinal plants between Yi and Han communities

The Yi and Han communities in the study area have lived in the Yi autonomous county of Jingdong in a multi-ethnic association for many years. When comparing their traditional medicinal plants, an extremely dissimilar relationship was found. The Jaccard similarity index was 0.232, which indicated a low degree of medicinal species overlap between the two communities. This result could be explained by the viewpoint that different cultural backgrounds play an essential role in the utilization of traditional medicinal plants [21]. Comparisons of different communities within the same area proved that a massive discrepancy in terms of traditional medicinal plants still exists even after being fused for a long time. Therefore, the national specificity in the utilization of medicinal plants persists in the region and modern society as well [22]. However, more ethnobotanical documentation research from Yunan Province have shown that minority’s medicinal culture is facing the increasing danger of dying out, under the great impact from Han community’s culture and way of life [4, 5, 23].

Conclusion

This is the first ethnobotanical study conducted in the Wuliang Mountains of Jingdong, and a total of 302 species were recorded. The results show a high diversity of traditional medicinal plants, as we previously suspected. By assessment of endangered status, the traditional medicinal plants in the study area exhibit excellent conditions. This indicates that folk utilization is not the main reason for the degeneration of wild resources. The use of a large number of certain herbs as merchandize may contribute to the deteriorating situation of wild medicinal plants, such as the reduction of Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H. Chen ex C. Chow & W.G. Huang and Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franchet) Handel-Mazzetti. In contrast, some minority communities have traditional methods to protect their precious wild resources. For example, the Red-Headed Yao People in China select different parts of medicinal plants to treat diseases and selectively harvest old roots, leaving the new roots, according to different seasons and climatic conditions [24]. The Yi community in Jingdong Autonomous County also has a belief in nature, which plays a vital role in the sustainable utilization of wild resources. They have a belief of animism and believe that every tree is divine and thus deserves to be protected and respected. The people who engage in the destruction of the sacred trees have a fear of future retaliation and punishment [25].

Despite the abundance of medicinal plants in the study area, the inheritance of this valuable culture is facing a serious threat, mainly due to the rapid development of modern medicine. The ageing of herbalists without inheritors results in the rapid loss of valuable knowledge. In addition, the knowledge of traditional medicinal plants in Jingdong inherited via the oral mode and the accuracy of inheritance are difficult to determine. The most critical challenge is the lack of wild resources. According to statistics, approximately 96% of traditional medicinal plants come from the wild [26]. Especially in China, with the increasing demand for resources, tremendous pressure from overexploitation is faced by many regions. Hence, these regions should take some effective measures to protect these valuable resources and maintain their sustainable utilization in the future.

As one of the birthplaces of Yi medicine, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is infinite, and it is a precious wealth left behind by ancestors. With regard to the application of these species, there are still many limitations that should be addressed and improved by modern science and techniques.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Yang Mao and Zhimeng Zhao, who helped us to plot the location map of the study area, and herbalists and herb sellers for sharing their knowledge about traditional medicinal plants in the study area. Gratitude is also given to the Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan National Nature Reserve Administration Bureau and Forest Rangers from the protection station. We also thank Anne Christine Ochola for her great help in English improvement and Dr. Xinmin Lu and Chunqiang Wei from Huazhong Agricultural University for their unselfish help and support on this project.

Authors’ contributions

LLG carried out the field study, analysed the data and drafted the manuscript. GPY assisted in identifying the plant species. CTC provided guidance for the entire project and helped to supervise the study. NW revised the manuscript and contributed ideas to the discussion. ZXZ assisted with the efficacy analysis. GZL helped in the field work. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

This work was financially supported by the Science and Technology Program for Public Wellbeing of Yunnan Province (2013CA002), CAS 135 Program, China (No. 2017XTBG-F05).

Ethics approval and consent to participate

We followed the ethical guidelines adopted by the International Society of

Ethnobiology (2008). All participants were asked for their free prior informed consent before interviews were conducted.

Consent for publication

Not applicable

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

13002_2019_316_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Additional file 1: Investigated sites in the study area. (DOCX 14 kb)

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© The Author(s). 2019

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lunlun Gao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Neng Wei
    • 3
    • 4
  • Guoping Yang
    • 1
  • Zhenxian Zhang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Guizhou Liu
    • 1
  • Chuantao Cai
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Tropical Plant Resources and Sustainable Use, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical GardenChinese Academy of SciencesMenglaChina
  2. 2.Huazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  3. 3.University of the Chinese Academy of ScienceBeijingChina
  4. 4.Wuhan Botanical GardenChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina

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